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Technical Paper

32 Development of Silent Chain Drive System for Motorcycles

Examining the noise reduction of a motorcycle, the requirement of an effective method of reducing a drive chain noise has been a pending issue similarly to noise originating from an engine or exhaust system, etc. Through this study, it became clear that the mechanism of chain noise could be classified into two; low frequency noise originated from cordal action according to the degree of chain engagement and high frequency noise generated by impact when a chain roller hits sprocket bottom. An improvement of urethane resin damper shape, mounted on a drive side sprocket, was effective for noise reduction of the former while our development of a chain drive that combined an additional urethane resin roller with an iron roller worked well for the latter. The new chain system that combined this new idea has been proven to be capable of reducing the chain noise to half compared with a conventional system.
Technical Paper

47 Development of a Titanium Material by Utilizing Off-Grade Titanium Sponge

Titanium alloy for forging and pure titanium material for exhaust systems have been developed. The forging alloy will be applied to production of lightweight motorcycle frames and the pure titanium will be applied to improve engine performance. The materials have been made inexpensive by the use of off-grade sponge that includes many impurities for production of titanium ingot. Stable characteristics have been obtained by controlling oxygen equivalent after setting the volume of tolerable impurities by considering mechanical properties and production engineering. In spite of low-cost, the material provides the same design strength compared to conventional material, and enables parts production with existing equipment. A review of manufacturing and surface treatment processes indicated a reduction in the price of titanium parts produced with this new material.
Technical Paper

49 Development of Pb-free Free-Cutting Steel Enabling Omission of Normalizing for Crankshafts

Crankshafts of motorcycles require high strength, high reliability and low manufacturing cost. Recently, a reduction of Pb content in the free-cutting steel, which is harmful substance, is required. In order to satisfy such requirements, we started the development of Pb-free free-cutting steel which simultaneously enabled the omission of the normalizing process. For the omission of normalizing process, we adjusted the content of Carbon, Manganese and Nitrogen of the steel. This developed steel can obtain adequate hardness and fine microstructure by air-cooling after forging. Pb-free free-cutting steel was developed based on Calcium-sulfur free-cutting steel. Pb free-cutting steel is excellent in cutting chips frangibility in lathe process. We thought that it was necessary that cutting chips frangibility of developed steel was equal to Pb free-cutting steel. It was found that cutting chips frangibility depend on a non-metallic inclusion's composition, shape and dispersion.
Technical Paper

52 Development of a Four-stroke Engine with Turbo Charger for Personal Watercraft

There is a movement to apply emission control in a marine engine as well due to high public awareness of environmental concern in the United States. We started at the development of 3-seater Personal Watercraft (PWC) equipped with 4-stroke engines in taking environment conformity and potential into account. The PWC employed series 4-cylinder 1100cc displacement engine that has been used for mass production motorcycles. The engine was modified to satisfy requirements for PWC, as a marine engine, such as performance function and corrosion. In order to achieve greater or equal power/weight ratio as against two-stroke PWCs, a four-stroke engine for PWC with an exhaust turbo charger was developed. As a result, we succeeded in developing an engine that attained top-level running performance and durability superior to competitors' 2-stroke engines.
Technical Paper

69 Development of Gear Train Behavioral Analysis Technologies Considering Non-linear Elements

A numerical calculation method, which enables the analysis of gear train behavior including non-linear elements in a motorcycle engine, was established. During the modeling process, it was confirmed that factors such as bearing distortion, radial bearing clearance and elastic deformation of a tooth flank could not be neglected because they effect the rotation behavior. To keep a high accuracy, those factors were included in the simulation model, after they were converted into the rigidity elements along the rotational direction of each gear model. In addition, the model was combined with a crankshaft behavior calculation model for a driving and excitation source. A time domain numerical integration method was used to perform the transient response simulation across a wide range of engine speeds. A jump phenomenon of response behavior of the driven gear was predicted that is a characteristic of non-linear response. The phenomenon was also observed in a physical test.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation for Motorcycle Rider–Motion in Collision

A computer simulation method for motorcycle rider motion in a collision on a passenger car has been developed. The computer simulation results were in two cases of collision, at 45 degree and 90 degree angles against the side of a passenger car. The simulated results were compared to the test results for validation. The simulation software of explicit finite element method (FEM) has been used, because of its capability for expressing accurate shape and deformation. The mesh size was determined with consideration for simulation accuracy and calculation time, and an FEM model of a motorcycle, an airbag, a dummy, a helmet and a passenger car were built. To shorten the calculation time, a part of the model was regarded as a rigid body and eliminated from the contact areas. As a result, highly accurate dummy posture and head velocity at the time of contact on the ground were simulated in the two cases of collision.
Technical Paper

