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Technical Paper

A Case Study: Application of Analytical and Numerical Techniques to Squeak and Rattle Analysis of a Door Assembly

2015-06-15
2015-01-2257
Squeak and rattle (S&R) problems in body structure and trim parts have become serious issues for automakers because of their influence on the initial quality perception of consumers. In this study, various CAE and experimental methods developed by Hyundai Motors for squeak and rattle analysis of door systems are reported. Friction-induced vibration and noise generation mechanisms of a door system are studied by an intelligent combination of experimental and numerical methods. It is shown that the effect of degradation of plastics used in door trims can be estimated by a numerical model using the properties obtained experimentally. Effects of changes in material properties such as Young's modulus and loss factor due to the material degradation as well as statistical variations are predicted for several door system configurations. As a new concept, the rattle and squeak index is proposed, which can be used to guide the design.
Technical Paper

A Development of Urea Solution Injection Quantity Decision Logic for SCR System

2013-04-08
2013-01-1069
In this project, phenomena in a SCR catalyst, such as heat transfer and catalytic reactions, are modeled numerically. The model is simplified to be integrated on an electronic control unit. The calibration process for this model has been developed, which is performed on gas bench and validated on a vehicle equipped with a Urea-SCR system and a Rapid Prototype Control Unit. With this simplified SCR reaction model, it is possible to estimate NH3 consumption and properly control the urea injection quantity with less calibration efforts.
Technical Paper

A Method to Analyze “The Imaginary Kingpin Axis” in Multi-Link Type Suspension Systems

1993-03-01
930262
The purpose of this paper is to introduce a method to analyze the imaginary kingpin axis in multi-link type suspension mechanisms by using the Displacement Matrix method, the instantaneous screw axis theory, and the nonlinear equation solver “DESIGN”.[1][2] The mathematical logic and a Kinematic theory used in this method have been developed a long time ago. But the key point of this method is how accurate and effective we can get the information on design parameters related to the imaginary kingpin axis existing only in the multi-link type suspension, especially in the initial stage of suspension geometry design.
Journal Article

A Novel Method for Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound in a Passenger Car and Its Application to the Design of Interior Sound in a Luxury Passenger Car

2017-06-05
2017-01-1758
Recently the interior sound is actively generated by the active sound design (ASD) device in a passenger car. Therefore, the objective evaluation method for the sound quality of actively designed sounds is required. In previous research, the sound quality of interior sound has been presented with powerful and pleasant for the existing passenger car. This paper presents a novel approach method for the objective evaluation of powerfulness and pleasantness of actively designed interior sound. The powerfulness has been evaluated based on the degreed of modulation and a quantity of low frequency booming of the sound in the paper. On the other hand, the pleasantness is evaluated based on the slope ratio of harmonic orders per octave in frequency domain. These evaluation methods are successfully applied to the objective evaluation of luxury passenger car.
Technical Paper

A Predicting and Improvement of Side Impact Using the CC-CTP

1993-03-01
930443
Extensive researches are being performed on a world wide basis with the aim of enhancing occupant protection on the side impact. The test methodology for side impact can be divided into two general groups; Sub-System Tests Full Scale Tests. However, the advantages of full scale test is that it is possible to make an integrated statement on the protective potential of the structural stiffness of the struck vehicle and the padding for a selected collision speed and type of collision. The advantages of sub-system test methodology can be simulates more exactly for wide range of accident(i.e. collision directions, impact points etc.). The latter test procedure can be carried out at a relatively earlier stage in the development of a new vehicle, and also can be reduce the time and cost. The Computer Controlled Composite Test Procedure(CC-CTP) presented in this paper has been developed by CCMC (Committee of Common Market Automobile Constructors).
Journal Article

A Primer on Building a Hardware in the Loop Simulation and Validation for a 6X4 Tractor Trailer Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0118
This research was to model a 6×4 tractor-trailer rig using TruckSim and simulate severe braking maneuvers with hardware in the loop and software in the loop simulations. For the hardware in the loop simulation (HIL), the tractor model was integrated with a 4s4m anti-lock braking system (ABS) and straight line braking tests were conducted. In developing the model, over 100 vehicle parameters were acquired from a real production tractor and entered into TruckSim. For the HIL simulation, the hardware consisted of a 4s4m ABS braking system with six brake chambers, four modulators, a treadle and an electronic control unit (ECU). A dSPACE simulator was used as the “interface” between the TruckSim computer model and the hardware.
Technical Paper

