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Technical Paper

A Comparative Evaluation of Pedestrian Kinematics and Injury Prediction for Adults and Children upon Impact with a Passenger Car

Studies show that the pedestrian population at high risk of injury consists of both young children and adults. The goal of this study is to gain understanding in the mechanisms that lead to injuries for children and adults. Multi-body pedestrian human models of two specific anthropometries, a 6year-old child and a 50th percentile adult male, are applied. A vehicle model is developed that consists of a detailed rigid finite element mesh, validated stiffness regions, stiff structures underlying the hood and a suspension model. Simulations are performed in a test matrix where anthropometry, impact speed and impact location are variables. Bumper impact occurs with the tibia of the 50th percentile adult male and with the thigh of the 6-year-old child. The head of a 50th percentile male impacts the lower windshield, while the 6-year-old child's head impacts the front part of the hood.
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation for Motorcycle Rider–Motion in Collision

A computer simulation method for motorcycle rider motion in a collision on a passenger car has been developed. The computer simulation results were in two cases of collision, at 45 degree and 90 degree angles against the side of a passenger car. The simulated results were compared to the test results for validation. The simulation software of explicit finite element method (FEM) has been used, because of its capability for expressing accurate shape and deformation. The mesh size was determined with consideration for simulation accuracy and calculation time, and an FEM model of a motorcycle, an airbag, a dummy, a helmet and a passenger car were built. To shorten the calculation time, a part of the model was regarded as a rigid body and eliminated from the contact areas. As a result, highly accurate dummy posture and head velocity at the time of contact on the ground were simulated in the two cases of collision.
Technical Paper

A Minimum-Effort Motion Algorithm for Digital Human Models

A new realistic motion control algorithm for digital human models is presented in this paper based on the principle of effort minimization. The proposed algorithm is developed through an innovative mathematical model to make the applications more flexible and more global, especially for the visualization of human motions in automotive assembly operations. The central idea of this unique model is to interpret the solution of the homogeneous Lagrange equation for a mannequin as the origin of dynamic motion. Furthermore, a digital human possesses about 42 joints over the main body except the head, fingers and toes, and offers a large room of kinematic redundancy. We have found 14 new 3-D independent motion markers assigned over the human body to constitute a Cartesian coordinate system, under which a minimum-effort based dynamic control scheme is developed using a state-feedback linearization procedure.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Body Computational Study of the Kinematic and Injury Response of a Pedestrian with Variable Stance upon Impact with a Vehicle

This research investigates the variation of pedestrian stance in pedestrian-automobile impact using a validated multi-body vehicle and human model. Detailed vehicle models of a small family car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) are developed and validated for impact with a 50th percentile human male anthropometric ellipsoid model, and different pedestrian stances (struck limb forward, feet together, and struck limb backward) are investigated. The models calculate the physical trajectory of the multi-body models including head and torso accelerations, as well as pelvic force loads. This study shows that lower limb orientation during a pedestrian-automobile impact plays a dominant role in upper body kinematics of the pedestrian. Specifically, stance has a substantial effect on the subsequent impacts of the head and thorax with the vehicle. The variation in stance can change the severity of an injury incurred during an impact by changing the impact region.
Technical Paper

A New Concept for Occupant Deceleration Control during Vehicle Crashes -Study of the Vehicle Mass Separation Model

In order to minimize occupant injury in a vehicle collision, an approach was attempted to address this issue by optimizing the waveform of the vehicle body deceleration to reduce the maximum deceleration applied to the occupant. A previous study has shown that the mathematical solution to the optimal vehicle deceleration waveform comprised three stages: high deceleration, negative deceleration, and constant deceleration. A kinematic model with separated mass of the vehicle was devised to generate the optimal vehicle deceleration waveform comprising three stages including a one with negative deceleration in the middle. The validity of this model has been confirmed by a mathematical study on a one-dimensional lumped mass model. The optimal vehicle deceleration waveform generated by this method was then validated by a three-dimensional dummy simulation.
Technical Paper

A New Concept for Occupant Deceleration Control in a Crash - Part 2

In order to minimize occupant injury in a vehicle crash, an approach was attempted to address this issue by making the wave form of vehicle body deceleration optimal to lower the maximum value of the occupant deceleration. Prior study shows that the mathematical solutions for the optimal vehicle deceleration wave form feature consisting of three aspects: high deceleration, negative deceleration, and constant deceleration. A kinematical model which has separated mass of the vehicle was devised to generate an optimal vehicle deceleration wave form which consists of three segments including a segment of negative deceleration in the middle. The validity of this model has been certified by a mathematical study by using a one-dimensional lumped mass model. The effectiveness of the optimal vehicle deceleration wave form generated by this method was validated by a simulation with a three-dimensional dummy.
Technical Paper

A New Way of Electrical/Electronic Systems Endurance Testing of Vehicles in a Real World Environment Prior to Production Launch