A System for the Modal Analysis of Exhaust Emissions from Motorcycles

Devices for use in control of exhaust emissions have become indispensable to motorcycles. In order to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each device, the modal analysis system has to be required. The Modal Analysis System is one that classifies any driving schedule which is used for emissions measurement into four modes: idle, acceleration, cruise, and deceleration; then measures the emissions continuously using a mini-computer which accumulates the results of the analysis by mode. Instead of CO2 tracer method, we introduced the method of diluted exhaust gas measurement. In order for the system to produce reliable measurements, the accuracy of the total installation must be ensured. This paper describes the improvements of accuracy of analysers, technique on handling delay time and the verifications on the modal analysis system.
Technical Paper

Advanced Hydro-Mechanical Transmission with High-Durability for Small Utility Vehicles

The new automatic transmission, A-HMT (Advanced Hydro-Mechanical Transmission) has been developed for the Honda ATV (All Terrain Vehicle), which is for wide applications such as utility, recreation, etc. The A-HMT system features high performance, durability and reliability attained by improving the structures from the original hydro-mechanical automatic transmission used for the scooter called “Juno”, which Honda had produced many years ago, working on the same principle. In addition to it, by applying the electronic control system, the highly responsive driveability that suits the requirements of ATV's has been realized. The A-HMT is installed in the new 500 cm3 ATV, FOURTRAX FOREMAN RUBICON, which has been introduced in the USA market since June 2000.
Journal Article

Advanced Transient Simulation on Hybrid Vehicle Using Rankine Cycle System

A hybrid simulation model in the transient bench was developed to realize the characteristics of the transient behavior and the fuel economy equivalent to that of a real vehicle. The motors and the batteries that were main components of the hybrid vehicle system were simulated as constructive modules, the functions of which have the integrated control and the input/output (I/O) function with real components. This model enabled us to accommodate a variety of auxiliary (AUX) I/O flexibly. The accuracy of the model was verified by the transient characteristics of the engine and the fuel economy result through correlation with a mass-produced vehicle. Furthermore, the flexibility of the model to a variety of AUX I/O was examined from the simulation test of the vehicle equipped with the waste heat recovery (WHR) system.
Technical Paper

An Investigation of a Reduction Method of the Body Vibration at a Situation of Engine Start-Stop

In recent years, electrification of powertrains has been promoted to improve fuel efficiency and CO2 emissions. Along with electrification, it is possible to reduce engine usage frequency and improve the fuel efficiency in traveling. Especially in a hybrid electric vehicle (HEV), the state changes from motor assist mode to engine firing mode. As a result, stay time in eigenvalue of a powertrain is shortened, and vibration of the vehicle body at the engine start situation is able to be reduced as compared with conventional engine-driven vehicle. However, since the HEV is equipped with a high compression ratio engine for improving fuel economy, there is cause for concern that excitation force generated by the powertrain at the time of engine start increases. Also, the vehicle body vibration at engine start situations requires further consideration, because the operation frequency of engine decreases.
Journal Article

Application of Electric Servo Brake System to Plug-In Hybrid Vehicle

An electric servo brake system applied for use on electric vehicles was applied for use on plug-in hybrid vehicles in order to achieve fuel-savings together with good brake feel and enhanced operability for plug-in hybrid vehicles. The electric servo brake system is made up of highly accurate braking pressure control that functions cooperatively with regenerative brakes together with a structure in which pedal force is not influenced by braking pressure control. The configuration of these components enabled good braking feel even when the power train was being switched from one drive mode to another. Automated pressurization functions that are intended for plug-in hybrid vehicles and that operate with electric servo brake systems were also developed. These developed functions include stall cooperative control that functions cooperatively with the power train, regenerative coordinate adaptive cruise control, and hill-start assist.
Journal Article

Application of Engine Load Estimation Method Using Crank Angular Velocity Variation to Spark Advance Control

The technology to estimate engine load using the amplitude of crankshaft angular velocity variation during a cycle, which is referred to as “Δω (delta omega)”, in a four-stroke single-cylinder gasoline engine has been established in our former studies. This study was aimed to apply this technology to the spark advance control system for small motorcycles. The cyclic variation of the Δω signal, which affects engine load detection accuracy, was a crucial issue when developing the system. To solve this issue, filtering functions that can cope with various running conditions were incorporated into the computation process that estimates engine loads from Δω signals. In addition, the system made it possible to classify engine load into two levels without a throttle sensor currently used. We have thus successfully developed the new spark advance system that is controlled in accordance with the engine speed and load.
Technical Paper

Application of High Strength/Low Specific Gravity Under Body Coat for Automobile

The PVC(poly-vinyl chloride) underbody coating was specifically designed for the automotive underfloor area in order to prevent chipping damage as well as the onset of rust propagation from a scratched point. This superior anti-chipping performance can also be achieved without increasing film thickness of the PVC by balancing film strength and adhesion strength. Also, by incorporating plastic balloons in the PVC formulation, a dried film specific gravity of less than 1.0 is achieved, and consequently a 2 kg weight reduction becomes possible when compared to conventional materials used for underbody coating.
Journal Article

Application of Model-Based Development to Engine Restart Vibration After Idling Stop

