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Technical Paper

A Fully Variable Mechanical Valvetrain with a Simple Moving Pivot

A continuously variable lift, duration and phase mechanical lift mechanism is described, as applied to the intake valvetrain of a SOHC, 4-valve per cylinder, four-cylinder production engine. Improvements in fuel economy were sought by reduction of pumping losses and improved charge preparation, and optimization of WOT torque was attempted by variation of intake valve closing angle. Adjustment of the mechanism is achieved by movement of the pivot shaft for the rocker arms. The relationship between lift, duration and phase is predetermined at the design stage, and is fixed during operation. There is considerable design flexibility to achieve the envelope of lift curves deemed desirable. The operation of the mechanism is described, as are the development procedure, testing with fixed cams, some cycle simulation, friction testing on a separate rig and dyno testing results for idle, part load and WOT.
Technical Paper

A High Power, Wide Torque Range, Efficient Engine with a Newly Developed Variablea-Valve-Lift and -Timing Mechanism

A variable valving system was developed. This system has two cam profiles, one for low speed and one for high speed. A 1.2-litre DOHC experimental engine using this system was made and mounted in the body of a 2-1itre class passenger car. Test results of this car were compared to those of the same car with its original engine. The test car showed better results in every area of driving performance, in mode-fuel-econorny and in noise tests. This paper presents the mechanism, operation and test results of this variable valving system, the 1.2-litre experimental engine and this passenger car. THE PERFORMANCE AND EFFICIENCY of the passenger car gasoline engine have been greatly improved: primarily as a response to exhaust-gas emission regulations and the oil crises. These improvements have been achieved mainly through the development of control technologies to optimize many parameters such as ignition timing and air fuel ratio precisely according to driving conditions.
Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

A Multiple Order Conformability Model for Uniform Cross-Section Piston Rings

This paper examines the conformability of elastic piston rings to a distorted cylinder bore. Several bounds are available in the literature to help estimate the maximum allowable Fourier coefficient in a Fourier expansion of bore distortion: the analytically derived bounds in [7] and [8], and the semi-empirically derived bounds discussed in [9]. The underlying assumptions for each set of analytic bounds are examined and a multiple order algorithm is derived. The proposed algorithm takes account of multiple orders of distortion at once. It is tested with finite element (FE) data and compared to the classical bound approach. The results indicate that the bounds in [7] are compatible with linear elasticity theory (LET), whereas the bounds in [8] are not. Furthermore, numerical evidence indicates that the present multiple order algorithm can predict seal breaches more accurately than either of the other analytic bounds.
Journal Article

A Study of Controlled Auto-Ignition in Small Natural Gas Engines

Research has been conducted on Controlled Auto-Ignition (CAI) engine with natural gas. CAI engine has the potential to be highly efficient and to produce low emissions. CAI engine is potentially applicable to automobile engine. However due to narrow operating range, CAI engine for automobile engine which require various speed and load in real world operation is still remaining at research level. In comparison some natural gas engines for electricity generation only require continuous operation at constant load. There is possibility of efficiency enhancement by CAI combustion which is running same speed at constant load. Since natural gas is primary consisting of methane (CH4), high auto-ignition temperature is required to occur stable auto-ignition. Usually additional intake heat required to keep stable auto-ignition. To keep high compression temperature, single cylinder natural gas engine with high compression ratio (CR=26) was constructed.
Technical Paper

A Study of High Power Output Diesel Engine with Low Peak Cylinder Pressure

This study examined a high-speed, high-powered diesel engine featuring a pent-roof combustion chamber and straight ports, with the objective of improving the specific power of the engine while minimizing any increase in the maximum cylinder pressure (Pmax). The market and contemporary society expect improvements in the driving performance of diesel-powered automobiles, and increased specific power so that engine displacement can be reduced, which will lessen CO2 emissions. When specific power is increased through conventional methods accompanied with a considerable increase in Pmax, the engine weight is increased and friction worsens. Therefore, the authors examined new technologies that would allow to minimize any increase in Pmax by raising the rated speed from the 4000 rpm of the baseline engine to 5000 rpm, while maintaining the BMEP of the baseline engine.
Journal Article

Advanced Control System of Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) Engine with Dual Piston Mechanism

A dual piston Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine has been newly developed. This compact VCR system uses the inertia force and hydraulic pressure accompanying the reciprocating motion of the piston to raise and lower the outer piston and switches the compression ratio in two stages. For the torque characteristic enhancement and the knocking prevention when the compression ratio is being switched, it is necessary to carry out engine controls based on accurate compression ratio judgment. In order to accurately judge compression ratio switching timing, a control system employing the Hidden Markov Model (HMM) was used to analyze vibration generated during the compression ratio switching. Also, in order to realize smooth torque characteristics, an ignition timing control system that separately controls each cylinder and simultaneously performs knocking control was constructed.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Intake Primary Runner Blockages on Combustion and Emissions in SI Engines under Part-Load Conditions

