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Technical Paper

A Model-Based Technique for Spark Timing Control in an SI Engine Using Polynomial Regression Analysis

2009-04-20
2009-01-0933
Model-based methodologies for the engine calibration process, employing engine cycle simulation and polynomial regression analysis, have been developed and the reliability of the proposed method was confirmed by validating the model predictions with dynamometer test data. From the results, it was clear that the predictions by the engine cycle simulation with a knock model, which considers the two-stage hydrocarbon ignition characteristics of gasoline, were in good agreement with the dynamometer test data if the model tuning parameters were strictly adjusted. Physical model tuning and validation were done, followed by the creation of a dataset for the regression analysis of charging efficiency, EGR mass, and MBT using a 4th order polynomial equation. The stepwise method was demonstrated to yield a logarithm likelihood ratio and its false probability at each term in the polynomial equation.
Technical Paper

A New Engine Control System Using Direct Fuel Injection and Variable Valve Timing

1995-02-01
950973
A new engine drivetrain control system is described which can provide a higher gear ratio and leaner burning mixture and thus reduce the fuel consumption of spark ignition engines. Simulations were performed to obtain reduced torque fluctuation during changes in the air - fuel ratio and gear ratio, without increasing nitrogen oxide emissions, and with minimum throttle valve control. The results show that the new system does not require the frequent actuation of throttle valves because it uses direct fuel injection, which increases the air - fuel ratio of the lean burning limit. It also achieves a faster response in controlling the air mass in the cylinders. This results in the minimum excursion in the air - fuel ratio which in turn, reduces nitrogen oxide emissions.
Technical Paper

An Automatic Parameter Matching for Engine Fuel Injection Control

1992-02-01
920239
An automatic matching method for engine control parameters is described which can aid efficient development of new engine control systems. In a spark-ignition engine, fuel is fed to a cylinder in proportion to the air mass induced in the cylinder. Air flow meter characteristics and fuel injector characteristics govern fuel control. The control parameters in the electronic controller should be tuned to the physical characteristics of the air flow meter and the fuel injectors during driving. Conventional development of the engine control system requires a lot of experiments for control parameter matching. The new matching method utilizes the deviation of feedback coefficients for stoichiometric combustion. The feedback coefficient reflects errors in control parameters of the air flow meter and fuel injectors. The relationship between the feedback coefficients and control parameters has been derived to provide a way to tune control parameters to their physical characteristics.
Journal Article

Development of a New Metal Substrate for Lean NOx Trap

2008-04-14
2008-01-0806
This paper presents a new substrate for Lean NOx Traps (LNT) which enables high NOx conversion efficiency, even after long-term aging, when using alkali metals as the NOx adsorber. When a conventional metal honeycomb is used as the LNT substrate, the chromium in the metal substrate migrates into the washcoat and reacts with the alkali metals after thermal aging. In order to help prevent this migration, we have developed a new substrate where a fine -alumina barrier is precipitated to the surface of the metal substrate. The new substrate is highly capable of preventing migration of chromium into the washcoat and greatly enhances the NOx conversion. The durability of the new substrate and emission test using a test vehicle are also examined.
Technical Paper

Effect of Spray Characteristics on Combustion in a Direct Injection Spark Ignition Engine

1998-02-23
980156
Meeting the future exhaust emission and fuel consumption standards for passenger cars will require refinements in how the combustion process is carried out in spark ignition engines. A direct injection system decrease fuel consumption under road load cruising conditions, and stratified charge of the fuel mixture is particularly effective for ultra lean combustion. On the other hands, there are requirements for higher output power of gasoline engines. A direct injection system for a spark ignition engine is seen as a promising technique to meet these requirements. To get higher output power at wide open throttle conditions, spray characteristics and in-cylinder air flow must be optimized. In this paper, the engine system, which has a side injection type engine and flat piston, was investigated. We tried some injectors, which have different spray characteristics, and examined effects of spray characteristics on combustion of the direct injection gasoline engine.
Technical Paper

Effects of Small Disturbances Caused by Changes of Surrounding Conditions on the Small Positive Pressure Control System of the CEEF

