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Technical Paper

47 Development of a Titanium Material by Utilizing Off-Grade Titanium Sponge

2002-10-29
2002-32-1816
Titanium alloy for forging and pure titanium material for exhaust systems have been developed. The forging alloy will be applied to production of lightweight motorcycle frames and the pure titanium will be applied to improve engine performance. The materials have been made inexpensive by the use of off-grade sponge that includes many impurities for production of titanium ingot. Stable characteristics have been obtained by controlling oxygen equivalent after setting the volume of tolerable impurities by considering mechanical properties and production engineering. In spite of low-cost, the material provides the same design strength compared to conventional material, and enables parts production with existing equipment. A review of manufacturing and surface treatment processes indicated a reduction in the price of titanium parts produced with this new material.
Technical Paper

49 Development of Pb-free Free-Cutting Steel Enabling Omission of Normalizing for Crankshafts

2002-10-29
2002-32-1818
Crankshafts of motorcycles require high strength, high reliability and low manufacturing cost. Recently, a reduction of Pb content in the free-cutting steel, which is harmful substance, is required. In order to satisfy such requirements, we started the development of Pb-free free-cutting steel which simultaneously enabled the omission of the normalizing process. For the omission of normalizing process, we adjusted the content of Carbon, Manganese and Nitrogen of the steel. This developed steel can obtain adequate hardness and fine microstructure by air-cooling after forging. Pb-free free-cutting steel was developed based on Calcium-sulfur free-cutting steel. Pb free-cutting steel is excellent in cutting chips frangibility in lathe process. We thought that it was necessary that cutting chips frangibility of developed steel was equal to Pb free-cutting steel. It was found that cutting chips frangibility depend on a non-metallic inclusion's composition, shape and dispersion.
Technical Paper

A Study of Vibration Reducing Effect on Vehicle Dynamics by Hydraulic Damper on Body Structure

2019-04-02
2019-01-0171
This research investigated the mechanism of the effects of hydraulic dampers, which are attached to vehicle body structures and are known by experience to suppress vehicle body vibration and enhance ride comfort and steering stability. In investigating the mechanism, we employed quantitative data from riding tests, and analytical data from simplified vibration models. In our assessment of ride comfort in riding tests using vehicles equipped with hydraulic dampers, we confirmed effects reducing body floor vibration in the low-frequency range. We also confirmed vibration reduction in unsprung suspension parts to be a notable mechanical characteristic which merits close attention in all cases. To investigate the mechanism of the vibration reduction effect in unsprung parts, we considered a simplified vibration model, in which the engine and unsprung parts, which are rigid, are linked to the vehicle body, which is an elastic body equipped with hydraulic dampers.
Technical Paper

Application of All Aluminum Automotive Body for HONDA NSX

1991-02-01
910548
A Sports car's high performance, pursued as its major design point, forces the car to be as light as possible. Because of this, the NSX's body and chassis is build by making the best use of aluminum. This paper describes the development of aluminum for the NSX, and the forming and connecting technologies needed to achieve an all aluminum body.
Technical Paper

Application of Load Path Index U* for Evaluation of Sheet Steel Joint with Spot Welds

2012-04-16
2012-01-0534
An attempt was made to apply the index U* in detail analysis of load paths in structural joints under static load, using as examples coupling structures of two joined frames with hat-shaped sections, and T-beam joint structures each including spot welds, both of which are widely used in automotive body structures. U* is a load path analysis index that expresses the strength of connection between load points and arbitrary points on a structure. It was possible to identify areas making up load paths by means of the magnitude of U* values, and to clarify the areas that should be coupled in order to achieve effective load transfer to contiguous members. In addition, because it is possible to determine whether or not each section of a structure possesses the potential for load transfer using U* analysis, the research also demonstrated that U* could be used as an indicator of joint structures providing efficient load transfer.
Technical Paper

