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Technical Paper

A Comparative Evaluation of Pedestrian Kinematics and Injury Prediction for Adults and Children upon Impact with a Passenger Car

2004-03-08
2004-01-1606
Studies show that the pedestrian population at high risk of injury consists of both young children and adults. The goal of this study is to gain understanding in the mechanisms that lead to injuries for children and adults. Multi-body pedestrian human models of two specific anthropometries, a 6year-old child and a 50th percentile adult male, are applied. A vehicle model is developed that consists of a detailed rigid finite element mesh, validated stiffness regions, stiff structures underlying the hood and a suspension model. Simulations are performed in a test matrix where anthropometry, impact speed and impact location are variables. Bumper impact occurs with the tibia of the 50th percentile adult male and with the thigh of the 6-year-old child. The head of a 50th percentile male impacts the lower windshield, while the 6-year-old child's head impacts the front part of the hood.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation for Motorcycle Rider–Motion in Collision

2003-09-15
2003-32-0044
A computer simulation method for motorcycle rider motion in a collision on a passenger car has been developed. The computer simulation results were in two cases of collision, at 45 degree and 90 degree angles against the side of a passenger car. The simulated results were compared to the test results for validation. The simulation software of explicit finite element method (FEM) has been used, because of its capability for expressing accurate shape and deformation. The mesh size was determined with consideration for simulation accuracy and calculation time, and an FEM model of a motorcycle, an airbag, a dummy, a helmet and a passenger car were built. To shorten the calculation time, a part of the model was regarded as a rigid body and eliminated from the contact areas. As a result, highly accurate dummy posture and head velocity at the time of contact on the ground were simulated in the two cases of collision.
Technical Paper

A Minimum-Effort Motion Algorithm for Digital Human Models

2003-06-17
2003-01-2228
A new realistic motion control algorithm for digital human models is presented in this paper based on the principle of effort minimization. The proposed algorithm is developed through an innovative mathematical model to make the applications more flexible and more global, especially for the visualization of human motions in automotive assembly operations. The central idea of this unique model is to interpret the solution of the homogeneous Lagrange equation for a mannequin as the origin of dynamic motion. Furthermore, a digital human possesses about 42 joints over the main body except the head, fingers and toes, and offers a large room of kinematic redundancy. We have found 14 new 3-D independent motion markers assigned over the human body to constitute a Cartesian coordinate system, under which a minimum-effort based dynamic control scheme is developed using a state-feedback linearization procedure.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Body Computational Study of the Kinematic and Injury Response of a Pedestrian with Variable Stance upon Impact with a Vehicle

2004-03-08
2004-01-1607
This research investigates the variation of pedestrian stance in pedestrian-automobile impact using a validated multi-body vehicle and human model. Detailed vehicle models of a small family car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) are developed and validated for impact with a 50th percentile human male anthropometric ellipsoid model, and different pedestrian stances (struck limb forward, feet together, and struck limb backward) are investigated. The models calculate the physical trajectory of the multi-body models including head and torso accelerations, as well as pelvic force loads. This study shows that lower limb orientation during a pedestrian-automobile impact plays a dominant role in upper body kinematics of the pedestrian. Specifically, stance has a substantial effect on the subsequent impacts of the head and thorax with the vehicle. The variation in stance can change the severity of an injury incurred during an impact by changing the impact region.
Technical Paper

Air Bag Loading on In-Position Hybrid III Dummy Neck

2001-03-05
2001-01-0179
The Hybrid III family of dummies is used to estimate the response of an occupant during a crash. One recent area of interest is the response of the neck during air bag loading. The biomechanical response of the Hybrid III dummy's neck was based on inertial loading during crash events, when the dummy is restrained by a seat belt and/or seat back. Contact loading resulting from an air bag was not considered when the Hybrid III dummy was designed. This paper considers the effect of air bag loading on the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummies. The response of the neck is presented in comparison to currently accepted biomechanical corridors. The Hybrid III dummy neck was designed with primary emphasis on appropriate flexion and extension responses using the corridors proposed by Mertz and Patrick. They formulated the mechanical performance requirements of the neck as the relationship between the moment at the occipital condyles and the rotation of the head relative to the torso.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Contribution of Body Flexibility to the Handling and Ride Comfort Performance of Passenger Cars

