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Technical Paper

47 Development of a Titanium Material by Utilizing Off-Grade Titanium Sponge

2002-10-29
2002-32-1816
Titanium alloy for forging and pure titanium material for exhaust systems have been developed. The forging alloy will be applied to production of lightweight motorcycle frames and the pure titanium will be applied to improve engine performance. The materials have been made inexpensive by the use of off-grade sponge that includes many impurities for production of titanium ingot. Stable characteristics have been obtained by controlling oxygen equivalent after setting the volume of tolerable impurities by considering mechanical properties and production engineering. In spite of low-cost, the material provides the same design strength compared to conventional material, and enables parts production with existing equipment. A review of manufacturing and surface treatment processes indicated a reduction in the price of titanium parts produced with this new material.
Technical Paper

A Study of Compatibility Test Procedure in Frontal Impact

2003-05-19
2003-06-0168
The purpose of this study is to examine compatibility test procedures proposed in the IHRA Vehicle Compatibility Working Group. Various crash tests were conducted with different vehicle weights and stiffness in our previous study, and each of the compatibility problems, namely mass; stiffness and geometric incompatibility were identified in these tests. In order to improve the compatibility, it is necessary to evaluate and control relevant vehicle characteristics of compatibility in test procedures. According to the IHRA study, relevant aspects for compatibility in frontal impact are: Good structural interaction; Frontal stiffness matching; Maintaining passenger compartment integrity; Control the deceleration time histories of impacting cars.
Technical Paper

A System for the Modal Analysis of Exhaust Emissions from Motorcycles

1981-02-01
810297
Devices for use in control of exhaust emissions have become indispensable to motorcycles. In order to evaluate quantitatively the effect of each device, the modal analysis system has to be required. The Modal Analysis System is one that classifies any driving schedule which is used for emissions measurement into four modes: idle, acceleration, cruise, and deceleration; then measures the emissions continuously using a mini-computer which accumulates the results of the analysis by mode. Instead of CO2 tracer method, we introduced the method of diluted exhaust gas measurement. In order for the system to produce reliable measurements, the accuracy of the total installation must be ensured. This paper describes the improvements of accuracy of analysers, technique on handling delay time and the verifications on the modal analysis system.
Technical Paper

Acceleration of Iterative Vibration Analysis for Form Changes in Large Degrees-of-Freedom Engine Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1290
Operational analysis of automotive engines using flexible multi-body dynamics is increasingly important from the viewpoint of multi-objective optimization as it can predict not only vibration, but also stress and friction at the same time. Still, the finite element (FE) models used in this analysis have large degrees-of-freedom, so iterative calculation takes a lot of time when there is form change. This research therefore describes a technique that applies a modal differential substructure method (a technique that reduces the degrees of freedom in a FE model) that can simulate form changes in FE models by changing modal mass and modal stiffness in reduced models. By using this method, non-parametric form change in FE model can be parametrically simulated, so it is possible to speed up repeated vibration calculations. In the proposed method, FE model is finely divided for each form change design area, and a reduced model of that divided structure is created.
Technical Paper

Conceptual Simulation for Plug-In HEV at Early Stage of Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0980
This study aims to build a conceptual simulation used at the early stage of PHEV development. This simulation enables to design vehicle concept and fundamental architecture with regard to fuel economy, vehicle acceleration and electric range. The model based on forward-looking method comprises of plant-model and controller-model which are made by one-dimensional simulation tool “GT-SUITE” and Matlab/SIMULINK respectively. In order to automatically couple between them and to implement iterative calculations of SOC (State-of-Charge) convergence, optimization and automation tool “modeFRONTIER” was used. As a case study of this simulation, we adopted series-parallel type plug-in hybrid electric vehicle (PHEV) and demonstrated the results on fuel economy of a legislative driving cycle and 0-60mph vehicle acceleration. Moreover, procedures to identify component specifications meeting vehicle targets and requirements at the early stage of vehicle development were concretely described.
Journal Article

Development and Application of FM Multipath Distortion Rate Measurement System Using a Fading Emulator Based on Two-Stage Method

2016-04-05
2016-01-0082
The suitability of FM radio receivers for automobiles has conventionally been rated by evaluating reception characteristics for broadcast waves in repeated driving tests in specific test environments. The evaluation of sound quality has relied on the auditory judgment due to difficulties to conduct quantitative evaluations by experiments. Thus the method had issues in terms of the reproducibility and objectivity of the evaluations. To address these issues, a two-stage method generating a virtual radio wave environment on a PC was developed. The research further defined the multipath distortion rate, MDr, as an index for the sound quality evaluation of FM receivers, and the findings concerning the suitability of the evaluation of FM terminals for automobiles were reported at the 2015 SAE World Congress.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Power-Density DC-DC Converter Using Coupled Inductors for Clarity Plug-In Hybrid