Charge motion is known to accelerate and stabilize combustion through its influence on turbulence intensity and flame propagation. The present work investigates the effect of charge motion generated by intake runner blockages on combustion characteristics and emissions under part-load conditions in SI engines. Firing experiments have been conducted on a DaimlerChrysler (DC) 2.4L 4-valve I4 engine, with spark range extending around the Maximum Brake Torque (MBT) timing. Three blockages with 20% open area are compared to the fully open baseline case under two operating conditions: 2.41 bar brake mean effective pressure (bmep) at 1600 rpm, and 0.78 bar bmep at 1200 rpm. The blocked areas are shaped to create different levels of swirl, tumble, and cross-tumble. Crank-angle resolved pressures have been acquired, including cylinders 1 and 4, intake runners 1 and 4 upstream and downstream of the blockage, and exhaust runners 1 and 4.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Rotational Vibration Mechanism of Camshaft at High Engine Speed in Engines with In-Line Four-Cylinder DOHC Configuration

In engines having an inline four cylinder DOHC configuration, the rotational vibrations of camshaft increase at high engine speeds above 10000 rpm, causing an increase of tension in the cam chain. It is therefore difficult to realize an optimum designing of a cam chain system when the durability has to be taken into considerations. Using the simulation we analyzed in this research how the rotational vibrations and tension increase at high engine speeds in an inline four cylinder DOHC engine. As its consequent, it is understood that the increases of rotational vibrations and tension caused by the resonance of the spring mass vibration system in which the cam chain serves as springs and the camshafts as the equivalent masses. Also it is found out that the vibration system is of a unique non-linear type in which the resonance of the fourth order frequency is also excited by the crankshaft torque fluctuations of the second order frequency.
Technical Paper

Analysis on In-Cylinder Flow by Means of LDA, PIV and Numerical Simulation under Steady State Flow Condition

This paper describes the evaluation of flow characteristics inside a model engine cylinder using particle image velocimetry (PIV), laser Doppler anemometry (LDA), and numerical simulation by Partial Cells in Cartesian coordinate (PCC) method. The main goal of the study is to clarify the differences in the velocity characteristics obtained by these methods. The model engine head has a four-valve system. Single- and dual- valve opening conditions of the model engine head were tested by a steady flow test rig. The flow structures were completely different for these valve opening conditions. The mean velocities and their distributions obtained by the three methods show satisfactory agreement. However, there were differences in the turbulence intensities under several conditions and measuring positions. Taylor's hypothesis in the integral length scale of turbulence was also compared with single LDA and PIV measurements.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Powder Metal Composite Material Suitable for Extrusion Process used for Cylinder Sleeves of Internal Combustion Engines

There are a couple of ways to manufacture aluminum cylinder blocks that have a good balance between productivity and abrasion resistance. One of them is the insert-molding of a sleeve made of PMC (Powder Metal Composite) by the HPDC (High Pressure Die Casting) method. However, in this method, cracks are apt to occur on the surface when the PMC sleeve is extruded and that has been a restriction factor against higher extrusion speed. The authors attempted to raise this extrusion temperature by eliminating the Cu additive process from the aluminum alloy powder in order to raise its melting point by approximately 50 °C. This enabled the wall of the extruded sleeve to be thinner and the extrusion speed to be higher compared to those of a conventional production method while avoiding the occurrence of surface cracks.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Powder Metallurgy Composites for Cylinder Liners

There are several all-aluminum cylinder blocks. A typical example is a mono-block cylinder of alusil alloy produced by low pressure die casting. This material's resistance to abrasion and seizure, however, is not satisfactory for motorcycle; in addition, long processing time is another disadvantage. To cope with these problems, the authors developed a light and highly productive all-aluminum cylinder block with a cast-in liner through die casting. The liner is made from powder metallurgy composite (PMC) with 3 to 5 % alumina and 0.5 to 3 % of graphite additives. The PMC reconciles abrasion resistance and machinability. The hardness deterioration of the composite due to the heat at die casting is avoided by using heat-resistant rapidly-solidified powders, made from an aluminum-silecon-iron alloy, for the matrix.
Technical Paper

Development of Elliptical Piston Engine for Motorcycle

Honda developed a 750cm3 V-4 engine adopting an elliptical piston, and began selling the “NR” motorcycle with the engine installed in 1992. The adoption of an elliptical piston and cylinder achieved a compact layout of eight valves, which consists of four intake valves and four exhaust valves per cylinder. This paper explains the features of an engine with such a layout, focusing on the following: 1) Multiple valves and short-stroke enable the 750cm3 engine to achieve 15,000rpm. 2) The engine is more compact and lightweight than an engine having the same displacement, and more powerful than one with twice as many cylinders (8 cylinders). Also, this paper describes the techniques giving improved blowby gas and oil consumption characteristics as related to the sealing property of the piston, cylinder and piston ring and achieving performance equivalent to a conventional motorcycle engine.
Technical Paper

Development of Evaluation Method for Low-Cycle Fatigue Breakdown on HSDI Diesel Cylinder Head