2010-04-12
2010-01-0946
Full vehicle multibody models are commonly used to improve the handling and ride comfort performance of passenger cars. When focusing on body, it is difficult to validate the simulation results as the forces at the body/suspension interface cannot be measured. Moreover, body results cannot be easily correlated to the handling perception because it is by nature subjective. In this paper, we present a new methodology based on experimental data to analyze the contribution of the body flexibility to the handling performance of a passenger car. This method, using operational measurements and body measurements, allows in a first step to identify the body forces and in a second step, to analyze the contribution of the body modes during handling maneuvers. The same process can be applied for ride comfort.
Technical Paper

Analysis of upper extremity response under side air bag loading

2001-06-04
2001-06-0016
Computer simulations, dummy experiments with a new enhanced upper extremity, and small female cadaver experiments were used to analyze the small female upper extremity response under side air bag loading. After establishing the initial position, three tests were performed with the 5th percentile female hybrid III dummy, and six experiments with small female cadaver subjects. A new 5th percentile female enhanced upper extremity was developed for the dummy experiments that included a two-axis wrist load cell in addition to the existing six-axis load cells in both the forearm and humerus. Forearm pronation was also included in the new dummy upper extremity to increase the biofidelity of the interaction with the handgrip. Instrumentation for both the cadaver and dummy tests included accelerometers and magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensors on the forearm, humerus, upper and lower spine.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Parametric and Non-Parametric Methods for Determining Injury Risk

2003-03-03
2003-01-1362
This paper contains a review of methods for deriving risk curves from biomechanical data obtained from impact experiments on human surrogates. It covers many of the problems and pitfalls of obtaining realistic human risk curves from impact experiments. The strength and weakness of both parametric and non-parametric methods are evaluated. The limitations of standard analysis of censored impact test data are presented. Methods are given for determining risk curves from both doubly censored data and data obtained from impacts to body regions in which there are more than one mechanism of injury. A detailed set of examples is presented in which different experimental data are analyzed using the Consistent Threshold method and the logistic approach. Finally risk curves for published data are presented for the femur, head, thorax, and neck.
Journal Article

Detect the Imperceptible Drowsiness

2010-04-12
2010-01-0746
Prediction of drowsiness based on an objective measure is demanded in machine and vehicle operations, in which human error may cause fatal accidents. Recently, we focused on the pupil which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, easily and non-invasively observable from the outside of the body. Prior to the large low frequency pupil-diameter fluctuation, which is known to associate with drowsiness, a Gradual Miosis was observed in most subjects. During this miosis period, the subjects were not yet aware of their drowsiness. We have developed a software system which automatically detects the Gradual Miosis in real time.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Finite Element Model for the Polar-II Upper Body

2006-04-03
2006-01-0684
The goal of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the Polar-II pedestrian dummy. An upper body model consisting of the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, and abdomen was coupled with a previously validated model of the lower limb The viscoelastic material properties of the dummy components were determined from dynamic compression tests of shoulder urethane, shoulder rubber and abdominal foam. For validation of the entire upper body, the model was compared with NHTSA response requirements for their advanced frontal dummy (Thor) including head and neck pendulum tests as well as ribcage and abdominal impact tests. In addition, the Polar-II full body FE model was subjected to simulated vehicle-pedestrian impacts that recreated published experiments. Simulated head and pelvis accelerations as well as upper body trajectories reasonably reproduced the experiment.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Finite Element Model for the Human Lower Limb of Pedestrians