Idling stop systems are being increasingly adopted in conventional engine vehicles as well as hybrid electric vehicles to increase fuel efficiency. When the engine starts, body vibration occurs that is caused by the rigid body eigenvalues of the power plant during initial combustion. Engine restart vibration after an idling stop is caused by the input force from the transmission, and the reaction force from the drive shaft as well as the input force from the engine. This phenomenon occurs frequently when the engine is restarted from the idling stop, the vibration is increasingly annoying to passengers. Usually, the vehicle development process is carried out in accordance with the V process. The V process divides the vehicle development process into two stages. The first stage is called the vehicle design stage to determine the characteristic. The second stage is called the vehicle verification stage to verify the performance.
Technical Paper

Combination of Antilock Brake System (ABS) and Combined Brake System (CBS) for Motorcycles

Basic requirements for a motorcycle brake system include achieving adequate deceleration and improving motorcycle stability during braking by easy operation. To help realize these requirements, Combined Brake System (CBS) and Antilock Brake System (ABS) for motorcycle have been researched and developed. A new brake system which combines CBS with ABS has been recently researched and installed on a test motorcycle. The results of braking tests showed high performance in deceleration and good braking feeling especially during ABS actuation.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Simulation for Plug-In HEV at Early Stage of Development

This study aims to build a conceptual simulation used at the early stage of PHEV development. This simulation enables to design vehicle concept and fundamental architecture with regard to fuel economy, vehicle acceleration and electric range. The model based on forward-looking method comprises of plant-model and controller-model which are made by one-dimensional simulation tool “GT-SUITE” and Matlab/SIMULINK respectively. In order to automatically couple between them and to implement iterative calculations of SOC (State-of-Charge) convergence, optimization and automation tool “modeFRONTIER” was used. As a case study of this simulation, we adopted series-parallel type plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and demonstrated the results on fuel economy of a legislative driving cycle and 0-60mph vehicle acceleration. Moreover, procedures to identify component specifications meeting vehicle targets and requirements at the early stage of vehicle development were concretely described.
Technical Paper

Control Technology of Brake-by-Wire System for Super-Sport Motorcycles

Super-sport motorcycles have shorter wheelbases than other category motorcycles. Due to this, strong braking occasionally causes large pitching motions to occur, including rear-wheel-lift. In order to reduce such pitching motions and achieve an effective braking force, the authors have developed a brake-by-wire system that uses a pressure sensor to detect the braking input pressure and an electric actuator to variably control the hydraulic pressure. This system makes it possible to precisely control the braking force compared with the previous ABS. Large pitching control was performed by the distribution of a front wheel and a rear-wheel braking forces, CBS (Combined Brake System), by using electronic control, and Brake-by-Wire has been suitable for sport riding. As a result, stable braking performance could be obtained without spoiling the handling characteristics of super-sport motorcycles.
Technical Paper

Design Method of Motorcycle Exhaust Sound Fitting to Vehicle Concept Regardless of Engine Configurations

Recently, it has been widely practiced in motorcycle developments that the same type of engine is commonly applied to various vehicle categories. Accordingly, it is drawing more attention to develop the methodology for creating the best suitable sound for each individual vehicle category regardless of restriction from the engine configurations. In our study, we aimed to establish a procedure to control exhaust sounds beyond the borders across the inherent sound qualities originated from their engine configurations. Firstly, we conducted subjective tests in order to extract essential factors, depicted by adjectives that appear in verbal expressions commonly used to illustrate sound qualities in general. The results enabled us to conduct quantitative evaluations of the exhaust sound qualities of various motorcycles. Next, we clarified the relationships among the individual factors of sound qualities under our study and physical parameters in waveforms of the sounds.
Journal Article

Design Optimization of Interior Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motors for HEV & EV

This paper proposes a new motor design procedure for reducing motor loss in hybrid vehicles (HEV) and electric vehicles (EV). To find an optimum design in a short time, a non-linear magnetic circuit model was developed for interior permanent magnet synchronous motors (IPMSM). Speed-torque curves and motor losses were calculated based on this model. Combined with Energy Management Simulation, this model makes it possible to find an optimum motor design with minimum loss.
Technical Paper

Development of Advanced Brake System for Small Motorcycles

Combined Brake System for small motorcycles has been developed. In small motorcycles, some models have a hydraulic disc brake both in the front and rear wheels but many of them have a hydraulic disc front brake and a mechanical drum rear brake. Accordingly, it was necessary to develop a new system to link the hydraulic system with the mechanical system to allow an application of Combined Brake System to these models. In this paper, a CBS having a new configuration is described where a disc brake and a drum brake are linked in a simple lever structure of an input force distributor, and an inhibitor spring at the foot pedal. With this mechanism equipped, the distribution of brake forces is controlled. When a large input force is applied, a large proportion of brake force is applied to the front brake to obtain adequate deceleration. When a mild input force is applied, which is frequently operated, the brake force proportion is large in the rear compared to the front.