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Technical Paper

47 Development of a Titanium Material by Utilizing Off-Grade Titanium Sponge

Titanium alloy for forging and pure titanium material for exhaust systems have been developed. The forging alloy will be applied to production of lightweight motorcycle frames and the pure titanium will be applied to improve engine performance. The materials have been made inexpensive by the use of off-grade sponge that includes many impurities for production of titanium ingot. Stable characteristics have been obtained by controlling oxygen equivalent after setting the volume of tolerable impurities by considering mechanical properties and production engineering. In spite of low-cost, the material provides the same design strength compared to conventional material, and enables parts production with existing equipment. A review of manufacturing and surface treatment processes indicated a reduction in the price of titanium parts produced with this new material.
Technical Paper

49 Development of Pb-free Free-Cutting Steel Enabling Omission of Normalizing for Crankshafts

Crankshafts of motorcycles require high strength, high reliability and low manufacturing cost. Recently, a reduction of Pb content in the free-cutting steel, which is harmful substance, is required. In order to satisfy such requirements, we started the development of Pb-free free-cutting steel which simultaneously enabled the omission of the normalizing process. For the omission of normalizing process, we adjusted the content of Carbon, Manganese and Nitrogen of the steel. This developed steel can obtain adequate hardness and fine microstructure by air-cooling after forging. Pb-free free-cutting steel was developed based on Calcium-sulfur free-cutting steel. Pb free-cutting steel is excellent in cutting chips frangibility in lathe process. We thought that it was necessary that cutting chips frangibility of developed steel was equal to Pb free-cutting steel. It was found that cutting chips frangibility depend on a non-metallic inclusion's composition, shape and dispersion.
Technical Paper

A Development of a Light Weight and High Performance Aluminum Radiator

This paper introduces a new type of aluminum radiator that has been developed with the objective of high performance and light weight. Aluminum radiators have recently been replacing copper radiators because of their light weight, but the heat rejection of such conventional alminum radiators does not exceed that of copper radiators. Authors established the aluminum radiator not only being light weight but also having high performance through the following approaches. (1) Optimization of radiator core module. (2) Thickness reduction of tube and fin. (3) Development of aluminum alloys with improved corrosion resistance for tubes and fins. As a result, a new type single-row aluminum radiator has achieved 7% higher rejection at 50% lighter weight than those of copper double-row radiator.
Technical Paper

Application of Load Path Index U* for Evaluation of Sheet Steel Joint with Spot Welds

An attempt was made to apply the index U* in detail analysis of load paths in structural joints under static load, using as examples coupling structures of two joined frames with hat-shaped sections, and T-beam joint structures each including spot welds, both of which are widely used in automotive body structures. U* is a load path analysis index that expresses the strength of connection between load points and arbitrary points on a structure. It was possible to identify areas making up load paths by means of the magnitude of U* values, and to clarify the areas that should be coupled in order to achieve effective load transfer to contiguous members. In addition, because it is possible to determine whether or not each section of a structure possesses the potential for load transfer using U* analysis, the research also demonstrated that U* could be used as an indicator of joint structures providing efficient load transfer.
Journal Article

Application of Rapid Heat and Cool Molding to High Strength Outer Parts without Painting Treatment

Glass fiber reinforced plastic of polyamide is applied as one of the materials used for the high strength exterior parts of a motorcycle, such as a rear grab rail or a carrier, to which both strength and good exterior appearance are required. However, Glass Fiber reinforced Polypropylene (PPGF), which is relatively inexpensive material, has a property that the contained glass fibers are prone to be exposed at the surface and, therefore, the requirements for good appearance are hardly met by using PPGF. In this study, Heat and Cool molding method (H&C molding) was employed to realize a cost reduction by using PPGF yet without applying painting process, and the established method was applied to mass production while fulfilling the requirements for a good exterior appearance. In H&C molding, the metal molds are heated up by steam and cooled down by water after molding.
Technical Paper

