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Technical Paper

1-D Simulation Model Developed for a General Purpose Engine

In recent years, improvements in the fuel economy and exhaust emission performance of internal combustion engines have been increasingly required by regulatory agencies. One of the salient concerns regarding general purpose engines is the larger amount of CO emissions with which they are associated, compared with CO emissions from automobile engines. To reduce CO and other exhaust emissions while maintaining high fuel efficiency, the optimization of total engine system, including various design parameters, is essential. In the engine system optimization process, cycle simulation using 0-D and 1-D engine models are highly useful. To define an optimum design, the model used for the cycle simulation must be capable of predicting the effects of various parameters on the engine performance. In this study, a model for predicting the performance of a general purpose SI (Spark Ignited) engine is developed based on the commercially available engine simulation software, GT-POWER.
Technical Paper

3D-PIV Measurement and Visualization of Streamlines Around a Standard SAE Vehicle Model

In CFD (Computational Fluid Dynamics) verification of vehicle aerodynamics, detailed velocity measurements are required. The conventional 2D-PIV (Two Dimensional Particle Image Velocimetry) needs at least twice the number of operations to measure the three components of velocity ( u,v,w ), thus it is difficult to set up precise measurement positions. Furthermore, there are some areas where measurements are rendered impossible due to the relative position of the object and the optical system. That is why the acquisition of detailed velocity data around a vehicle has not yet been attained. In this study, a detailed velocity measurement was conducted using a 3D-PIV measurement system. The measurement target was a quarter scale SAE standard vehicle model. The wind tunnel system which was also designed for a quarter scale car model was utilized. It consisted of a moving belt and a boundary suction system.
Technical Paper

69 Development of Gear Train Behavioral Analysis Technologies Considering Non-linear Elements

A numerical calculation method, which enables the analysis of gear train behavior including non-linear elements in a motorcycle engine, was established. During the modeling process, it was confirmed that factors such as bearing distortion, radial bearing clearance and elastic deformation of a tooth flank could not be neglected because they effect the rotation behavior. To keep a high accuracy, those factors were included in the simulation model, after they were converted into the rigidity elements along the rotational direction of each gear model. In addition, the model was combined with a crankshaft behavior calculation model for a driving and excitation source. A time domain numerical integration method was used to perform the transient response simulation across a wide range of engine speeds. A jump phenomenon of response behavior of the driven gear was predicted that is a characteristic of non-linear response. The phenomenon was also observed in a physical test.
Technical Paper

A Computer Model Based Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters of an Automotive Air Conditioning System

The objective of this work is to perform a computer model based sensitivity analysis of parameters of an automotive air conditioning system to identify the critical parameters. Design of Experiment (DOE) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques have been used to identify the critical parameters and their relative effects on the air conditioning system performance. The sensitivity analysis has been verified by running similar tests on an air conditioning system test stand (AC Test Stand).
Technical Paper

A Computer Simulation for Motorcycle Rider–Motion in Collision

A computer simulation method for motorcycle rider motion in a collision on a passenger car has been developed. The computer simulation results were in two cases of collision, at 45 degree and 90 degree angles against the side of a passenger car. The simulated results were compared to the test results for validation. The simulation software of explicit finite element method (FEM) has been used, because of its capability for expressing accurate shape and deformation. The mesh size was determined with consideration for simulation accuracy and calculation time, and an FEM model of a motorcycle, an airbag, a dummy, a helmet and a passenger car were built. To shorten the calculation time, a part of the model was regarded as a rigid body and eliminated from the contact areas. As a result, highly accurate dummy posture and head velocity at the time of contact on the ground were simulated in the two cases of collision.
Technical Paper

A Fully Variable Mechanical Valvetrain with a Simple Moving Pivot

A continuously variable lift, duration and phase mechanical lift mechanism is described, as applied to the intake valvetrain of a SOHC, 4-valve per cylinder, four-cylinder production engine. Improvements in fuel economy were sought by reduction of pumping losses and improved charge preparation, and optimization of WOT torque was attempted by variation of intake valve closing angle. Adjustment of the mechanism is achieved by movement of the pivot shaft for the rocker arms. The relationship between lift, duration and phase is predetermined at the design stage, and is fixed during operation. There is considerable design flexibility to achieve the envelope of lift curves deemed desirable. The operation of the mechanism is described, as are the development procedure, testing with fixed cams, some cycle simulation, friction testing on a separate rig and dyno testing results for idle, part load and WOT.
Technical Paper

A Graphical Representation of Road Profile Characteristics

Load data representing severe customer usage is required during the chassis development process. One area of current research is the use of road profiles for predicting chassis loads. The most direct method of predicting these loads is to run dynamic simulations of the vehicle using numerous road profiles as the excitation. This onerous task may be avoided, and a greatly reduced number of simulations would be required, if roads having similar characteristics can be grouped. Currently, road profiles are characterized by their spectral content. It has been noted by several researches, however, that road profiles are generally nonstationary signals that contain significant transient events and are not well described in the spectral domain. The objective of this work, then, is to develop a method by which the characteristics of the road can be captured by describing these constitutive transient events.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Method for Vehicle Axle Noise Simulation with Experimental Validation

