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Technical Paper

47 Development of a Titanium Material by Utilizing Off-Grade Titanium Sponge

Titanium alloy for forging and pure titanium material for exhaust systems have been developed. The forging alloy will be applied to production of lightweight motorcycle frames and the pure titanium will be applied to improve engine performance. The materials have been made inexpensive by the use of off-grade sponge that includes many impurities for production of titanium ingot. Stable characteristics have been obtained by controlling oxygen equivalent after setting the volume of tolerable impurities by considering mechanical properties and production engineering. In spite of low-cost, the material provides the same design strength compared to conventional material, and enables parts production with existing equipment. A review of manufacturing and surface treatment processes indicated a reduction in the price of titanium parts produced with this new material.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation for Motorcycle Rider–Motion in Collision

A computer simulation method for motorcycle rider motion in a collision on a passenger car has been developed. The computer simulation results were in two cases of collision, at 45 degree and 90 degree angles against the side of a passenger car. The simulated results were compared to the test results for validation. The simulation software of explicit finite element method (FEM) has been used, because of its capability for expressing accurate shape and deformation. The mesh size was determined with consideration for simulation accuracy and calculation time, and an FEM model of a motorcycle, an airbag, a dummy, a helmet and a passenger car were built. To shorten the calculation time, a part of the model was regarded as a rigid body and eliminated from the contact areas. As a result, highly accurate dummy posture and head velocity at the time of contact on the ground were simulated in the two cases of collision.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Tire Model Concept - Applications to Vehicle Development

The tires are one of the most important parts of the vehicle chassis, as they significantly influence aspects such as vehicle's directional stability, braking performance, ride comfort, NVH, and fuel consumption. The tires are also a part whose size affects the vehicle's essential specifications such as wheelbase and track width. The size of the tires should therefore be determined in the initial stage of vehicle development, taking into account whether the size allows the vehicle to achieve the targeted overall performance. In estimations of vehicle performance, computer simulation plays more of an important role, and simulated tire models are designed to reproduce the measured tire characteristics of existing tires. But to estimate the chassis performance with various tire sizes or with tires of uncommon sizes, the prevailing modeling approach, “individual models for individual tires,” would not function well because of limited ability to expand tire models to unfamiliar sizes.
Technical Paper

A Study of Forces Acting on Rings for Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT

Four forces act in rings for a metal pushing V-belt. These forces are: two kinds of intercepting forces which prevent blocks from going outside of pulleys (one caused by pulley thrust, the other caused by centrifugal force), frictional force acting between the rings and the blocks, and bending force in longitudinal direction. In the previous paper (1)(2)(3)(5), distribution of three forces, excluding centrifugal force, were presented at low belt speed. We successfully measured all four kinds of forces including centrifugal force continuously at practical operation conditions for layered rings. In this paper, distribution of these four forces on the innermost ring is described at steady states.
Technical Paper

A Study of a Metal Pushing V-Belt Type CVT-Part 2: Compression Force Between Metal Blocks and Ring Tension

In this study, distributions of block compression force on the driving and driven pulleys were measured using a tiny load-cell inserted between two blocks and a telemeter system, under several constant speed ratios. Ring tension distributions were also measured using a specially devised block. From the experimental results, the following conclusions were drawn: (1) Block compression force distribution on the driving pulley is significantly different from that on the driven pulley. (2) Ring tension takes different value at each side of strings. It is considered that this phenomenon is caused by difference of saddle surface speed between two pulleys.
Technical Paper

Acceleration of Iterative Vibration Analysis for Form Changes in Large Degrees-of-Freedom Engine Model

Operational analysis of automotive engines using flexible multi-body dynamics is increasingly important from the viewpoint of multi-objective optimization as it can predict not only vibration, but also stress and friction at the same time. Still, the finite element (FE) models used in this analysis have large degrees-of-freedom, so iterative calculation takes a lot of time when there is form change. This research therefore describes a technique that applies a modal differential substructure method (a technique that reduces the degrees of freedom in a FE model) that can simulate form changes in FE models by changing modal mass and modal stiffness in reduced models. By using this method, non-parametric form change in FE model can be parametrically simulated, so it is possible to speed up repeated vibration calculations. In the proposed method, FE model is finely divided for each form change design area, and a reduced model of that divided structure is created.
Journal Article