Development of 1600 N/mm2 Class Ultra-High Strength Bolts

1 Many different bolts are employed in automobiles for different purposes and uses, and their strength generally ranges from 700 N/mm2 to 1200 N/mm2. Automobiles face the issue of making improvements in fuel economy as an environmental measure, and there is consequently a requirement to lighten component parts. The creationof higher-strength bolts is an important factor in achieving lighter weight. Increasing the strength, however, can also bring about an increased incidence of delayed fracture, and the conventional solution used to require the application of special steels such as expensive maraging steel. The present development addressed this issue by focusing on high carbon steel rod, which had been considered less susceptible to delayed fracture, although heading was also considered to be difficult. Heading techniques were therefore devised that made it possible not only to form bolts from this material, but also to provide satisfactory strength.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminium Hollow Subframe Using High-Pressure Die Casting

High-tensile steel plates and lightweight aluminum are being employed as materials in order to achieve weight savings in automotive subframe. Closed-section structures are also in general use today in order to efficiently increase parts stiffness in comparison to open sections. Aluminum hollow-cast subframe have also been brought into practical use. Hollow-cast subframe are manufactured using sand cores in gravity die casting (GDC) or low-pressure die casting (LPDC) processes. Using these manufacturing methods, it is difficult to reduce product thickness, and the limitations of the methods therefore make the achievement of weight reductions a challenge. The research discussed in this paper developed a lightweight, hollow subframe technology employing high-pressure die casting (HPDC), a method well-suited to reducing wall thickness, as the manufacturing method. Hollow-casting using HPDC was developed as a method of forming water jackets for water-cooled automotive engines.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Powder Metal Composite Material Suitable for Extrusion Process used for Cylinder Sleeves of Internal Combustion Engines

There are a couple of ways to manufacture aluminum cylinder blocks that have a good balance between productivity and abrasion resistance. One of them is the insert-molding of a sleeve made of PMC (Powder Metal Composite) by the HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting) method. However, in this method, cracks are apt to occur on the surface when the PMC sleeve is extruded and that has been a restriction factor against higher extrusion speed. The authors attempted to raise this extrusion temperature by eliminating the Cu additive process from the aluminum alloy powder in order to raise its melting point by approximately 50 °C. This enabled the wall of the extruded sleeve to be thinner and the extrusion speed to be higher compared to those of a conventional production method while avoiding the occurrence of surface cracks.
Technical Paper

Development of Die-Cast Parts for Welded Structure Manufactured by the Transition Flow Filling

In general, welding of high-pressure die casting (DC) parts has been difficult due to gases trapped in the castings. This is a result of the high-speed turbulent flow condition of the DC process. These gases are liberated during welding and produce porosity in the weld joint. The Author had found the range where an enough welding quality was obtained without great drop in castability to the middle of the laminar flow and turbulent flow. This range has been defined as the transition zone. Moreover high strength Al-Mg-Ni alloy was developed by non-heat-treatment. The Transition Flow Filling Method(TFFM) has been developed, that can not only reduce the amount of trapped gases but also is applicable to standard high pressure die casting equipment. With this method, high quality DC parts can be produced that are weldable, strong and have high toughness.
Technical Paper

Development of Extruded Electrically Heated Catalyst System for ULEV Standards

Into the early-part of the next century, automotive emission standards are becoming stricter around the world. The electrically-heated catalyst (EHC) is well known as an effective technology for the reduction of cold-start hydrocarbon emissions without a significant increase in back pressure. Our extruded, alternator powered EHC (APEHC) manufactured with a unique canning method and equipped with a reliable, water proof electrode has demonstrated excellent durability and reliability, as stated in our previous SAE paper (#960340). The APEHC system discussed in this paper has achieved the Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle (ULEV) standards, after 100,000 miles of fleet testing, without any failure. This is the final milestone in addressing the EHC as a realistic-production technology for ULEV. With the ability to meet ULEV/Stage III emission targets without a significant increase in back pressure, the EHC will be applied to an especially high performance vehicle with a large displacement engine.
Journal Article