Development of 1600 N/mm2 Class Ultra-High Strength Bolts

2003-03-03
2003-01-1179
1 Many different bolts are employed in automobiles for different purposes and uses, and their strength generally ranges from 700 N/mm2 to 1200 N/mm2. Automobiles face the issue of making improvements in fuel economy as an environmental measure, and there is consequently a requirement to lighten component parts. The creationof higher-strength bolts is an important factor in achieving lighter weight. Increasing the strength, however, can also bring about an increased incidence of delayed fracture, and the conventional solution used to require the application of special steels such as expensive maraging steel. The present development addressed this issue by focusing on high carbon steel rod, which had been considered less susceptible to delayed fracture, although heading was also considered to be difficult. Heading techniques were therefore devised that made it possible not only to form bolts from this material, but also to provide satisfactory strength.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminium Hollow Subframe Using High-Pressure Die Casting

2016-04-05
2016-01-0406
High-tensile steel plates and lightweight aluminum are being employed as materials in order to achieve weight savings in automotive subframe. Closed-section structures are also in general use today in order to efficiently increase parts stiffness in comparison to open sections. Aluminum hollow-cast subframe have also been brought into practical use. Hollow-cast subframe are manufactured using sand cores in gravity die casting (GDC) or low-pressure die casting (LPDC) processes. Using these manufacturing methods, it is difficult to reduce product thickness, and the limitations of the methods therefore make the achievement of weight reductions a challenge. The research discussed in this paper developed a lightweight, hollow subframe technology employing high-pressure die casting (HPDC), a method well-suited to reducing wall thickness, as the manufacturing method. Hollow-casting using HPDC was developed as a method of forming water jackets for water-cooled automotive engines.
Journal Article

Development of GFRTP Crush Box with Consideration of Use Environment and Effect of Fiber Orientation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0498
Regulation of automotive CO2 emissions is becoming increasingly stringent throughout the world in response to global warming. For automakers, this means a focus not only on increasing the fuel economy of powertrains, but also on reducing automotive driving resistance. High expectations are held for thermoplastic fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) for the realization of automotive weight savings while also offering high levels of productivity and recyclability. Thermoplastic FRP crush boxes display a higher level of energy absorption performance than metal (steel, aluminum, etc.) crush boxes. This will contribute to automotive weight savings and improved package design. In the case of automotive front bumper beam systems, it is necessary to realize stable load characteristics irrespective of the use environment. It is therefore necessary to consider the effects of temperature and thermoplastic resin degradation.
Journal Article

Development of Heat Resistant Titanium Alloy for Exhaust Valves Applicable for Motorcycles

2016-11-08
2016-32-0023
Amidst of the recent concerns on depletion of natural resources, a new heat resistant titanium alloy has been developed using the minimum amount of rare metals. Using Ti-811 as a basis and modifying the alloy composition to Ti-7Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.15C-0.2Nb, the mechanical property, the creep resistance and the oxidation resistance at high temperatures are improved. At the same time, with the β transformation point shifted to a higher temperature, the hot formability is also improved. The newly developed alloy has made it possible to expand the application of titanium material to exhaust valves in reciprocating engines.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Heat-Resistant High-Nitrogen Containing Austenitic Stainless Steel for Exhaust Gasket

2004-03-08
2004-01-0890
SUS301-EH is widely used as a material for exhaust system gaskets, however, at temperatures in excess of 400°C, it can not be used as gas-seal ability of the material declines due to its reduced hardness. The following methods were found to be effective in controlling the softening of stainless steel at high temperatures: (1) The addition of a nitrogen component; (2) Stabilization of the austenite structure; (3) The addition of a molybdenum component. The addition of 0.5% nitrogen to austenitic stainless steel containing molybdenum has enabled the speed of softening at high temperatures to be significantly reduced, due to strain aging by solid nitrogen below 600°C and the combined effects of precipitation hardening and control of growth of recrystallized grains through the precipitation of fine Cr2N on the dislocations and the grain boundary above 600°C.
Technical Paper