Advanced Transient Simulation on Hybrid Vehicle Using Rankine Cycle System

A hybrid simulation model in the transient bench was developed to realize the characteristics of the transient behavior and the fuel economy equivalent to that of a real vehicle. The motors and the batteries that were main components of the hybrid vehicle system were simulated as constructive modules, the functions of which have the integrated control and the input/output (I/O) function with real components. This model enabled us to accommodate a variety of auxiliary (AUX) I/O flexibly. The accuracy of the model was verified by the transient characteristics of the engine and the fuel economy result through correlation with a mass-produced vehicle. Furthermore, the flexibility of the model to a variety of AUX I/O was examined from the simulation test of the vehicle equipped with the waste heat recovery (WHR) system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of FM Multipath Distortion using Two-Stage and MUSIC Methods

Traditionally, the suitability of wireless terminals for automotive use has been evaluated by conducting repeated driving tests in actual environments. However, this method of evaluation has long presented issues, and the implementation of the method itself is today becoming increasingly challenging. A method of evaluating the suitability of terminals for onboard use by generating virtual radio wave environments on a PC has therefore been developed by applying a two-stage method to multiple-input multiple-output (MIMO)-over-the-air(OTA) evaluation. The radio wave propagation characteristics necessary for the generation of these virtual radio wave environments are set using the multiple signal classification method incorporating an RF recorder. The research discussed in this paper used these methods to analyze the effect of the multipath distortion rate on sound quality in the reception of FM broadcasts.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Stress Distribution of Timing Belts by FEM

A model of a timing belt analyzed by FEM (a general non-linear finite element program:ABAQUS) successfully confirmed the mechanism that generates belt cord stress. Analysis revealed a good correlation between the experimental and computed results of stress distribution of the belt cord. Through calculation, it was discovered that belts broke near the tooth root, which is the point of maximum stress of the cord.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Pressure Drop Increase Mechanism by Ash Accumulated of Coated GPF

With accelerating exhaust gas regulations in recent years, not only CO / HC / NOx but also PN regulation represented by Euro 6 d, China 6 are getting stricter. PN reduction by engine combustion technology development also progresses, but considering RDE, PN reduction by after treatment technology is also indispensable. To reduce PN exhausted from the gasoline engine, it is effective to equip GPF with a filter structure. Considering the installation of GPF in limited space, we developed a system that so far replaces the second TWC with GPF for the TWC 2 bed system. In order to replace the second TWC with GPF, we chose the coated GPF with filtering and TWC functions. Since the initial pressure drop and the catalyst amount (purification performance) of coated GPF have a conflicting relationship, we developed the coated GPF that can achieve both the low initial pressure drop and high purification performance.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Application of HIL Simulations for the Development of Vehicle Stability Assist System

The Vehicle Stability Assist (VSA) system can generate sufficient forces to rapidly change the vehicle's motion. We can use this capability to effectively control the vehicle's behavior, but we must pay careful attention to ensure its reliability. The VSA system should be precisely tuned for each vehicle's characteristics in order to satisfactorily control performance without any unnecessary intervention or any excessive warnings. Usually extensive field tests are necessary to precisely tune the VSA system. This paper presents a practical method to tune the VSA system with Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) simulations in the final stage of its development. Due to the application of this procedure, both high control capabilities and reliability of the VSA system can be achieved.
Technical Paper

Application of Load Path Index U* for Evaluation of Sheet Steel Joint with Spot Welds

An attempt was made to apply the index U* in detail analysis of load paths in structural joints under static load, using as examples coupling structures of two joined frames with hat-shaped sections, and T-beam joint structures each including spot welds, both of which are widely used in automotive body structures. U* is a load path analysis index that expresses the strength of connection between load points and arbitrary points on a structure. It was possible to identify areas making up load paths by means of the magnitude of U* values, and to clarify the areas that should be coupled in order to achieve effective load transfer to contiguous members. In addition, because it is possible to determine whether or not each section of a structure possesses the potential for load transfer using U* analysis, the research also demonstrated that U* could be used as an indicator of joint structures providing efficient load transfer.
Technical Paper

Application of Road Load Prediction Technique for Suspension Durability Input Condition

The aim discussed in this paper is to show a technique to predict loads input to the wheels, essential to determining input conditions for evaluation of suspension durability, by means of full vehicle simulations using multi body analysis software Adams/Car. In this process, model environments were built to enable reproduction of driving modes, and a method of reproducing the set-up conditions of a durability test vehicle was developed. As the result of verification of the accuracy of the simulations in the target driving modes, good correlation for waveforms can be confirmed. And also confirm a good correlation in relation to changes of input load due to changes in suspension specifications.
Technical Paper