Development of GFRTP Crush Box with Consideration of Use Environment and Effect of Fiber Orientation

Regulation of automotive CO2 emissions is becoming increasingly stringent throughout the world in response to global warming. For automakers, this means a focus not only on increasing the fuel economy of powertrains, but also on reducing automotive driving resistance. High expectations are held for thermoplastic fiber-reinforced plastics (FRP) for the realization of automotive weight savings while also offering high levels of productivity and recyclability. Thermoplastic FRP crush boxes display a higher level of energy absorption performance than metal (steel, aluminum, etc.) crush boxes. This will contribute to automotive weight savings and improved package design. In the case of automotive front bumper beam systems, it is necessary to realize stable load characteristics irrespective of the use environment. It is therefore necessary to consider the effects of temperature and thermoplastic resin degradation.
Technical Paper

Development of HPDC Alloy for Motorcycle Wheel Using Recycle Aluminum

The new die cast (HPDC) wheel alloy has been developed using recycled aluminum to attain considerable reduction of energy at the time of material production to make large contribution to the reduction of CO2 emissions. The material for motorcycle body parts, especially for wheels, requires a sufficient elongation property. However, when recycled aluminum, which contains large amount of impurities, is used as main raw material, the intermetallic compounds crystalize out and the elongation property is deteriorated. Accordingly, we firstly made the investigations on the elements contained in a recycled aluminum and it was clarified that the elongation property was correlated to the shape of crystallized iron-based intermetallic compounds.
Journal Article

Development of Heat Resistant Titanium Alloy for Exhaust Valves Applicable for Motorcycles

Amidst of the recent concerns on depletion of natural resources, a new heat resistant titanium alloy has been developed using the minimum amount of rare metals. Using Ti-811 as a basis and modifying the alloy composition to Ti-7Al-2Mo-0.2Si-0.15C-0.2Nb, the mechanical property, the creep resistance and the oxidation resistance at high temperatures are improved. At the same time, with the β transformation point shifted to a higher temperature, the hot formability is also improved. The newly developed alloy has made it possible to expand the application of titanium material to exhaust valves in reciprocating engines.
Technical Paper

Development of High-Heat-Resistant High-Nitrogen Containing Austenitic Stainless Steel for Exhaust Gasket

SUS301-EH is widely used as a material for exhaust system gaskets, however, at temperatures in excess of 400°C, it can not be used as gas-seal ability of the material declines due to its reduced hardness. The following methods were found to be effective in controlling the softening of stainless steel at high temperatures: (1) The addition of a nitrogen component; (2) Stabilization of the austenite structure; (3) The addition of a molybdenum component. The addition of 0.5% nitrogen to austenitic stainless steel containing molybdenum has enabled the speed of softening at high temperatures to be significantly reduced, due to strain aging by solid nitrogen below 600°C and the combined effects of precipitation hardening and control of growth of recrystallized grains through the precipitation of fine Cr2N on the dislocations and the grain boundary above 600°C.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburized High Strength Crankshaft Through Controlling Vanadium Carbonitride Precipitation by Normalizing

In addition to the requirements of high power output and compactness, further reduction of weight is being required for motorcycle engines from the standpoint of fuel economy and reduction of CO2 emissions. For this purpose, it is important to reduce crankshaft weight, which is the heaviest rotating part in the engine. The crankshaft has to be strong enough to bear loads, as the demands of weight reduction are increasing. Yet, productivity has to be considered at the same time even when increasing crankshaft strength. In this report of crankshaft material studies that feature high fatigue strength, machinability and distortion correct-ability, attention is given to the fact that the amount of vanadium, which is known as an element that enhances the strength with its precipitation, accelerates deposition, dissolved in the steel depends on the heating temperature.
Technical Paper