2018-04-03
2018-01-0458
Honda has developed an electric powertrain for a 2017 plug-in hybrid vehicle using its second-generation SPORT HYBRID i-MMD powertrain system as a base. The application of the newly developed powertrain system realizes a long all-electric range (AER), allowing operation as an EV for almost all everyday driving scenarios, with dynamic performance making it possible for the vehicle to operate as an EV across the entire speed range, up to a maximum speed of 100 mph. The amount of assist provided by power from the batteries during acceleration has been increased, helping to downsize the engine while also balancing powerful acceleration with quietness achieved by controlling racing of the engine. In order to realize this EV performance with the second-generation SPORT HYBRID i-MMD system as the base, it was necessary to increase the power output of the DC-DC converter, taking restrictions on space into consideration.
Technical Paper

Development of Multi-use Road Simulator

1993-11-01
931912
A multi-use road simulator for reproducing various road loads on motorcycles and buggies has been developed on a test bench by using computer-controlled hydraulic actuators. The device is controlled by a low-priced personal computer and an interface system with custom software. An unique feature is the capability to simulate loads related to such phenomena as the bottoming of suspension and the movement of a telescopic type front fork on the road.
Journal Article

ERRATUM: Study of Reproducibility of Pedal Tracking and Detection Response Task to Assess Driver Distraction

2015-04-14
2015-01-1388.01
1. On page 111, the authors have described a method to assess driver distraction. In this method, participants maintained a white square size on a forward display by using a game gas pedal of like in car-following situation. The size of the white square is determined by calculating the distance to a virtual lead vehicle. The formulas to correct are used to explain variation of acceleration of the virtual lead vehicle. The authors inadvertently incorporated old formulas they had used previously. In the experiments discussed in the article, the corrected formulas were used. Therefore, there is no change in the results. The following from the article:
Technical Paper

Formulation of Model for Estimation of Battery Capacity Degradation Based on Usage History

2013-04-08
2013-01-0501
As the electric vehicle (EV) market expands and we enter the period of fully fledged diffusion of the vehicles, evaluation of battery performance when secondhand vehicles are sold and when batteries are put to alternative uses will become increasingly important. However, the accurate measurement of battery performance for the purpose of battery evaluation represents a challenge when the batteries are fitted in a battery pack consisting of multiple cells. The authors therefore formulated a degradation estimation model for the evaluation of battery performance based on battery usage history. To formulate the model, parameters expressing the internal state of the battery are estimated from the battery's usage history; battery capacity is estimated with consideration of these parameters.
Technical Paper

Honda Fuel Cell Electric Vehicle Development

2011-05-17
2011-39-7240
Honda has been taking measures since the late 1990s to address three issues raised by the automobile, from air pollution, which was already a matter of regulation, to the additional issues of global warming and energy. With observation of recent trends in society, what had been our concern about these three matters appears to have gradually been turning into certainty instead. Meanwhile, the demand for automobiles is expected to increase with the population growth in newly emerging countries, economic growth, and other such factors. At present, with automobiles dependent on oil for the greater part of their energy, it has become a challenge to secure a stable supply of reasonably priced oil while the global warming perspective requires reduction of CO2 emissions. This article will review the history of development of the fuel cell vehicle (FCV) equipped with the next-generation power plant capable of simultaneously providing the solutions demanded for all three automobile issues.
Technical Paper

Modification of Vehicle Handling Performance by Four-Wheel Steering System

1985-01-01
856039
At past ESV conferences, we have reported on a series of studies on how the driver's control performance is affected by vehicle steering response. These studies showed that a four-wheel steering system can reduce the delay in lateral acceleration response to steering action, which may result in better control performance of the driver. The present report examines the handling performance of an experimental vehicle fitted with a four-wheel steering system under a wider range of operating conditions. The studies were conducted using mathematical models and simulation of the driver-vehicle system, plus road tests. The findings indicate that the four-wheel steering system may provide better vehicle handling performance than a conventional two-wheel steering system. A vehicle incorporating this steering system may exhibit improved accident avoidance capabilities.
Journal Article

New Three-dimensional Piston Secondary Motion Analysis Method Coupling Structure Analysis and Multi Body Dynamics Analysis

2011-11-08
2011-32-0559
A new piston secondary motion analysis has been developed that accurately predicts piston strength and the slap noise that occurs when the engine is running. For this secondary motion analysis, flexible bodies are used for the models of the piston, cylinder and cylinder head. This makes it possible to quantify the deformations and secondary motion occurring in each area of the engine. The method is a coupled analysis of the structure analysis and the multi body dynamics analysis. The accuracy of the results obtained in the new analysis method was verified by comparing them to measurement data of piston skirt stress and piston secondary motion taken during firing. To measure piston skirt stress, a newly developed battery-powered telemetric measurement system was used. The calculation results were close to the measurement results both for stress and for secondary motion from low to high engine speed.
Journal Article

Prediction Method for Water Intrusion into the Engine Air Intake Duct while Running on Flooded Road at the Early Stage of Vehicle Development

2017-03-28
2017-01-1322
Vehicles are required durability in various environments all over the world. Especially water resistance on flooded roads is one of the important issues. To solve this kind of problem, a CFD technology was established in order to predict the water resistance performance of the vehicle at the early development stage. By comparison with vehicle tests on flooded roads, it is clarified the following key factors are required for accurate prediction; the vehicle velocity change, the vehicle height change and the air intake flow rate. Moreover, these three key factors should be appropriately determined from vehicle and engine specification to predict water intrusion for flooded roads at the early stage of development. In this paper, a methodology which determines appropriate analysis conditions mentioned above for flooding simulation from vehicle and engine specification is described. The methodology enables us to determine whether the vehicle provides sufficient waterproofness.
Technical Paper

