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Journal Article

A Fuel Surrogate Validation Approach Using a JP-8 Fueled Optically Accessible Compression Ignition Engine

An experimental fuel surrogate validation approach is proposed for a compression ignition application, and applied to validate a Jet-A POSF 4658 fuel surrogate. The approach examines the agreement of both physical and chemical properties of surrogate and target fuels during validation within a real compression-ignition engine environment during four sequential but distinct combustion phases. In-cylinder Mie Scattering measurements are applied to evaporating sprays to compare the behavior of the surrogate, its target fuel, and for reference, n-heptane. Early mixture formation and low temperature reaction behavior were investigated using 2-D broadband chemiluminescence imaging, while high temperature ignition and combustion chemistry were studied using OH chemiluminescence imaging. The optical measurements were combined with cylinder pressure-based combustion analysis, including ignition delay and premixed burn duration, to validate the global behavior of the surrogate.
Journal Article

Comparison of In-Cylinder Soot Evolution in an Optically Accessible Engine Fueled with JP-8 and ULSD

Due to the single fuel concept implemented by the US military, the soot production of diesel engines fueled with JP-8 has important implications for military vehicle visual signature and survivability. This work compares in-cylinder soot formation and oxidation of JP-8 and ULSD in a small-bore, optical diesel engine. Experimental engine-out soot emission measurements are compared to crank-angle resolved two-color measurements of soot temperature and optical thickness, KL. A 3-D chemical kinetic-coupled CFD model with line of sight integration is employed in order to investigate the soot distribution in a 2-D projection associated with the imaging plane, as well as to aid in interpreting the third dimension along the optical depth which is not available within the experimental work. The study also examines the effect of volatility on soot emission characteristics by CFD simulation.
Technical Paper

Comparison of the Lift-Off Lengths Obtained by Simultaneous OH-LIF and OH* Chemiluminescence Imaging in an Optical Heavy-Duty Diesel Engine

The presence of OH radicals as a marker of the high temperature reaction region usually has been used to determine the lift-off length (LOL) in diesel engines. Both OH Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and OH* chemiluminescence diagnostics have been widely used in optical engines for measuring the LOL. OH* chemiluminescence is radiation from OH being formed in the exited states (OH*). As a consequence OH* chemiluminescence imaging provides line-of-sight information across the imaged volume. In contrast, OH-LIF provides information on the distribution of radicals present in the energy ground state. The OH-LIF images only show OH distribution in the thin cross-section illuminated by the laser. When both these techniques have been applied in earlier work, it has often been reported that the chemiluminescence measurements result in shorter lift-off lengths than the LIF approach.
Journal Article

Ethanol/N-Heptane Dual-Fuel Partially Premixed Combustion Analysis through Formaldehyde PLIF

As a result of recent focus on the control of Low Temperature Combustion (LTC) modes, dual-fuel combustion strategies such as Reactivity Controlled Compression Ignition (RCCI) have been developed. Reactivity stratification of the auto-igniting mixture is thought to be responsible for the increase in allowable engine load compared to other LTC combustion modes such as Homogenous Charge Compression Ignition (HCCI). The current study investigates the effect of ethanol intake fuel injection on in-cylinder formaldehyde formation and stratification within an optically accessible engine operated with n-heptane direct injection using optical measurements and zero-dimensional chemical kinetic models. Images obtained by Planar Laser Induced Fluorescence (PLIF) of formaldehyde using the third harmonic of a pulsed Nd:YAG laser indicate an increase in formaldehyde heterogeneity as measured by the fluorescence signal standard deviation.
Technical Paper

Impact of Biodiesel Blends on In-cylinder Soot Temperature and Concentrations in a Small-Bore Optical Diesel Engine

Biodiesel is a desirable alternative fuel for the diesel engine due to its low engine-out soot emission tendency. When blended with petroleum-based diesel fuels, soot emissions generally decrease in proportion to the volume fraction of biodiesel in the mixture. This paper presents an experimental investigation of biodiesel impact on in-cylinder soot temperature and concentrations in a single-cylinder, small-bore, optical access, compression ignition engine. While in-cylinder soot measurements have been widely performed with two-color thermometry implemented on digital cameras, their finite dynamic range limits the observation of soot due to its dramatically different radiation intensities. To expand the dynamic range of two-color measurements, this investigation utilizes three cameras. A high-speed CMOS color camera with a wide-band Bayer filter is used to obtain simultaneous measurements of soot temperature and KL factor for high intensity soot clouds within one cycle.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Low-Temperature Combustion in an Optical Engine Fueled with Low Cetane Sasol JP-8 Fuel Using OH-PLIF and HCHO Chemiluminescence Imaging

Low cetane JP-8 fuels have been identified as being difficult to use under conventional diesel operation. However, recent focus on low-temperature combustion (LTC) modes has led to an interest in distillate hydrocarbon fuels having high volatility and low autoignition tendency. An experimental study is performed to evaluate low-temperature combustion processes in a small-bore optically-accessible diesel engine operated in a partially-premixed combustion mode using low-cetane Sasol JP-8 fuel. This particular fuel has a cetane number of 25. Both single and dual injection strategies are tested. Since long ignition delay is a consequence of strong autoignition resistance, under the conditions examined, low cetane Sasol JP-8 combustion can only take place with a double injection strategy: one pilot injection event in the vicinity of exhaust TDC and one main injection event near firing TDC.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Measurement of CO2*, OH* and CH2O* Chemiluminescence from an Optical Diesel Engine Fueled with n-Heptane

A means of validating numerical simulations has been developed which utilizes chemiluminescence measurements from an internal combustion engine. By incorporating OH*, CH2O* and CO2* chemiluminescence sub-mechanisms into a detailed n-heptane reaction mechanism, excited species concentration and chemiluminescence light emission were calculated. The modeled line-of-sight chemiluminescence emission allows a direct comparison of simulation results to experimentally measured chemiluminescence images obtained during combustion in an optically accessible compression ignition engine using neat n-heptane fuel. The spray model was calibrated using in-cylinder liquid penetration length Mie scattering measurements taken from the jets of the high-pressure piezo injector.