Computer simulation process for pedestrian protection structures

Research into pedestrian protection has been carried out since the 1960s, in recent years there have been proposals in Europe to legislate requirements in this area and therefore the research is becoming more focused. In the draft regulation, impactor tests have been proposed as a method for evaluating the impact caused by vehicles'' body for pedestrians. This paper introduces impactor model and actual vehicle analysis as a means for simulating impactor testing. Three types of impactors for vehicle tests are presented. It is necessary that the models are first matched with the results of the calibration tests, then matched with the results of the tests on actual vehicles.
Technical Paper

Concept for Developing Vehicle Handling Evaluation Procedure Suitable for Active Control Technology

The recent development of electronics has led to increased research efforts to put the active control technique to practical use in various fields of automotive technology. This report tries to identify the goals likely to be achieved by the active control technology and the subjects of study involved in research activities for this end. As a promising approach to the solution of these subjects, the report discusses the problem areas of the existing evaluation method for vehicle handling performance and then proposes feasible ideas in this field. Finally the report gives a few examples of the research methods we have successfully applied to the development of a four wheel steering system.
Journal Article

Concept for Improving Cost Effectiveness of Thermoelectric Heat Recovery Systems

The practical application of heat recovery using thermoelectrics requires the realization of reasonable cost effectiveness. Therefore, a thermoelectric generator (TEG) structure that can compatibly increase efficiency and reduce cost was investigated with the aim of enhancing cost effectiveness. To increase efficiency, a method of using a vacuum space structure to reduce the TEG size was investigated to enable installation just after the close-coupled catalyzer, which is subject to many space restrictions. It was found that by making it possible to use high temperature exhaust heat, power generation efficiency can be increased to approximately twice that of the typical under floor installation. In addition, coupled simulation of heat transfer and power generation using FEM, 1D cost effectiveness simulations, and bench tests were performed with the aim of reducing cost.
Journal Article

Consideration about Meshing of Worm Gear Based on MUB (Meshing Under Base-Circle) Theory for EPS

This paper will discuss the stress reduction of the worm wheel for an electric power steering (EPS) system. The research discussed in this paper focused on the worm wheel, the EPS component that determines the maximum diameter of the system. If the stress of the worm wheel could be reduced without increasing in size, it would be possible to reduce the size of the worm wheel and EPS system. In order to reduce the stress of the worm wheel, the conventional design method has extended the line-of-action toward outside of the worm wheel to increase the contact ratio of the gears and these method lead to an increase in the outer diameter. In order to address this issue, past research proposes the basic concept to extend line-of-action toward the inside of the worm wheel. And this new meshing theory was named MUB (Meshing Under Base-circle) theory. In this paper, characteristics of meshing of the gear formed by MUB theory are determined in more detail.
Technical Paper

Deployment of Vehicle-to-Grid Technology and Related Issues

In order to reduce emissions and enhance energy security, renewable power sources are being introduced proactively. As the fraction of these sources on a power grid grows, it will become more difficult to maintain balance between renewable power supply and coincident demand, because renewable power generation changes frequently and significantly, depending on weather conditions. As a means of resolving this imbalance between supply and demand, vehicle-to-grid (V2G) technology is being discussed, because it enables vehicles to contribute to stabilizing the power grid by utilizing on-board batteries as a distributed energy resource as well as an energy storage for propulsion. The authors have built a plug-in vehicle with a capability of backfeeding to the power grid, by integrating a bi-directional on-board AC/DC and DC/AC converter (on-board charger) and a digital communication device into the vehicle. The vehicle is interconnected to a power regulation market in the United States.
Journal Article

Detect the Imperceptible Drowsiness

Prediction of drowsiness based on an objective measure is demanded in machine and vehicle operations, in which human error may cause fatal accidents. Recently, we focused on the pupil which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, easily and non-invasively observable from the outside of the body. Prior to the large low frequency pupil-diameter fluctuation, which is known to associate with drowsiness, a Gradual Miosis was observed in most subjects. During this miosis period, the subjects were not yet aware of their drowsiness. We have developed a software system which automatically detects the Gradual Miosis in real time.