1999-07-12
1999-01-1985
The closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) has a small positive pressure control system consisting of rubber buffers and a mechanical subsystem. In the present study, effects of small temperature disturbances caused by changes of surrounding conditions on the pressure control system are investigated experimentally and in numerical simulations. Though solar radiation causes a pressure disturbance in the facility, choosing the proper diameter of ducts which connect the rubber buffers to the modules, the rubber buffers can follow fluctuations of low frequency, like daily atmospheric fluctuations and pressure changes caused by temperature control of the facility’s air conditioners, and can cut off those of high frequency due to changes of environmental conditions.
Technical Paper

Fractal Dimension Growth Model for SI Engine Combustion

2004-06-08
2004-01-1993
Time-resolved continuous images of wrinkling flame front cross-sections were acquired by a laser-light sheet technique in an optically accessible spark ignition engine. The test engine was operated at various engine speeds and compression ratios. The fractal dimension of the curve, D2, was measured in a time series for each cycle. Analysis of the data shows that as the flame propagates the fractal dimension, D2, is close to unity a short time after spark ignition and then increases. Examination of the relationship between the growth rate of the fractal dimension, ΔD2/Δt, and D2 reveals that the higher D2 is, the lower ΔD2/Δt becomes. An Empirical equation for ΔD2/Δt was derived as a function of the ratio of the turbulence intensity to the laminar burning velocity and pressure. This model was tested in an SI engine combustion simulation, and results compared favorably with experimental data.
Technical Paper

Highly Heat-Resistant Plastic Optical Fibers

1991-02-01
910875
Plastic optical fiber has been widely used in the field of short distance optical transmission. However heat resistance of commercial plastic fiber is so low that its applications are limited. Then, a plastic fiber of thermosetting acrylate resin core has been developed. This fiber shows 80%/m retention of light transmittance at 1m after 1,000 hours at 150°C. It resists heat deformation and withstands up to 200 °C for a short time period. Tests show this fiber has desirable mechanical characteristics, along with good environmental resistance. In addition, a fiber which has a silicon resin as a core material was developed which has even better heat resistance.
Technical Paper

Improved Thermal Efficiency Using Hydrous Ethanol Reforming in SI Engines

2013-09-08
2013-24-0118
The internal combustion engines waste large amounts of heat energy, which account for 60% of the fuel energy. If this heat energy could be converted to the output power of engines, their thermal efficiency could be improved. The thermal efficiency of the Otto cycle increases as the compression ratio and the ratio of specific heat increase. If high octane number fuel is used in engines, their thermal efficiency could be improved. Moreover, thermal efficiency could be improved further if fuel could be combusted in dilute condition. Therefore, exhaust heat recovery, high compression combustion, and lean combustion are important methods of improving the thermal efficiency of SI engines. These three methods could be combined by using hydrous ethanol as fuel. Exhaust heat can be recovered by the steam reforming of hydrous ethanol. The reformed gas including hydrogen can be combusted in dilute condition. In addition, it is cooled by directly injecting hydrous ethanol into the engine.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Thermal Efficiency Using Fuel Reforming in SI Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0584
Hydrogen produced from regenerative sources has the potential to be a sustainable substitute for fossil fuels. A hydrogen internal combustion engine has good combustion characteristics, such as higher flame propagation velocity, shorter quenching distance, and higher thermal conductivity compared with hydrocarbon fuel. However, storing hydrogen is problematic since the energy density is low. Hydrogen can be chemically stored as a hydrocarbon fuel. In particular, an organic hydride can easily generate hydrogen through use of a catalyst. Additionally, it has an advantage in hydrogen transportation due to its liquid form at room temperature and pressure. We examined the application of an organic hydride in a spark ignition (SI) engine. We used methylcyclohexane (MCH) as an organic hydride from which hydrogen and toluene (TOL) can be reformed. First, the theoretical thermal efficiency was examined when hydrogen and TOL were supplied to an SI engine.
Technical Paper

Method for Determining Thermal Resistances in Coupled Simulator: For Electric Valve Timing Control System