With the increasing emphasis on Systems Engineering, there is a need to ensure that Electrical/Electronic (E/E) Systems Endurance Testing of vehicles, in a real world environment, prior to Production Launch, is performed in a manner and at a technological level that is commensurate with the high level of electronics and computers in contemporary vehicles. Additionally, validating the design and performance of individual standalone electronic systems and modules “on the bench” does not guarantee that all the permutations and combinations of real-world hardware, software, and driving conditions are taken into account. Traditional Proving Ground (PG) vehicle testing focuses mainly on powertrain durability testing, with only a simple checklist being used by the PG drivers as a reminder to cycle some of the electrical components such as the power window switches, turn signals, etc.
Technical Paper

A new concept for occupant deceleration control in a crash

In order to minimize occupant injury in a vehicle crash, an approach was attempted to address this issue by making the wave form of vehicle body deceleration (deceleration curve) optimal to lower the maximum deceleration value applied to the occupant. A study with a one-dimensional, two-mass model was conducted to the kinetic mechanism between the body deceleration curve and the responding occupant''s motion while finding a mathematical solution for the optimal body deceleration curve. A common feature of the derived mathematical solutions is that they consist of three aspects: high deceleration, low or negative deceleration, and constant deceleration. This was demonstrated by simulation with a three-dimensional dummy. The results show that the response of the dummy closely agrees with that of the one-dimensional, two-mass model, thus proving the adequacy of the mathematical solution, and that occupant injury was reduced.
Technical Paper

Air Bag Loading on In-Position Hybrid III Dummy Neck

The Hybrid III family of dummies is used to estimate the response of an occupant during a crash. One recent area of interest is the response of the neck during air bag loading. The biomechanical response of the Hybrid III dummy's neck was based on inertial loading during crash events, when the dummy is restrained by a seat belt and/or seat back. Contact loading resulting from an air bag was not considered when the Hybrid III dummy was designed. This paper considers the effect of air bag loading on the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummies. The response of the neck is presented in comparison to currently accepted biomechanical corridors. The Hybrid III dummy neck was designed with primary emphasis on appropriate flexion and extension responses using the corridors proposed by Mertz and Patrick. They formulated the mechanical performance requirements of the neck as the relationship between the moment at the occipital condyles and the rotation of the head relative to the torso.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Factors Influencing Side Impact Compatibility

To examine factors influencing side impact compatibility, as a first step, car-to-car tests were conducted to investigate the effect of sill interaction. As a result, it was found that sill interaction had a less significant effect on side impact performance than reducing the load aligned with the dummy. In addition, a series of Mobile Deformable Barrier (MDB) tests were performed to corroborate the conclusions of the car-to-car tests. Comparison of the results of these MDB tests showed that the effect of reducing loading aligned with the driver dummy is more significant than that of engagement with the target car's sill, which is consistent with the car-to-car test results.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Contribution of Body Flexibility to the Handling and Ride Comfort Performance of Passenger Cars

Full vehicle multibody models are commonly used to improve the handling and ride comfort performance of passenger cars. When focusing on body, it is difficult to validate the simulation results as the forces at the body/suspension interface cannot be measured. Moreover, body results cannot be easily correlated to the handling perception because it is by nature subjective. In this paper, we present a new methodology based on experimental data to analyze the contribution of the body flexibility to the handling performance of a passenger car. This method, using operational measurements and body measurements, allows in a first step to identify the body forces and in a second step, to analyze the contribution of the body modes during handling maneuvers. The same process can be applied for ride comfort.
Technical Paper

Analysis of upper extremity response under side air bag loading

Computer simulations, dummy experiments with a new enhanced upper extremity, and small female cadaver experiments were used to analyze the small female upper extremity response under side air bag loading. After establishing the initial position, three tests were performed with the 5th percentile female hybrid III dummy, and six experiments with small female cadaver subjects. A new 5th percentile female enhanced upper extremity was developed for the dummy experiments that included a two-axis wrist load cell in addition to the existing six-axis load cells in both the forearm and humerus. Forearm pronation was also included in the new dummy upper extremity to increase the biofidelity of the interaction with the handgrip. Instrumentation for both the cadaver and dummy tests included accelerometers and magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensors on the forearm, humerus, upper and lower spine.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Parametric and Non-Parametric Methods for Determining Injury Risk

This paper contains a review of methods for deriving risk curves from biomechanical data obtained from impact experiments on human surrogates. It covers many of the problems and pitfalls of obtaining realistic human risk curves from impact experiments. The strength and weakness of both parametric and non-parametric methods are evaluated. The limitations of standard analysis of censored impact test data are presented. Methods are given for determining risk curves from both doubly censored data and data obtained from impacts to body regions in which there are more than one mechanism of injury. A detailed set of examples is presented in which different experimental data are analyzed using the Consistent Threshold method and the logistic approach. Finally risk curves for published data are presented for the femur, head, thorax, and neck.
Journal Article

