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Technical Paper

A Bench Test Procedure for Evaluating the Cylinder Liner Pitting Protection Performance of Engine Coolant Additives for Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Applications

Evaluations of the liner pitting protection performance provided by engine coolant corrosion inhibitors and supplemental coolant additives have presented many problems. Current practice involves the use of full scale engine tests to show that engine coolant inhibitors provide sufficient liner pitting protection. These are too time-consuming and expensive to use as the basis for industry-wide specifications. Ultrasonic vibratory test rigs have been used for screening purposes in individual labs, but these have suffered from poor reproducibility and insufficient additive differentiation. A new test procedure has been developed that reduces these problems. The new procedure compares candidate formulations against a good and bad reference fluid to reduce the concern for problems with calibration and equipment variability. Cast iron test coupons with well-defined microstructure and processing requirements significantly reduce test variability.
Technical Paper

A Look at Fatigue in Resistance Spot Welds-Notch or Crack?

This paper presents and validates a model of fatigue crack propagation in resistance spot welded joints; this model is called the “Structural Stress Model” (SSM). Important features of the SSM are that it is based on the physical evidence of fatigue in spot welded joints and on well-accepted descriptors of fatigue more generally. Furthermore, it is usable by designers evaluating fatigue response of structures containing multiple welds. Underlying assumptions of the SSM are also reviewed.
Technical Paper

Advanced Computational Methods for Predicting Flow Losses in Intake Regions of Diesel Engines

A computational methodology has been developed for loss prediction in intake regions of internal combustion engines. The methodology consists of a hierarchy of four major tasks: (1) proper computational modeling of flow physics; (2) exact geometry and high quality and generation; (3) discretization schemes for low numerical viscosity; and (4) higher order turbulence modeling. Only when these four tasks are dealt with properly will a computational simulation yield consistently accurate results. This methodology, which is has been successfully tested and validated against benchmark quality data for a wide variety of complex 2-D and 3-D laminar and turbulent flow situations, is applied here to a loss prediction problem from industry. Total pressure losses in the intake region (inlet duct, manifold, plenum, ports, valves, and cylinder) of a Caterpillar diesel engine are predicted computationally and compared to experimental data.
Journal Article

An Applied Approach for Large-Scale Multibody Dynamics Simulation and Machine-Terrain Interaction

Virtual Product Development (VPD) is a key enabler in CAE and depends upon accurate implementation of multibody dynamics. This paper discusses the formulation and implementation of a large-scale multibody dynamics simulation code. In the presented formulation, the joint variables are used as the generalized coordinates and spatial algebra is used to formulate the system equations of motion. Although the presented formulation utilizes the joint variables as the generalized coordinates, closed-loop mechanisms can be easily modeled using impeded constraints. Baumgart stabilization approach is used to eliminate the constraint violations without using the expensive Newton-Raphson iterations. Integrated rigid and flexible body dynamic simulation allows accurate prediction of structural loads, stress, and strains. Both modal and nodal flexible body approaches are discussed in the paper.
Journal Article

An Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) Based on Pressure Load Estimation Due to Bubble Collapse in Cavitating Flows Within the RANS Solvers

Despite numerous research efforts, there is no reliable and widely accepted tool for the prediction of erosion prone material surfaces due to collapse of cavitation bubbles. In the present paper an Erosion Aggressiveness Index (EAI) is proposed, based on the pressure loads which develop on the material surface and the material yield stress. EAI depends on parameters of the liquid quality and includes the fourth power of the maximum bubble radius and the bubble size number density distribution. Both the newly proposed EAI and the Cavitation Aggressiveness Index (CAI), which has been previously proposed by the authors based on the total derivative of pressure at locations of bubble collapse (DP/Dt>0, Dα/Dt<0), are computed for a cavitating flow orifice, for which experimental and numerical results on material erosion have been published. The predicted surface area prone to cavitation damage, as shown by the CAI and EAI indexes, is correlated with the experiments.
Technical Paper

Analysis of a Passive Thermal Control System for use on a Lightweight Mars EVA Suit

Development of a suitable EVA suit for use on Mars will be a significant technological challenge. A particular concern is the excessive weight of existing planetary spacesuit designs. Mars has approximately one-third of the Earth's gravitational pull. Therefore, heavy suits will significantly hamper effective EVA operations. A suit design investigated by research groups from Stanford University and U.C. Berkeley uses semi-permeable membranes as a passive thermal control system. This design replaces the bulky active thermal control systems in more traditional spacesuit designs by working with the natural thermal control mechanisms of the human body. This idea is only possible due to the unique Martian atmosphere and the normal way in which the human body regulates its own temperature via sensory feedback to the brain, sweat, and regulation of blood flow.
Technical Paper

Application of a Self-Adjusting Audible Warning Device as a Backup Alarm for Mobile Earthmoving Equipment

