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Technical Paper

47 Development of a Titanium Material by Utilizing Off-Grade Titanium Sponge

Titanium alloy for forging and pure titanium material for exhaust systems have been developed. The forging alloy will be applied to production of lightweight motorcycle frames and the pure titanium will be applied to improve engine performance. The materials have been made inexpensive by the use of off-grade sponge that includes many impurities for production of titanium ingot. Stable characteristics have been obtained by controlling oxygen equivalent after setting the volume of tolerable impurities by considering mechanical properties and production engineering. In spite of low-cost, the material provides the same design strength compared to conventional material, and enables parts production with existing equipment. A review of manufacturing and surface treatment processes indicated a reduction in the price of titanium parts produced with this new material.
Journal Article

Development and Application of FM Multipath Distortion Rate Measurement System Using a Fading Emulator Based on Two-Stage Method

The suitability of FM radio receivers for automobiles has conventionally been rated by evaluating reception characteristics for broadcast waves in repeated driving tests in specific test environments. The evaluation of sound quality has relied on the auditory judgment due to difficulties to conduct quantitative evaluations by experiments. Thus the method had issues in terms of the reproducibility and objectivity of the evaluations. To address these issues, a two-stage method generating a virtual radio wave environment on a PC was developed. The research further defined the multipath distortion rate, MDr, as an index for the sound quality evaluation of FM receivers, and the findings concerning the suitability of the evaluation of FM terminals for automobiles were reported at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
Technical Paper

Development of Compact Fuel Pump Module for Motorcycles

A compact, low-cost fuel pump module has been developed for use in motorcycles with a small-displacement engine. Various considerations are given to make the module as compact as possible. The pump motor, which is one of the major component parts, is down-sized specifically for applications to small-displacement engines. The pressure regulator uses a simple construction consisting only of a ball and a spring without a diaphragm. Especially noteworthy is that with the volume reduced by approximately 40% from the conventional pressure regulator while using the construction that reduces self-excited vibrations caused by fuel pressure pulsations, the pressure regulator contributes significantly to the down-sizing and cost reduction of the module. Furthermore, the down-sized module remarkably reduces the size of fuel pump mount surface, allowing a modification from the flat-surface sealing to the radial sealing.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-use Road Simulator

A multi-use road simulator for reproducing various road loads on motorcycles and buggies has been developed on a test bench by using computer-controlled hydraulic actuators. The device is controlled by a low-priced personal computer and an interface system with custom software. An unique feature is the capability to simulate loads related to such phenomena as the bottoming of suspension and the movement of a telescopic type front fork on the road.
Technical Paper

Formulation of Model for Estimation of Battery Capacity Degradation Based on Usage History

As the electric vehicle (EV) market expands and we enter the period of fully fledged diffusion of the vehicles, evaluation of battery performance when secondhand vehicles are sold and when batteries are put to alternative uses will become increasingly important. However, the accurate measurement of battery performance for the purpose of battery evaluation represents a challenge when the batteries are fitted in a battery pack consisting of multiple cells. The authors therefore formulated a degradation estimation model for the evaluation of battery performance based on battery usage history. To formulate the model, parameters expressing the internal state of the battery are estimated from the battery's usage history; battery capacity is estimated with consideration of these parameters.
Technical Paper

Honda Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development

Honda has been taking measures since the late 1990s to address three issues raised by the automobile, from air pollution, which was already a matter of regulation, to the additional issues of global warming and energy. With observation of recent trends in society, what had been our concern about these three matters appears to have gradually been turning into certainty instead. Meanwhile, the demand for automobiles is expected to increase with the population growth in newly emerging countries, economic growth, and other such factors. At present, with automobiles dependent on oil for the greater part of their energy, it has become a challenge to secure a stable supply of reasonably priced oil while the global warming perspective requires reduction of CO2 emissions. This article will review the history of development of the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) equipped with the next-generation power plant capable of simultaneously providing the solutions demanded for all three automobile issues.
Journal Article

Prediction Method for Water Intrusion into the Engine Air Intake Duct while Running on Flooded Road at the Early Stage of Vehicle Development

Vehicles are required durability in various environments all over the world. Especially water resistance on flooded roads is one of the important issues. To solve this kind of problem, a CFD technology was established in order to predict the water resistance performance of the vehicle at the early development stage. By comparison with vehicle tests on flooded roads, it is clarified the following key factors are required for accurate prediction; the vehicle velocity change, the vehicle height change and the air intake flow rate. Moreover, these three key factors should be appropriately determined from vehicle and engine specification to predict water intrusion for flooded roads at the early stage of development. In this paper, a methodology which determines appropriate analysis conditions mentioned above for flooding simulation from vehicle and engine specification is described. The methodology enables us to determine whether the vehicle provides sufficient waterproofness.
Journal Article