With a growing demand for high-power diesel engines, a key issue in engine development is to create efficient methods for developing highly durable cylinder heads, without having to repeat trial-and-error testing. Especially, it was difficult to accurately predict the occurrence and origin of cracks on the surfaces of cylinder heads in hot and cold cycle engine operation. This paper describes a thermal fatigue evaluation method developed by analyzing areas around the glow plug hole where cracks often occur during hot and cold cycle engine operation. To reveal the conditions of edges from which cracks were formed under engine durability tests, we used two procedures. One was estimating local temperature of edge areas based on material hardness determination, in order to compensate for the accuracy of the thermal analysis. The other was analyzing the strain amplitudes on the cylinder head surface using computer simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of Hybrid System for 2006 Compact Sedan

An Integrated Motor Assist (IMA) system for the 2006 Civic Hybrid has been developed, with the goal of having class leading fuel economy among compact vehicles and enhanced driving performance. The IMA system has been enhanced for greater power and efficiency. Combining the 3-stage i-VTEC engine with a higher power, higher efficiency electric motor assist mechanism enables an increase in deceleration regeneration energy and a drive mode powered by the electric motor alone. The engine is a newly developed 3-stage i-VTEC, based on the 1.3L SOHC i-DSI engine. The new 3-stage i-VTEC engine incorporates both a VTEC mechanism that switches cam profiles in low and high engine speed ranges, and a cylinder deactivation mechanism. The CVT has both an expanded ratio range and a higher final gear ratio. Through these technological enhancements, we have achieved the highest levels of fuel economy in the compact class and enhanced acceleration performance.
Technical Paper

Development of New 3.5 L V6 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

This paper introduces the newly developed super sports car engine mounted in the new model NSX. A super sports car engine was newly developed to satisfy the high power performance required by the body package. Higher power and compactness were simultaneously achieved by selecting an engine displacement of 3.5 L and by using a V6 layout and a turbocharger. This enabled to mount a power train that combines a hybrid motor with a newly developed transmission in the rear of the body. The lubrication system uses a dry sump system capable of maintaining reliable lubrication in all possible super sports car driving scenarios. The combustion system uses high tumble-flow ports, a direct injection and a port injection system that increase power performance and thermal efficiency, emission reduction. To support the increased heat load due to higher power, a 3-piece water jacket is used around the combustion chamber and the exhaust ports.
Technical Paper

Development of Technologies for Improving Fuel Economy of Small Motorcycle Engines

A single cylinder gasoline engine of displacement 125 cm3 for prototype was developed, and the fuel economy of this engine was improved by reducing friction and improving combustion. For reducing friction, various methods were innovated; enhancement of the oil film retention by modifying the striation finish on piston skirt, adding the needle bearing to the rocker arm shaft, press-fitting the bush into the small end of connecting rod, reducing contact pressure with the piston ring, and spray coating molybdenum disulfide onto the shift fork. By innovating these friction reduction methods, the friction of the engine was reduced by 6% compared to the previous model which was already employed the roller rocker arm and the offset cylinder. For improving combustion, the swirl control valve (SCV) was installed into the intake port. By the effect of SCV, both improvement of engine power and improving combustion under low load was achieved.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid System for the V6 Midsize Sedan

The Accord Hybrid has been developed to offer the driving performance of a V6 midsize sedan while achieving Civic class fuel economy. The engine is based on a V6 3.0L SOHC VTEC engine, with VCM (variable cylinder management) system. The transmission is a thin 5-speed automatic transmission, modified to integrate with a hybrid system for idle stop, regeneration driving and so on. The IMA (Integrated Motor Assist) system is based on the model employed in the Civic Hybrid. During development the size of the thin DC brushless motor was increased and an IPM (Interior Permanent Magnet) rotor employed, resulting in an improvement of approximately 26% in maximum torque. Controls were developed to effectively utilize the deceleration energy regenerated by the IMA system that assist in providing expansion to the 3-cylinder operation zone, and increase the frequency of the 3-cylinder operation.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 1.5L I4 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

A 1.5 L downsizing turbocharged engine was developed to achieve both driving and environmental performance. The engine is intended to replace 1.8 - 2.4 L class NA engines. In downsizing turbocharged engines, mixture homogeneity is important for suppressing knocking and emission reduction. Particularly under high load, creating rapid combustion and a homogeneous mixture are key technologies. The authors used a long-stroke direct injection engine, which has outstanding rapid combustion and thermal efficiency, as a base engine meeting these requirements. They combined this with a high-tumble port and shallow-dish piston intended to support tumble flow. The combination enhanced flow within the cylinder. The combustion system was built to include a sodium-filled exhaust valve to reduce knocking and a multi-hole injector (six holes) for mixture homogeneity and to reduce the fuel wall wetting.
Technical Paper

Development of a New 2.0L I4 Turbocharged Gasoline Direct Injection Engine

It is important to take action regarding environmental issues on a global scale, and automakers are adding downsized turbocharged engines to their line-ups as a means of reducing CO2 emissions, particularly in Europe. Honda has recently announced a next-generation powertrain series that realizes a good balance between environmental performance and driving pleasure. As part of this series, the company has developed a downsized and turbocharged 2.0L gasoline direct injection engine. This is a high-powered sports car engine positioned in the European “hot hatch” category. The development balanced engine power with good environmental performance.