Development of Nitrocarburizing Steel for Crankshafts

The purpose of our research is to omit normalizing after hot forging in nitrocarburized crankshafts. Based on fundamental studies about the influence of chemical composition on as-forged and nitrocarburized properties, the authors have developed a new nitrocarburizing steel composed of 0.3% carbon, 0.8% manganese, and 0.02% nitrogen. The newly designed crankshafts for compact cars using the steel can be in use without the normalizing and have equivalent properties to conventional crankshafts, though the treatment is an indispensable process for conventional ones.
Journal Article

Development of State of the Art Compact and Lightweight Thermoelectric Generator Using Vacuum Space Structure

Exhaust heat recovery units that use a thermoelectric element generate electricity by creating a temperature difference in the thermoelectric element by heating one side and cooling the other side of the thermoelectric circuit (module). In this case, the general structure does not directly join the thermoelectric module with the heat sink, and instead presses the thermoelectric module against the heat sink using bolts or other means in order to prevent thermoelectric element damage due to the difference in linear expansion between the cooled and heated sides of the thermoelectric module. However, this poses the issues associated with a complex, heavy and expensive structure. Therefore, a new vacuum space structure was devised that houses the thermoelectric module in a vacuum chamber and presses the module against the heat sink using atmospheric pressure.
Technical Paper

Development of Torque Sensor with Nickel-Iron Alloy Plating for Pedal-Equipped Electric Vehicles

This paper describes the development of non-contacting detection type torque sensor that realizes a small lost motion with light weight and low cost. Pedal-equipped electric vehicles are becoming popular in recent years. In those vehicles, torque sensors are usually necessary for measuring the pedaling force to determine the motor torque. We applied an integrated sensing structure and a non-contacting scheme utilizing inverse-magnetostrictive material to minimize the lost motions. As for the sensing material, nickel-iron alloy plating was used to obtain a wide dynamic range. In the tests using the actual structure, the output linearity deterioration occurred because of the strain distribution dispersion produced by the ratchet drive structure. Therefore, the effect of this strain distribution was examined. The inverse-magnetostrictive sensing material of nickel-iron alloy plating has an extremum on its output curve.
Technical Paper

Development of Traction Motor for New Fuel Cell Vehicle and New Electric Vehicle

Honda’s purpose is to realize the joy and freedom of mobility and a sustainable society in which people can enjoy life. As such, three series of environmental vehicles-FCVs, BEVs, and PHEVs-have been developed so that users in communities around the world can select the ones best suited to their local energy circumstances and individual lifestyles. This paper discusses a structure that enhances both the motive power performance and quietness of a newly developed FCV/BEV traction motor. To enhance motive power performance, the research focused on the stator lamination technique. As for methods of affixing the stator’s layers, the practice with previous models has been adhesion lamination, using electric steel sheets that come pre-made with adhesive layers. Having adhesive layers, however, lowers the ratio (space factor) of steel sheet layers. The new motor uses electric steel sheets without an adhesive layer in order to enhance motive power performance.
Technical Paper

Development of a Small-Sized Multilayer Fuel Tank for Motorcycles and ATVs Complying with EPA Gasoline Permeation Controls

As a result of recent EPA (U.S. Environmental Protection Agency) gasoline permeation control regulations, the fuel tanks on motorcycles and ATVs (All-Terrain Vehicles) are required to change to lower gasoline permeation performance on 2008 models. Therefore, we determined to use a multilayer plastic fuel tank. There are some molding issues that are peculiar to motorcycle and ATV fuel tanks. First, when the insert is blow molded, there is a reduction in welding strength. Second, peeling of the adhesion occurs on impact in the inserted parts. Third, saddle shapes with large ductility deformation are easy to be punctured during molding. Finally, the appearance of the fuel tank is not acceptable. In order to address the first issue, the welding performance, the drawdown of parison and the melting damage of insert parts were balanced, focusing attention to the temperatures of the parison and the insert.