Research on Mechanism of Change in Suspension Transfer Force in Relation to Low-Frequency Road Noise

Cabin quietness is one of the important factors for product marketability. In particular, the importance of reducing road noise is increasing in recent years. Methods that reduce acoustic sensitivity as well as those that reduce the force transferred from the suspension to the body (the suspension transfer force) are used as means of reducing road noise. Reduction of the compliance of the body suspension mounting points has been widely used as a method of reducing acoustic sensitivity. However, there were cases where even though this method reduced acoustic sensitivity, road noise did not decrease. This mechanism remained unclear. This study focused on the suspension transfer force and analyzed this mechanism of change using the transfer function synthesis method. The results showed that the balance between the body's suspension mounting points, suspension bush, and suspension arm-tip compliance is an important factor influencing the change in suspension transfer force.
Technical Paper

Study and Application of Prediction Method for Low Frequency Road Noise

When a vehicle drives over road seams or a bumpy surface, low-frequency noise called drumming is generated, causing driver discomfort. The generation of drumming noise is closely related to the vibration characteristics of the suspension, body frame, and body panels, as well as the acoustic characteristics of the vehicle interior. It is therefore difficult to take measures to get rid of drumming after the basic vehicle construction has been finalized. Aiming to ensure drumming performance in the drawing review phase, we applied the Finite Element Method (FEM) to obtain acoustical transfer functions of the body, and Multi Body Simulation to get suspension load characteristics. This paper presents the results of the study of drumming prediction technology using this hybrid approach.
Journal Article

Study of Effects of Residual Stress on Natural Frequency of Motorcycle Brake Discs

In brake squeal analyses using FE models, minimizing the discrepancies in vibration characteristics between the measurement and the simulation is a key issue for improving its reproducibility. The discrepancies are generally adjusted by the shape parameters and/or material properties applied to the model. However, the discrepancy cannot be easily adjusted, especially, for the vibration characteristic of the disc model of a motorcycle. One of the factors that give a large impact on this discrepancy is a thermal history of the disc. That thermal history includes the one experienced in manufacturing process. In this paper, we examine the effects of residual stress on the natural frequency of motorcycle discs. The residual stress on the disc surface was measured by X-ray stress measurement method. It was followed by an eigenvalue analysis. In this analysis, we developed a unique method in which the residual stress was substituted by thermal stress.
Journal Article

Study on Analysis of Input Loads to Motorcycle Frames in Rough Road Running

In this study, we developed a simulation method for rough road running condition to reproduce the behaviors of a vehicle body and to precisely estimate the input loads to the frame. We designed the simulation method focusing on a front fork model and a rider model optimized for this type of analysis. In the suspension model development, we conducted detailed measurement of the suspension characteristics on a test bench. Based on the yielded results, the friction force, as well as the spring reaction force and the damping force, was reproduced in the suspension model. The friction of the suspension varies depending on the magnitude of the reaction force associated with bending and this effect was also implemented in the model. Regarding the rider model, the actual behavior of a rider was investigated through the recorded motion video data and used to define the necessary degrees of freedom.
Technical Paper

The Development of Brake Feel with Variable Servo Ratio Control

We had developed Electric Servo Brake System, which can control brake pressure accurately with a DC motor according to brake pedal force. Therefore, the system attains quality brake feeling while reflecting intentions of a driver. By the way, “Build-up” is characteristics that brake effectiveness increases in accordance with the deceleration of the vehicle, which is recognized as brake feeling with a sense of relief as not to elongate an expected braking distance at a downhill road due to large-capacity brake pad such as sports car and large vehicles. Then, we have applied the optical characteristic control to every car with Electric Servo Brake System by means of brake pressure control but not brake pad. Hereby, we confirmed that the control gives a driver the sense of relief and the reduction of pedal load on the further stepping-on of the pedal. In this paper, we describe the development of brake feel based on the control overview.
Technical Paper

Transmission-Mounted Power Control Unit with High Power Density for Two-Motor Hybrid System

A second-generation power control unit (PCU) for a two-motor hybrid system is proposed. An optimally designed power module, which is a key component of the PCU, is applied to increase heat-resistant temperature, while the basic structure of the first generation is retained and the power semiconductor chip is directly cooled from the single side. In addition to the optimum design, by decreasing the power loss as well as increasing the heat-resistant temperature of the power semiconductors (IGBT: Insulated Gate Bipolar Transistor and FWD: Free Wheeling Diode), the proposed PCU has attained 25% higher power density and 23% smaller size compared to first-generation units, maintaining PCU efficiency (fuel economy). To achieve a high yield rate in the power module assembly process, a new screening technology is adopted at the initial stage of power module manufacturing.