Detect the Imperceptible Drowsiness

Prediction of drowsiness based on an objective measure is demanded in machine and vehicle operations, in which human error may cause fatal accidents. Recently, we focused on the pupil which is controlled by the autonomic nervous system, easily and non-invasively observable from the outside of the body. Prior to the large low frequency pupil-diameter fluctuation, which is known to associate with drowsiness, a Gradual Miosis was observed in most subjects. During this miosis period, the subjects were not yet aware of their drowsiness. We have developed a software system which automatically detects the Gradual Miosis in real time.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of a Finite Element Model for the Polar-II Upper Body

The goal of this study was to develop and validate a finite element (FE) model of the Polar-II pedestrian dummy. An upper body model consisting of the head, neck, shoulder, thorax, and abdomen was coupled with a previously validated model of the lower limb The viscoelastic material properties of the dummy components were determined from dynamic compression tests of shoulder urethane, shoulder rubber and abdominal foam. For validation of the entire upper body, the model was compared with NHTSA response requirements for their advanced frontal dummy (Thor) including head and neck pendulum tests as well as ribcage and abdominal impact tests. In addition, the Polar-II full body FE model was subjected to simulated vehicle-pedestrian impacts that recreated published experiments. Simulated head and pelvis accelerations as well as upper body trajectories reasonably reproduced the experiment.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of the Finite Element Model for the Human Lower Limb of Pedestrians

An impact test procedure with a legform addressing lower limb injuries in car-pedestrian accidents has been proposed by EEVC/WG17. Although a high frequency of lower limb fractures is observed in recent accident data, this test procedure assesses knee injuries with a focus on trauma to the ligamentous structures. The goal of this study is to establish a methodology to understand injury mechanisms of both ligamentous damages and bone fractures in car-pedestrian accidents. A finite element (FE) model of the human lower limb was developed using PAM-CRASH™. The commercially available H-Dummy™ lower limb model developed by Nihon ESI for a seated position was modified to represent the standing posture of pedestrians. Mechanical properties for both bony structures and knee ligaments were determined from our extensive literature survey, and were carefully implemented in the model considering their strain rate dependency in order to simulate the dynamic response of the lower limb accurately.
Journal Article

Development of Injury Probability Functions for the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor

The goal of this study was to develop injury probability functions for the leg bending moment and MCL (Medial Collateral Ligament) elongation of the Flexible Pedestrian Legform Impactor (Flex-PLI) based on human response data available from the literature. Data for the leg bending moment at fracture in dynamic 3-point bending were geometrically scaled to an average male using the standard lengths obtained from the anthropometric study, based on which the dimensions of the Flex-PLI were determined. Both male and female data were included since there was no statistically significant difference in bone material property. Since the data included both right censored and uncensored data, the Weibull Survival Model was used to develop a human leg fracture probability function.
Technical Paper

Development of a Finite Element Model for a Pedestrian Pelvis and Lower Limb

A finite element (FE) model that can predict impact response and injuries to a human pelvis and lower limb was developed in PAM-CRASH™ by accurately representing human anatomical structures. In our previous study, three-dimensional (3D) geometry of the thigh, leg and knee joint was developed based on MRI scans from a human volunteer. 3D geometry of a bony pelvis created in this study was based on CT scans from a Post Mortem Human Subject (PMHS). The model was validated using published quasi-static and dynamic test results with human pelves and lower limbs. The thigh and leg models were validated against recently published dynamic 3-point bending test results with off-center loading. The validation results showed that this model can reproduce force-deflection and moment-deflection responses of a human thigh and leg in various loading conditions along with average force and moment at fracture.
Journal Article

Development of the Next-Generation Steering System (Development of the Twin Lever Steering for Production Vehicle)

Looking back on steering systems in more than a hundred years that have passed since the introduction of the automobile, it can be seen that original method of controlling cars pulled by animals such as horses was by reins, and early automobiles had a single push-pull bar (tiller steering). That became the steering wheel, and an indirect steering mechanism by rotating up and down caught on. While the steering wheel is the main type of steering system in use today, the team have developed the Twin Lever Steering (TLS) system controlled mainly by bi-articular muscles, making use of advancements in science and technology and bioengineering to develop based on bioengineering considerations as shown in Fig. 1. The objective of that is to establish the ultimate steering operation system for drivers. In the first report, the authors reported on results found by using race-car prototypes as shown in Fig. 2.
Journal Article

Development of the Next-generation Steering System (Development of the Twin Lever Steering System)

With the objective of establishing the ultimate steering operation system for drivers, we developed, based on bioengineering considerations, the Twin Lever Steering (TLS) system which mimicks the bi-articular muscles, as shown in Fig. 1 . The bioengineering advantages are as follows: (1) force can be exerted more easily, (2) the steering can be accomplished quickly, (3) the positioning can be done accurately, and (4) the burden on the driver can be reduced (less fatigue). The advantages of the vehicle in terms of its motion are as follows: (1) the line-traceability is improved, (2) the drift control is improved, (3) the lane-change capability is improved, and (4) the lap time and stability are improved. We would like to report on these advantages of the TLS system from a bioengineering standpoint, and also describe the results of some verification test results obtained from vehicles equipped with this new steering system.