2000-11-01
2000-01-SC22
An impact test procedure with a legform addressing lower limb injuries in car-pedestrian accidents has been proposed by EEVC/WG17. Although a high frequency of lower limb fractures is observed in recent accident data, this test procedure assesses knee injuries with a focus on trauma to the ligamentous structures. The goal of this study is to establish a methodology to understand injury mechanisms of both ligamentous damages and bone fractures in car-pedestrian accidents. A finite element (FE) model of the human lower limb was developed using PAM-CRASH™. The commercially available H-Dummy™ lower limb model developed by Nihon ESI for a seated position was modified to represent the standing posture of pedestrians. Mechanical properties for both bony structures and knee ligaments were determined from our extensive literature survey, and were carefully implemented in the model considering their strain rate dependency in order to simulate the dynamic response of the lower limb accurately.
Journal Article

Development of Injury Probability Functions for the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor

2012-04-16
2012-01-0277
The goal of this study was to develop injury probability functions for the leg bending moment and MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) elongation of the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) based on human response data available from the literature. Data for the leg bending moment at fracture in dynamic 3-point bending were geometrically scaled to an average male using the standard lengths obtained from the anthropometric study, based on which the dimensions of the Flex-PLI were determined. Both male and female data were included since there was no statistically significant difference in bone material property. Since the data included both right censored and uncensored data, the Weibull Survival Model was used to develop a human leg fracture probability function.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model for a Pedestrian Pelvis and Lower Limb

2006-04-03
2006-01-0683
A finite element (FE) model that can predict impact response and injuries to a human pelvis and lower limb was developed in PAM-CRASH™ by accurately representing human anatomical structures. In our previous study, three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the thigh, leg and knee joint was developed based on MRI scans from a human volunteer. 3D geometry of a bony pelvis created in this study was based on CT scans from a Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS). The model was validated using published quasi-static and dynamic test results with human pelves and lower limbs. The thigh and leg models were validated against recently published dynamic 3-point bending test results with off-center loading. The validation results showed that this model can reproduce force-deflection and moment-deflection responses of a human thigh and leg in various loading conditions along with average force and moment at fracture.
Technical Paper

Elastokinematic Characteristics of Torsion Beam Suspensions

2015-04-14
2015-01-1497
Torsion beam suspensions are lightweight and low in cost, and they are therefore frequently used as the rear suspensions of small front-wheel drive vehicles. However, it is difficult to predict their characteristics and to satisfy performance targets in the early stages of development in particular, because the various aspects of performance required of a suspension must be achieved by a single structure. A great deal of research has been conducted into the cross-sectional shape of the beam section; however, this paper focuses on the effect of the properties of the trailing arms on suspension characteristics. Two similar test torsion beam suspensions differing only in the rigidity of the trailing arms were fabricated, and kinematics and compliance (K&C) tests were conducted using a 3D measurement system. The lateral compliance test showed the anticipated result that change in toe and camber is greater in the suspension with lower rigidity trailing arms.
Technical Paper

Improvement and Validation of the Lower Limb and the Pelvis for a Pedestrian Dummy

2015-04-14
2015-01-1471
The evaluation of pedestrian safety performance of vehicles required by regulations and new car assessment programs (NCAPs) have been conducted. However, the behavior of a pedestrian in an actual car-pedestrian accident is complex. In order to investigate injuries to the pedestrian lower body, the biofidelity of the lower limb and the pelvis of a pedestrian dummy called the POLAR II had been improved in past studies to develop a prototype of the next generation dummy called the POLAR III. The biofidelity of the thigh and the leg of the POLAR III prototype has been evaluated by means of 3-point bending. However, the inertial properties of these parts still needed to be adjusted to match those of a human. The biofidelity of the pelvis of the POLAR III prototype has been evaluated in lateral compression. Although the experiment using PMHSs (Post Mortem Human Subjects) was conducted in dynamic condition, the dummy tests were performed only in quasi-static condition.
Technical Paper

Investigation of a Simplified Vehicle Model that Can Reproduce Car-Pedestrian Collisions