Recently, many authors have attempted to represent an automobile body in terms of experimentally derived frequency response functions (FRFs), and to couple the FRFs with a FEA model of chassis for performing a total system dynamic analysis. This method is called Hybrid FEA-Experimental FRF method, or briefly HYFEX. However, in cases where the chassis model does not include the bushing models, one can not directly connect the FRFs of the auto body to the chassis model for performing a total system dynamic analysis. In other cases when the chassis model includes the bushings, the bushing dynamic rates are modeled as constant stiffness rather than frequency dependent stiffness, the direct use of the HYFEX method will yield unsatisfactory results. This paper describes how the FRF's of the auto body and the frequency dependent stiffness data of the bushings can be combined with an appropriate mathematical formulation to better represent the dynamic characteristics of a full vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Minimum-Effort Motion Algorithm for Digital Human Models

A new realistic motion control algorithm for digital human models is presented in this paper based on the principle of effort minimization. The proposed algorithm is developed through an innovative mathematical model to make the applications more flexible and more global, especially for the visualization of human motions in automotive assembly operations. The central idea of this unique model is to interpret the solution of the homogeneous Lagrange equation for a mannequin as the origin of dynamic motion. Furthermore, a digital human possesses about 42 joints over the main body except the head, fingers and toes, and offers a large room of kinematic redundancy. We have found 14 new 3-D independent motion markers assigned over the human body to constitute a Cartesian coordinate system, under which a minimum-effort based dynamic control scheme is developed using a state-feedback linearization procedure.
Technical Paper

A Multi-Body Computational Study of the Kinematic and Injury Response of a Pedestrian with Variable Stance upon Impact with a Vehicle

This research investigates the variation of pedestrian stance in pedestrian-automobile impact using a validated multi-body vehicle and human model. Detailed vehicle models of a small family car and a sport utility vehicle (SUV) are developed and validated for impact with a 50th percentile human male anthropometric ellipsoid model, and different pedestrian stances (struck limb forward, feet together, and struck limb backward) are investigated. The models calculate the physical trajectory of the multi-body models including head and torso accelerations, as well as pelvic force loads. This study shows that lower limb orientation during a pedestrian-automobile impact plays a dominant role in upper body kinematics of the pedestrian. Specifically, stance has a substantial effect on the subsequent impacts of the head and thorax with the vehicle. The variation in stance can change the severity of an injury incurred during an impact by changing the impact region.
Technical Paper

A Multiple Order Conformability Model for Uniform Cross-Section Piston Rings

This paper examines the conformability of elastic piston rings to a distorted cylinder bore. Several bounds are available in the literature to help estimate the maximum allowable Fourier coefficient in a Fourier expansion of bore distortion: the analytically derived bounds in [7] and [8], and the semi-empirically derived bounds discussed in [9]. The underlying assumptions for each set of analytic bounds are examined and a multiple order algorithm is derived. The proposed algorithm takes account of multiple orders of distortion at once. It is tested with finite element (FE) data and compared to the classical bound approach. The results indicate that the bounds in [7] are compatible with linear elasticity theory (LET), whereas the bounds in [8] are not. Furthermore, numerical evidence indicates that the present multiple order algorithm can predict seal breaches more accurately than either of the other analytic bounds.
Technical Paper

A New Concept for Occupant Deceleration Control during Vehicle Crashes -Study of the Vehicle Mass Separation Model

In order to minimize occupant injury in a vehicle collision, an approach was attempted to address this issue by optimizing the waveform of the vehicle body deceleration to reduce the maximum deceleration applied to the occupant. A previous study has shown that the mathematical solution to the optimal vehicle deceleration waveform comprised three stages: high deceleration, negative deceleration, and constant deceleration. A kinematic model with separated mass of the vehicle was devised to generate the optimal vehicle deceleration waveform comprising three stages including a one with negative deceleration in the middle. The validity of this model has been confirmed by a mathematical study on a one-dimensional lumped mass model. The optimal vehicle deceleration waveform generated by this method was then validated by a three-dimensional dummy simulation.
Technical Paper

A New Concept for Occupant Deceleration Control in a Crash - Part 2

In order to minimize occupant injury in a vehicle crash, an approach was attempted to address this issue by making the wave form of vehicle body deceleration optimal to lower the maximum value of the occupant deceleration. Prior study shows that the mathematical solutions for the optimal vehicle deceleration wave form feature consisting of three aspects: high deceleration, negative deceleration, and constant deceleration. A kinematical model which has separated mass of the vehicle was devised to generate an optimal vehicle deceleration wave form which consists of three segments including a segment of negative deceleration in the middle. The validity of this model has been certified by a mathematical study by using a one-dimensional lumped mass model. The effectiveness of the optimal vehicle deceleration wave form generated by this method was validated by a simulation with a three-dimensional dummy.
Technical Paper