Development of Hollow, Weld-able Die-Cast Parts for Aluminum Motorcycle Frames

2003-09-15
2003-32-0055
Using sand cores, the weld-able, hollow die-cast parts have been developed. For casting, the transition flow filling method is applied to reduce gas containment and to minimize damages to the core. In designing the products, the newly developed core stress prediction system by melt pressure distribution and the newly developed in-product gas containment prediction system have been applied. The hollow die-cast frame made by the new method attains a 30% increase in rigidity and 1kg reduction of weight.
Technical Paper

Development of IMA Motor for 2006 Civic Hybrid

2006-04-03
2006-01-1505
Honda has employed IMA (Integrated Motor Assist) technology in the 2006 Civic Hybrid to enhance fuel efficiency and improve dynamic performance of a compact 4-door sedan. Our objective in developing the motor in the IMA system was to increase power, torque, and efficiency while maintaining the size of a previous motor. To achieve this aim, we focused on the following points: IPM (Interior Permanent Magnet) rotor structure High performance magnet Flat wire coil Polygonal bus ring structure Integrated 3-phase connector As a result, motor power was increased by 50% and achieved a 3 point average increase in efficiency, enabling vehicle dynamic performance and fuel efficiency objectives to be achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of Intelligent Power Unit for 2018 Model Year Accord Hybrid

2019-04-02
2019-01-0592
A compact intelligent power unit capable of being installed under the rear seating was developed for the 2018 model year Accord Hybrid that is to be equipped with the SPORT HYBRID Intelligent Multi Mode Drive (i-MMD) system. The space under the rear seat features multiple constraints on dimensions. In the longitudinal direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupant leg room and to position the fuel tank; in the vertical direction, it is necessary to attempt to help ensure occupants comfort and a minimum ground clearance; and in the lateral direction, it is necessary to avoid the position of the body side frames and the penetrating section of the exhaust pipe. The technologies described below were applied in order to reduce the size of components, making it possible to position the IPU amid these constraint conditions.
Technical Paper

Development of Motor with Heavy Rare Earth-Free Magnet for Two-Motor Hybrid System

2019-04-02
2019-01-0600
Conventional HEV motors use neodymium magnets with added heavy rare earths, to realize high output and size reduction. However, deposits of heavy rare earths such as Dysprosium (Dy) and Terbium (Tb) are unevenly distributed, so it is important to reduce the amount used, because of supply issue and material cost. In this paper, the application of a heavy rare earth-free magnet is considered on the new motor for a two-motor hybrid system. Compared to conventional neodymium magnets, heavy rare earth free magnets tend to have low coercivity. Also, heavy rare earth-free magnet have low thermal durability, so it is not easy to apply them to motors for a two-motor hybrid system, which requires high output and small size. The motor requires twice as much torque and six times output than one-motor hybrid system. Increase demagnetization resistance and magnet cooling performance is studied by development of the new motor.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburized High Strength Crankshaft Through Controlling Vanadium Carbonitride Precipitation by Normalizing

2009-11-03
2009-32-0076
In addition to the requirements of high power output and compactness, further reduction of weight is being required for motorcycle engines from the standpoint of fuel economy and reduction of CO2 emissions. For this purpose, it is important to reduce crankshaft weight, which is the heaviest rotating part in the engine. The crankshaft has to be strong enough to bear loads, as the demands of weight reduction are increasing. Yet, productivity has to be considered at the same time even when increasing crankshaft strength. In this report of crankshaft material studies that feature high fatigue strength, machinability and distortion correct-ability, attention is given to the fact that the amount of vanadium, which is known as an element that enhances the strength with its precipitation, accelerates deposition, dissolved in the steel depends on the heating temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburizing Steel for Crankshafts