2014-04-01
2014-01-0514
Japanese accident statistics show that despite the decreasing trend of the overall traffic fatalities, more than 1,000 pedestrians are still killed annually in Japan. One way to develop further understanding of real-world pedestrian accidents is to reconstruct a variety of accident scenarios dynamically using computational models. Some of the past studies done by the authors' group have used a simplified vehicle model to investigate pedestrian lower limb injuries. However, loadings to the upper body also need to be reproduced to predict damage to the full body of a pedestrian. As a step toward this goal, this study aimed to develop a simplified vehicle model capable of reproducing pedestrian full-body kinematics and pelvis and lower limb injury measures. The simplified vehicle model was comprised of four parts: windshield, hood, bumper and lower part of the bumper. Several different models were developed using different combinations of geometric and stiffness representation.
Technical Paper

Investigation on Generational Difference of Intracranial Responses Related to Traumatic Brain Injuries Using Age-Specific Human Head/Brain FE Models

2014-04-01
2014-01-0485
The high frequency of fatal head injuries of elderly people in traffic accidents is one of the important issues in Japan. One of the causes may be vulnerability of the aged brain. While a human head/brain FE model is a useful tool to investigate head injury mechanism, there has not been a research result using a model considering the structural and qualitative changes of the brain by aging. The objective of this study was to clarify the generational difference of intracranial responses related to traumatic brain injuries (TBI) under impact loading. In this study, the human head/brain FE models in their twenties (20s) and seventies (70s) were used. They were developed by reflecting the age-specific characteristics, such as shape/size and stiffness of brain matter and blood vessels, to the baseline model developed by Global Human Body Models Consortium (GHBMC) LLC.
Technical Paper

Investigation on an Injury Criterion Related to Traumatic Brain Injury Primarily Induced by Head Rotation

2015-04-14
2015-01-1439
The high frequency of fatal head injuries is one of the important issues in traffic safety, and Traumatic Brain Injuries (TBIs) without skull fracture account for approximately half of them in both occupant and pedestrian crashes. In order to evaluate vehicle safety performance for TBIs in these crashes using anthropomorphic test dummies (ATDs), a comprehensive injury criterion calculated from the rotational rigid motion of the head is required. While many studies have been conducted to investigate such an injury criterion with a focus on diffuse brain injuries in occupant crashes, there have been only a limited number of studies focusing on pedestrian impacts. The objective of this study is to develop a comprehensive injury criterion based on the rotational rigid body motion of the head suitable for both occupant and pedestrian crashes.
Technical Paper

Kinematics Validation of Age-Specific Restrained 50th Percentile Occupant FE Model in Frontal Impact

2012-04-16
2012-01-0565
Recently, the global increase of elderly vehicle users has become an issue to be considered in the effort of enhancing safety performance of vehicle restraint system. It is thought that an evaluation tool for the system representing properties of age-specific human body will play a major role for that. In previous research, the authors had developed age-specific component finite element (FE) models for the lower limb, lumbar spine, and thorax representing the adult and elderly occupants. However, the models have not been validated in terms of full body kinematics. It is essential for such models to be validated in terms of full body kinematics in order to ensure validity of the results of the assessment of the safety performance of restraint systems. In the present research, the adult and elderly occupant full body FE models were developed by incorporating the lower limb, lumbar spine and thorax of the adult and elderly FE models established in previous research.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Head Impact Waveform to Minimize HIC

2007-04-16
2007-01-0759
To mitigate head impact injuries of vehicle occupants in impact accidents, the FMVSS 201 requires padding of vehicle interior so that under the free-moving-head-form impact, the head injury criterion (HIC) is below the limit. More recently, pedestrian head impact on the vehicle bonnet has been a subject being studied and regulated as requirements to the automobile manufacturers. Over the years, the square wave has been considered as the best waveform for head impacts, although it is impractical to achieve. This paper revisits the head impact topic and challenges the optimality of aiming at the square waveform. It studies several different simple waveforms, with the objective to achieve minimal HIC or minimal crush space required in head-form impacts. With that it is found that many other waveforms can be more efficient and more practical than the square wave, especially for the pedestrian impact.
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