A Statistical Tire Model Concept - Applications to Vehicle Development

The tires are one of the most important parts of the vehicle chassis, as they significantly influence aspects such as vehicle's directional stability, braking performance, ride comfort, NVH, and fuel consumption. The tires are also a part whose size affects the vehicle's essential specifications such as wheelbase and track width. The size of the tires should therefore be determined in the initial stage of vehicle development, taking into account whether the size allows the vehicle to achieve the targeted overall performance. In estimations of vehicle performance, computer simulation plays more of an important role, and simulated tire models are designed to reproduce the measured tire characteristics of existing tires. But to estimate the chassis performance with various tire sizes or with tires of uncommon sizes, the prevailing modeling approach, “individual models for individual tires,” would not function well because of limited ability to expand tire models to unfamiliar sizes.
Technical Paper

Advantages of Adaptive Wall Wind Tunnel Technology: A CFD Study for Testing Open Wheel Race Cars

The primary advantage of an Adaptive Wall wind tunnel is that the test section walls and ceiling are contoured to closely approximate the ‘open road' flowfield around the test vehicle. This reproduction of the open road flowfield then results in aerodynamic forces and moments on the test vehicle that are consistent with actual open road forces and moments. Aerodynamic data measured in the adaptive wall test section do not require blockage corrections for adjusting the data to open road results. Extensive full scale experiments, published scale model studies, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies have verified the simulation capability of adaptive wall technology. For the CFD study described here, high-downforce, open-wheel race cars were studied. The numerical simulations with a race car in an Adaptive Wall Test Section (AWTS) wind tunnel are compared with simulations in ‘free air' condition and in a closed wall test section.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of the New Honda FIT/JAZZ

This paper discusses the characteristic flow field of the new Honda FIT/Jazz as determined from the aerodynamic development process, and introduces the technique that reduced aerodynamic drag in a full model change. The new FIT was the first model to take full advantage of the Flow Analysis Simulation tool (FAST), our in-house CFD system, in its development. The FAST system performs aerodynamic simulation by automatically linking the exterior surface design with a predefined platform layout. This allows engineers to run calculations efficiently, and the results can be shared among vehicle stylists and aerodynamicists. Optimization of the exterior design gives the new FIT a moderate pressure peak at the front bumper corner as compared to the previous model, resulting in a smaller pressure difference between the side and underbody.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Performance Evaluation System at the Early Concept Stage of Automotive Styling Development Based on CFD

An aerodynamic styling evaluation system employed at an early automotive development stage was constructed. The system based on CFD consists of exterior model morphing, computational mesh generation, flow calculation and result analysis, and the process is automatically and successively executed by process automation software. Response surfaces and a parallel coordinates chart output by the system allow users to find a well-balanced exterior form, in terms of aerodynamics and exterior styling, in a wide design space which are often arduous to be obtained by a conventional CAE manner and scale model wind tunnel testing. The system was designed so that 5-parameter study is completed within approximately two days, and consequently, has been widely applied to actual exterior styling development. An application for a hatchback vehicle is also introduced as an actual example.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Procedure for Vehicle Thermal Protection Development

Vehicle thermal protection is an important aspect of the overall vehicle development process. It involves optimizing the exhaust system routing and designing heat shields to protect various components that are in near proximity to the exhaust system. Reduced time to market necessitates an efficient process for thermal protection development. A robust procedure that utilizes state of the art CFD simulation techniques proactively during the design phase is described. Simulation allows for early detection of thermal issues and development of countermeasures several months before prototype vehicles are built. Physical testing is only used to verify the thermal protection package rather than to develop heat shields. The new procedure reduces the number of physical tests and results in a robust, efficient methodology.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Contribution of Body Flexibility to the Handling and Ride Comfort Performance of Passenger Cars

Full vehicle multibody models are commonly used to improve the handling and ride comfort performance of passenger cars. When focusing on body, it is difficult to validate the simulation results as the forces at the body/suspension interface cannot be measured. Moreover, body results cannot be easily correlated to the handling perception because it is by nature subjective. In this paper, we present a new methodology based on experimental data to analyze the contribution of the body flexibility to the handling performance of a passenger car. This method, using operational measurements and body measurements, allows in a first step to identify the body forces and in a second step, to analyze the contribution of the body modes during handling maneuvers. The same process can be applied for ride comfort.
Technical Paper

Analysis of upper extremity response under side air bag loading

Computer simulations, dummy experiments with a new enhanced upper extremity, and small female cadaver experiments were used to analyze the small female upper extremity response under side air bag loading. After establishing the initial position, three tests were performed with the 5th percentile female hybrid III dummy, and six experiments with small female cadaver subjects. A new 5th percentile female enhanced upper extremity was developed for the dummy experiments that included a two-axis wrist load cell in addition to the existing six-axis load cells in both the forearm and humerus. Forearm pronation was also included in the new dummy upper extremity to increase the biofidelity of the interaction with the handgrip. Instrumentation for both the cadaver and dummy tests included accelerometers and magnetohydrodynamic angular rate sensors on the forearm, humerus, upper and lower spine.