1999-03-01
1999-01-0601
The purpose of our research is to omit normalizing after hot forging in nitrocarburized crankshafts. Based on fundamental studies about the influence of chemical composition on as-forged and nitrocarburized properties, the authors have developed a new nitrocarburizing steel composed of 0.3% carbon, 0.8% manganese, and 0.02% nitrogen. The newly designed crankshafts for compact cars using the steel can be in use without the normalizing and have equivalent properties to conventional crankshafts, though the treatment is an indispensable process for conventional ones.
Technical Paper

Development of Traction Motor for New Fuel Cell Vehicle and New Electric Vehicle

2018-04-03
2018-01-0450
Honda’s purpose is to realize the joy and freedom of mobility and a sustainable society in which people can enjoy life. As such, three series of environmental vehicles-FCVs, BEVs, and PHEVs-have been developed so that users in communities around the world can select the ones best suited to their local energy circumstances and individual lifestyles. This paper discusses a structure that enhances both the motive power performance and quietness of a newly developed FCV/BEV traction motor. To enhance motive power performance, the research focused on the stator lamination technique. As for methods of affixing the stator’s layers, the practice with previous models has been adhesion lamination, using electric steel sheets that come pre-made with adhesive layers. Having adhesive layers, however, lowers the ratio (space factor) of steel sheet layers. The new motor uses electric steel sheets without an adhesive layer in order to enhance motive power performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Lightweight and Compact 1kVA-Class Portable Generator

1999-09-28
1999-01-3304
The development of the lightweight and compact EU1000i generator with a maximum output of 1kVA is presented. The technology applied to achieve the required levels of exhaust emission, fuel consumption and noise, and to provide a stable electrical power supply with low waveform distortion is described. The technology comprises of four elements: a high-speed, multi-pole, external rotor type alternator, a microcomputer-controlled sine wave inverter, a compact high-speed 4-stroke engine with electronic speed governing, and a lightweight frame with a two-level noise-damping system. Combination of these four elements of technology has achieved 50% less weight, 25-30% lower fuel consumption, and 7-9dB(A) less noise than the previous model. The emission levels of CO and of NOx + HC are also 30% and 65% lower than the 2000 CARB regulations.
Journal Article

Development of γ′-Fe4N Phase Control Technology and Low-Carbon Alloy Steel for High-Strength Nitrided Gear

2015-04-14
2015-01-0519
A new nitriding technology and material technology have been developed to increase the strength of microalloyed gears. The developed nitriding technology makes it possible to freely select the phase composition of the nitride compound layer by controlling the treatment atmosphere. The treatment environment is controlled to exclude sources of supply of [C], and H2 is applied as the carrier gas. This has made it possible to control the forward reaction that decomposes NH3, helping to enable the stable precipitation of γ′-phase, which offers excellent peeling resistance. A material optimized for the new nitriding technology was also developed. The new material is a low-carbon alloy steel that makes it possible to minimize the difference in hardness between the compound layer and the substrate directly below it, and is resistant to decline in internal hardness due to aging precipitation in the temperature range used in the nitriding treatment.
Journal Article

Differences between Air-Dam Spoiler Performances in Wind Tunnel and On-Road Tests

2014-04-01
2014-01-0609
An air-dam spoiler is commonly used to reduce aerodynamic drag in production vehicles. However, it inexplicably tends to show different performances between wind tunnel and coast-down tests. Neither the reason nor the mechanism has been clarified. We previously reported that an air-dam spoiler contributed to a change in the wake structure behind a vehicle. In this study, to clarify the mechanism, we investigated the coefficient of aerodynamic drag CD reduction effect, wake structure, and underflow under different boundary layer conditions by conducting wind tunnel tests with a rolling road system and constant speed on-road tests. We found that the air-dam spoiler changed the wake structure by deceleration of the underflow under stationary floor conditions. Accordingly, the base pressure was recovered by approximately 30% and, the CD value reduction effect was approximately 10%.
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