Most pieces of mobile equipment (machines) produce an audible signal to indicate movement in the rearward direction. This signal is intended to alert nearby personnel of the potential danger associated with the machine moving in a direction where the operator may not be able to see people or objects in the machine path. Anyone who has been on or near a construction site recognizes the familiar “beep…beep…beep…” of this signal as the backup alarm. To be effective, the backup alarm must be discernible, timely, and relevant to those people where a reaction is intended. As machine designers respond to various sound directives for reducing sound emissions (including the backup alarm), the performance of the backup alarm is receiving special attention. An emerging solution is an alarm capable of sensing ambient sounds and producing an audible signal proportional to the sensed sound levels-a self-adjusting backup alarm.
Technical Paper

Application of an Elastomeric Tuned Mass Damper for Booming Noise on an Off-highway Machine

NVH is gaining importance in the quality perception of off-highway machine performance and operator comfort. Booming noise, a low frequency NVH phenomenon, can be a significant sound issue in an off-highway machine. In order to increase operator comfort by decreasing the noise levels and noise annoyance, a tuned mass damper (TMD) was added to the resonating panel to suppress the booming. Operational deflection shapes (ODS) and experimental modal analysis (EMA) were performed to identify the resonating panels, a damper was tuned in the lab and on the machine to the specific frequency, machine operational tests were carried out to verify the effectiveness of the damper to deal with booming noise.
Technical Paper

Biodegradable Hydraulic Fluids: A Review

There is an ongoing interest in biodegradable hydraulic fluids. Biodegradable fluids are often considered to include only vegetable oils, polyol esters and diester base stocks. However, other fluid base stocks including highly refined mineral oils, poly(alpha olefins) and fire-resistant fluids such as water-glycol hydraulic fluids are also biodegradable fluid alternatives. This paper will provide an overview of the international literature on biodegradable fluids, various international testing protocol, fluid base stocks, effect of oxidative stability, material compatibility and pump performance.
Technical Paper

Caterpillar’s Autonomous Journey - The Argument for Autonomy

Today’s business climate and economy demand new, innovative strategies from the initial kickoff of research and development - to the mining of ore from the earth - to the final inspection of a finished product in a mid-western factory. From startup companies with two employees to the largest companies, the world faces new and challenging requirements every day. The demands from companies, customers, executives, and shareholders continue to drive for higher outputs with more efficient use of personnel and investments. Fortunately, the rate of technology continues to exponentially accelerate, which allows those at the cutting edge of technology to capitalize. Caterpillar has been a pioneer in advanced technology since its inception and has been developing the foundation for autonomy over the past four decades.
Technical Paper

Closed Loop Control of Lean Fuel-Air Ratios Using a Temperature Compensated Zirconia Oxygen Sensor

Several recent papers describe closed loop fuel-air ratio control systems designed to operate at stoichiometric conditions because of the high three-way catalyst conversion efficiencies which occur only in a narrow band around stoichiometric. This paper investigates closed loop control of fuel-air ratio using a temperature compensated zirconia sensor at other than stoichiometric conditions. If engines can be made to run at very lean(Φ≈0.6-0.7) equivalence ratios through greater attention to proper fuel-air mixing and vaporization, CO, HC, and NOx emissions are minimized simultaneously. Closed loop control in the lean region makes the system insensitive to parameter variations and allows the fuel-air ratio to be maintained closer to the lean limit than would be possible under conventional open loop conditions.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Single Gear Tooth and Cantilever Beam Bending Fatigue Testing of Carburized Steel

The bending fatigue performance of gears, cantilever beam specimens, and notched-axial specimens were evaluated and compared. Specimens were machined from a modified SAE-4118 steel, gas-carburized, direct-quenched and tempered. Bending fatigue specimens were characterized by light metallography to determine microstructure and prior austenite grain size, x-ray analysis for residual stress and retained austenite measurements, and scanning electron microscopy to evaluate fatigue crack initiation, propagation and overload. The case and core microstructures, prior austenite grain sizes and case hardness profiles from the various types of specimens were similar. Endurance limits were determined to be about 950 MPa for both the cantilever beam and notched-axial fatigue specimens, and 1310 MPa for the single gear tooth specimens.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of Multi-Degree-of Freedom Fuel Systems

This paper identifies potential performance benefits and computational costs of applying advanced multivariable control theory concepts to coordinate the control of a general multi-degree-of-freedom fuel system. The control variables are injection duration and pressure. The focus is on the design of a robust multi-input multi-output controller using H-infinity and mu synthesis methodology to coordinate the control of injection duration and pressure; reduce overshoots and system sensitivity to parameter variations caused by component aging. Model reduction techniques are used to reduce the order of the H-infinity controller to make it practically implementable. Computer simulation is used to test the robust performance of a generic engine and fuel system model controlled by the reduced order H-infinity controller and a traditional proportional plus integral controller.
Technical Paper

Crank-angle-resolved Measurements of Air-fuel Ratio, Temperature, and Liquid Fuel Droplet Scattering in a Direct-injection Gasoline Engine

