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Technical Paper

Effect of Mixture Stratification and Fuel Reactivity on Dual-Fuel Compression Ignition Combustion Process for SI-Based Engine

Compression ignition combustion with a lean mixture has high potential in terms of high theoretical thermal efficiency and low NOx emission characteristics due to low combustion temperatures. In particular, a Dual-Fuel concept is proposed to achieve high ignition timing controllability and an extended operation range. This concept controls ignition timing by adjusting the fraction of two fuels with different ignition characteristics. However, a rapid combustion process after initial ignition cannot be avoided due to the homogenous nature of the fuel mixture, because the combustion process depends entirely on the high reaction rate of thermal ignition. In this study, the effect of mixture stratification in the cylinder on the combustion process after ignition based on the Dual-Fuel concept was investigated. Port injection of one fuel creates the homogeneous mixture, while direct injection of the other fuel prepares a stratified mixture in the cylinder at the compression stroke.
Journal Article

Effects of Cavitation and Hydraulic Flip in 3-Hole GDI Injectors

The performance of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) engines is governed by multiple physical processes such as the internal nozzle flow and the mixing of the liquid stream with the gaseous ambient environment. A detailed knowledge of these processes even for complex injectors is very important for improving the design and performance of combustion engines all the way to pollutant formation and emissions. However, many processes are still not completely understood, which is partly caused by their restricted experimental accessibility. Thus, high-fidelity simulations can be helpful to obtain further understanding of GDI injectors. In this work, advanced simulation and experimental methods are combined in order to study the spray characteristics of two different 3-hole GDI injectors.
Journal Article

Study of High-Compression-Ratio Engine Combined with an Ethanol-Gasoline Fuel Separation System

Bio-ethanol is used in many areas of the world as ethanol blended gasoline at low concentrations such as “E10 gasoline”. In this study, a method was examined to effectively use this small amount of ethanol within ethanol blended gasoline to improve thermal efficiency and high-load performance in a high-compression-ratio engine. Ethanol blended gasoline was separated into high-concentration ethanol fuel and gasoline using a fuel separation system employing a membrane. High-ethanol-concentration fuel was selectively used at high-load conditions to suppress knocking. In this system, a method to decrease ethanol consumption is necessary to cover the wide range of engine operation. Lower ethanol consumption could be achieved by Miller-cycle operation because decrease of the effective compression ratio suppresses knocking. However, high-load operation was limited due to the decrease in intake air volume with Miller-cycle operation.
Technical Paper

Study on HCCI-SI Combustion Using Fuels Ethanol Containing

Bio-ethanol is one of the candidates for automotive alternative fuels. For reduction of carbon dioxide emissions, it is important to investigate its optimum combustion procedure. This study has explored effect of ethanol fuels on HCCI-SI hybrid combustion using dual fuel injection (DFI). Steady and transient characteristics of the HCCI-SI hybrid combustion were evaluated using a single cylinder engine and a four-cylinder engine equipped with two port injectors and a direct injector. The experimental results indicated that DFI has the potential for optimizing ignition timing of HCCI combustion and for suppressing knock in SI combustion under fixed compression ratio. The HCCI-SI hybrid combustion using DFI achieved increasing efficiency compared to conventional SI combustion.
Technical Paper

Study on the Cooling Method of Car Engine Pistons - Part 1, Basic Test for Achieving High Heat Transfer Coefficient

Car engine piston cooling is an important technology for improving the compression ratio and suppressing the deformation of pistons. It is well known that thermal conductivity improves dramatically through the use of heat pipes in computers and air conditioners. However, the heat pipes in general use have not been used for the cooling of engines because the flow of gas and liquid is disturbed by vibration and the thermal conductivity becomes excessively low. We therefore developed an original heat pipe and conducted an experiment to determine its heat transfer coefficient using a high-speed reciprocation testing apparatus. Although the test was based on a single heat pipe unit, we succeeded in improving the heat transfer coefficient during high-speed reciprocation by a factor of 1.6 compared to the heat transfer coefficient at standstill. This report describes the observed characteristics and the method of verification.