Prediction Technology for Motorcycle Drivability Attributed to Drive Train Characteristics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0308
The feeling given through the vibration, which is transiently generated by the body when the throttle is beginning to be opened, is one of the important factors that affect the quality of drivability in motorcycles. This feeling is usually evaluated by subjective ratings on actual motorcycles carried out by expert riders and the specifications are decided based on those results. In this research, the subjective rating was expressed as a formula and the simulation technology of behavior prediction was constructed for the parts associated with the drive train as well as the motorcycle body. The responding time delay, the magnitude of overshoot and the vibration frequencies were extracted as highly correlated factors with the evaluation results of subjective ratings through the analysis on the characteristics of longitudinal acceleration responses of the body to the magnitude of throttle opening.
Journal Article

Research on Mechanism of Change in Suspension Transfer Force in Relation to Low-Frequency Road Noise

2015-04-14
2015-01-0667
Cabin quietness is one of the important factors for product marketability. In particular, the importance of reducing road noise is increasing in recent years. Methods that reduce acoustic sensitivity as well as those that reduce the force transferred from the suspension to the body (the suspension transfer force) are used as means of reducing road noise. Reduction of the compliance of the body suspension mounting points has been widely used as a method of reducing acoustic sensitivity. However, there were cases where even though this method reduced acoustic sensitivity, road noise did not decrease. This mechanism remained unclear. This study focused on the suspension transfer force and analyzed this mechanism of change using the transfer function synthesis method. The results showed that the balance between the body's suspension mounting points, suspension bush, and suspension arm-tip compliance is an important factor influencing the change in suspension transfer force.
Technical Paper

Study and Application of Prediction Method for Low Frequency Road Noise

2010-04-12
2010-01-0507
When a vehicle drives over road seams or a bumpy surface, low-frequency noise called drumming is generated, causing driver discomfort. The generation of drumming noise is closely related to the vibration characteristics of the suspension, body frame, and body panels, as well as the acoustic characteristics of the vehicle interior. It is therefore difficult to take measures to get rid of drumming after the basic vehicle construction has been finalized. Aiming to ensure drumming performance in the drawing review phase, we applied the Finite Element Method (FEM) to obtain acoustical transfer functions of the body, and Multi Body Simulation to get suspension load characteristics. This paper presents the results of the study of drumming prediction technology using this hybrid approach.
Journal Article

Study of Effects of Residual Stress on Natural Frequency of Motorcycle Brake Discs

2014-11-11
2014-32-0053
In brake squeal analyses using FE models, minimizing the discrepancies in vibration characteristics between the measurement and the simulation is a key issue for improving its reproducibility. The discrepancies are generally adjusted by the shape parameters and/or material properties applied to the model. However, the discrepancy cannot be easily adjusted, especially, for the vibration characteristic of the disc model of a motorcycle. One of the factors that give a large impact on this discrepancy is a thermal history of the disc. That thermal history includes the one experienced in manufacturing process. In this paper, we examine the effects of residual stress on the natural frequency of motorcycle discs. The residual stress on the disc surface was measured by X-ray stress measurement method. It was followed by an eigenvalue analysis. In this analysis, we developed a unique method in which the residual stress was substituted by thermal stress.
Journal Article

Study on Analysis of Input Loads to Motorcycle Frames in Rough Road Running

2014-11-11
2014-32-0021
In this study, we developed a simulation method for rough road running condition to reproduce the behaviors of a vehicle body and to precisely estimate the input loads to the frame. We designed the simulation method focusing on a front fork model and a rider model optimized for this type of analysis. In the suspension model development, we conducted detailed measurement of the suspension characteristics on a test bench. Based on the yielded results, the friction force, as well as the spring reaction force and the damping force, was reproduced in the suspension model. The friction of the suspension varies depending on the magnitude of the reaction force associated with bending and this effect was also implemented in the model. Regarding the rider model, the actual behavior of a rider was investigated through the recorded motion video data and used to define the necessary degrees of freedom.
Technical Paper

The Development of Brake Feel with Variable Servo Ratio Control

2015-09-27
2015-01-2696
We had developed Electric Servo Brake System, which can control brake pressure accurately with a DC motor according to brake pedal force. Therefore, the system attains quality brake feeling while reflecting intentions of a driver. By the way, “Build-up” is characteristics that brake effectiveness increases in accordance with the deceleration of the vehicle, which is recognized as brake feeling with a sense of relief as not to elongate an expected braking distance at a downhill road due to large-capacity brake pad such as sports car and large vehicles. Then, we have applied the optical characteristic control to every car with Electric Servo Brake System by means of brake pressure control but not brake pad. Hereby, we confirmed that the control gives a driver the sense of relief and the reduction of pedal load on the further stepping-on of the pedal. In this paper, we describe the development of brake feel based on the control overview.
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