Simultaneous crank-angle-resolved measurements of gasoline vapor concentration, gas temperature, and liquid fuel droplet scattering were made with three-color infrared absorption in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine with premium gasoline. The infrared light was coupled into and out of the cylinder using fiber optics incorporated into a modified spark plug, allowing measurement at a location adjacent to the spark plug electrode. Two mid-infrared (mid-IR) laser wavelengths were simultaneously produced by difference-frequency-generation in periodically poled lithium niobate (PPLN) using one signal and two pump lasers operating in the near-infrared (near-IR). A portion of the near-IR signal laser residual provided a simultaneous third, non-resonant, wavelength for liquid droplet detection. This non-resonant signal was used to subtract the influence of droplet scattering from the resonant mid-IR signals to obtain vapor absorption signals in the presence of droplet extinction.
Technical Paper

Design for Graphics

This paper consists of viewing graphics as a language showing it is critical to effective visual communication Equally important is the process of visual translation itself, the practical application of graphic language to expressive requirements. This paper identifies in logical order some of the major message functions of graphic language, and to develop these functions in terms of specific communicative options available to the designer.
Technical Paper

Determination of Flame-Front Equivalence Ratio During Stratified Combustion

Combustion under stratified operating conditions in a direct-injection spark-ignition engine was investigated using simultaneous planar laser-induced fluorescence imaging of the fuel distribution (via 3-pentanone doped into the fuel) and the combustion products (via OH, which occurs naturally). The simultaneous images allow direct determination of the flame front location under highly stratified conditions where the flame, or product, location is not uniquely identified by the absence of fuel. The 3-pentanone images were quantified, and an edge detection algorithm was developed and applied to the OH data to identify the flame front position. The result was the compilation of local flame-front equivalence ratio probability density functions (PDFs) for engine operating conditions at 600 and 1200 rpm and engine loads varying from equivalence ratios of 0.89 to 0.32 with an unthrottled intake. Homogeneous conditions were used to verify the integrity of the method.
Technical Paper

Development of Plasma Spray Coated Cylinder Liners

Improved fuel economy and reduction of emissions can be achieved by insulation of the combustion chamber components to reduce heat rejection. However, such insulation will also increase the operating temperature of the piston ring/cylinder liner interface from approximately 150°C to over 300°C. Since existing ring/liner materials cannot withstand these higher operating temperatures alternatives are needed for this critical tribological interface. This paper describes the development of a cost effective ID grinding technique for machining the bores of plasma sprayed diesel engine cylinder liners.
Technical Paper

Development of a Fiber Reinforced Aluminum Piston for Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

This paper discusses a joint customer-supplier program intended to further develop the ability to design and apply aluminum alloy pistons selectively reinforced with ceramic fibers for heavy duty diesel engines. The approach begins with a comprehensive mechanical properties evaluation of base and reinforced material. The results demonstrated significant fatigue strength improvement due to fiber reinforcement, specially at temperatures greater than 300°C. A simplified numerical analysis is performed to predict the temperature and fatigue factor values at the combustion bowl area for conventional and reinforced aluminum piston designs for a 6.6 liter engine. It concludes that reinforced piston have a life expectation longer than conventional aluminum piston. Structural engine tests under severe conditions of specific power and peak cylinder pressure were used to confirm the results of the cyclic properties evaluation and numerical analysis.
Technical Paper

Development of an Experimental Database and Chemical Kinetic Models for Surrogate Gasoline Fuels

The development of surrogate mixtures that represent gasoline combustion behavior is reviewed. Combustion chemistry behavioral targets that a surrogate should accurately reproduce, particularly for emulating homogeneous charge compression ignition (HCCI) operation, are carefully identified. Both short and long term research needs to support development of more robust surrogate fuel compositions are described. Candidate component species are identified and the status of present chemical kinetic models for these components and their interactions are discussed. Recommendations are made for the initial components to be included in gasoline surrogates for near term development. Components that can be added to refine predictions and to include additional behavioral targets are identified as well. Thermodynamic, thermochemical and transport properties that require further investigation are discussed.
Journal Article

Dual-Wavelength PLIF Measurements of Temperature and Composition in an Optical HCCI Engine with Negative Valve Overlap

Negative valve overlap (NVO) is a valve strategy employed to retain and recompress residual burned gases to assist HCCI combustion, particularly in the difficult regime of low-load operation. NVO allows the retention of large quantities of hot residual burned gases as well as the possibility of fuel addition for combustion control purposes. Reaction of fuel injected during NVO increases charge temperature, but in addition could produce reformed fuel species that may affect main combustion phasing. The strategy holds potential for controlling and extending low-load HCCI combustion. The goal of this work is to demonstrate the feasibility of applying two-wavelength PLIF of 3-pentanone to obtain simultaneous, in-cylinder temperature and composition images during different parts of the HCCI/NVO cycle. Measurements are recorded during the intake and main compression strokes, as well as during the more challenging periods of NVO recompression and re-expansion.