2015-04-14
2015-01-1301
We developed a thermal calculation 1D simulator for an electric valve timing control system (VTC). A VTC can optimize the open and close timing of the intake and exhaust valves depending on the driving situation. Since a conventional VTC is driven hydraulically, the challenges are response speed and operation limit at low temperature. Our company has been developing an electric VTC for quick response and expansion of operating conditions. Currently, it is necessary to optimize the motor and reduction gear design to balance quicker response with downsizing. Therefore, a coupled simulator that can calculate electricity, mechanics, control, and thermo characteristics is required. In 1D simulation, a thermal network method is commonly used for thermal calculation. However, an electric VTC is attached to the end of a camshaft; therefore, determining thermal resistances is difficult. We propose a method of determining thermal resistances, using both theoretical and experimental approaches.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Technique for Air-Intake-System Control Using Thermo-Fluid Dynamic Simulation of SI Engines and Multiple-Objective Optimization

2011-10-06
2011-28-0119
We have developed a model-based control for the air intake system in a variable valve engine, employing total engine simulation, the response surface method and multi-objective optimization scheme. In our technique, we performed the simulation model tuning and validation, followed by the creation of a dataset for the polynomial regression analysis of the charging efficiency. A D-optimal design, robust least squares method, and likelihood-ratio test were demonstrated to yield a robust and accurate control model. Coupling the total engine simulator with a genetic algorithm, model based calibration for optimal valve timing stored in lookup table was carried out under multiple objectives and restrictions. The reliability of the implementation control model, which considers the effect of gas dynamics in the intake system, was confirmed using a model-in-the-loop simulation.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis for the Small Positive Pressure Control System of CEEF

1997-07-01
972516
It is necessary to develop a small positive pressure control system for the closed ecology experiment facility (CEEF) to protect against over-differential pressure loading. In the present study, a numerical method was developed to calculate the quantity of state of the closed module, which is fitted with rubber buffers, for the small positive pressure control system. Experiments to examine the pressure change of the closed module were carried out at CEEF. Comparison of calculated and experimental results showed that the present dynamic simulation is suited to estimating the quantity of state of the closed module.
Technical Paper

Optical Multiplexed Transmission System using High Temperature Polymer Fiber

1989-02-01
890200
A multiplexed transmission system utilizing newly developed optical polymer has been proposed. The system is composed of a star-shaped optical network, in which optical signals can be transmitted bi-directionally through a fiber and optical branches between the central and local controllers. The new polymer optical fiber has been developed and adopted for this system, and it was designed to be durable to the high temperature in automotive engine rooms. The high temperature resistibility of the fiber has been achieved with utilization of a thermo-setting resin for the core materials. The optical loss characteristics of the fiber is as low as 0.50 dB/m at 660 nm wavelength.
Technical Paper

Study on Mixture Formation and Ignition Process in Spark Ignition Engine Using Optical Combustion Sensor

1990-09-01
901712
Mixture formation and the ignition process in 4 cycle 4 cylinder spark ignition engines were investigated, using an optical combustion sensor that combines fiber optics with a conventional spark plug. The sensor consists of a 1-mm diameter quartz glass optical fiber cable inserted through the center of a spark plug. The tip of the fiber is machined into a convex shape to provide a 120-degree view of the combustion chamber interior. Light emitted by the spark discharge between spark electrodes and the combustion flames in the cylinder is transmitted by the optical cable to an opto-electric transducer. As a result, the ignition and combustion process which depends on the mixture formation can be easily monitored without installing transparent pistons and cylinders. This sensor can give more accurate information on mixture formation in the cylinders.
Technical Paper

Wide-Range Air-Fuel Ratio Sensor, 1986

1986-02-01
860409
The oxygen ion conductive solid electrolyte cell served as a device for measuring the combustibles content and the oxygen content of an exhaust gas. The cell is comprised of a tubular electrolyte, two opposed electrodes and a porous diffusion layer located on the outer electrode surface. The sensor is employed to measure both rich and lean air fuel ratio through the use of an electronic circuit pumping the oxygen ions to achieve a constant voltage between the electrodes. The wide range detecting capability makes it particularly attractive for air fuel ratio control applications associated with the internal combustion engine. The result of the performance tests are as follows, Detecting range (air excess ratio λ) : 0.8 - “∞ Step response time constant (63%) : 200ms Warm up time. - less than 80 sec at 20°C We found in the durability test concerned with the heat cycle and contamination that if initial aging treatment is applied the output variation ratio (. λ/λ) is limited with in : 5%.
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