A Research on Brand Sound Positioning and Implementing with Active Sound Design

2017-06-05
2017-01-1754
This paper aims to establish a systematic process of developing a brand driving sound. Firstly, principal factors of a brand sound identity are extracted from factor analysis of many sample cars. As a result, brand sound positioning map is drawn using jury test data. Also, the multiple regression analysis of subjective and objective test results is carried. As a result, the principal factors are expressed by objective test data and brand sound positioning map can be easily updated from the measurement data. In addition, what should be improved for designing a target sound is reviewed. Secondly, various technologies of target sound design are discussed to involve the brand identity and vehicle’s character in driving sound. Also, an efficient tool to implement the target sound with an active sound design (ASD) system in a vehicle is introduced. This tool enables to efficiently design, tune and simulate a target sound for ASD system in a laboratory.
Technical Paper

A Sensor Fusion Digital-Map System for Driver Assistance

2013-04-08
2013-01-0734
A traffic situation is getting more complex in urban areas. Various safety systems of an automobile have been developed but fatal and serious accidents still can be made by driver's faults or distractions. The system supporting extend of driver's recognition area is going to be an important part of future intelligent vehicles in order to prevent accidents. In this paper we propose sensor fusion system based on a digital-map for driver assistance. The accurate localization of a host vehicle is achieved by a stereo vision sensor and a digital-map using polygon matching algorithm in urban area. A single-row laser scanner is used for tracking multiple moving objects. The coordinate transformation from sensor frame to global frame is performed to visualize the moving objects on a digital-map. An experiment was conducted in an urban canyon where the GPS signals are frequently interrupted.
Technical Paper

A Study for Improving the Sound Quality of Vehicle Horns through Acoustic Characteristics Analysis and CAE Method Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-0422
It is necessary for vehicle horns not only to satisfy regulations on the sound level but also to fulfill various demands related with sound quality. For example, a disk type horn which is attached on most of small size vehicles has been required to improve its sharp feeling sound. However, the improvement of horn sound has been deterred mainly due to the deficiency of the understanding on how design factors are related with emotional judgments on horn sound. In addition, a proper CAE tool is not available in the process of horn design since it is difficult to describe multi-physical phenomena engaged with horns. The purpose of this study is to improve the sound quality of a disk type horn. In order to achieve this goal, firstly, acoustic characteristics of horns were obtained through a series of experiments. In addition, various sound quality metrics were examined in order to derive design factors affecting sound quality enhancement.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion Control Parameter Optimization in a Diesel Engine Using Cylinder Pressure

2014-04-01
2014-01-1352
In diesel engine development, fuel consumption, emissions and combustion noise have been main development objectives for fuel economy, low emissions and NVH. These main objectives can be achieved with advanced engine technologies. As electronic actuating systems are widely applied on diesel engines, elaborate control is required. This is because the main development targets are greatly affected by engine control parameters but frequently have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, the optimization of combustion control parameters is one of the most challenging tasks for improvement. As an efficient method, the DOE methodology has been used in engine calibration. In order to develop a mathematical model, the input and output values must be measured. Unlike other variables, combustion noise has been continually reported to have better indication method in simplified way. In this paper, advanced noise index from cylinder pressure signal is applied on engine test.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Economy Improvement on US Fuel Economy Test Cycle by Model Based Cooled HP EGR System and Robust Logic through S-FMEA

2015-04-14
2015-01-1637
This paper focuses on the vehicle test result of the US fuel economy test cycles such as FTP75, HWY and US06 with model based Cooled EGR system. Cooled EGR SW function was realized by Model Based Development (internal rapid prototyping) using iRPT tool. With EGR, mixing exhaust gas with clean air reduces the oxygen concentration in the cylinder charge, as a result, the combustion process is slowed, and the combustion temperature drops. This experiment confirmed that the spark timing was more advanced without knocking and manifold pressure was increased in all cases with EGR. A positive potential of fuel economy improvement on FTP mode, US06 mode have seen in this experiment but not for HWY where the engine load is quite low and the spark advance is already optimized. As a result, fuel economy was increased by maximum 3.3% on FTP, 2.7% on US06, decreased by 0.3% on HWY mode respectively with EGR.
Technical Paper

A Study of Ride Analysis of Medium Trucks with Varying the Characteristics of Suspension Design Parameters

1997-11-17
973230
Ride quality of medium truck became a very important factor in the suspension design, due to the demand of more comfortable ride of passengers. This study describes how to determine and evaluate design parameters related to the chassis suspension system with time and frequency analysis. The spring stiffness and damping force of the chassis suspension system were obtained by observing the vertical acceleration PSD. The simulation was carried out on various road profiles, which was suggested by ISO. The pitching motion of the medium size truck was observed to improve the ride quality. A computer simulated truck model was constructed using DADS, a commercial dynamic analysis software, in order to simulate the truck motions. From the result of the sensitivity analysis of suspension parameters, it was concluded that the spring and the shock absorbers affect the pitching of the vehicle. In order to validate the computer simulated truck model, a physical prototype was constructed and tested.
Journal Article

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction

2017-09-17
2017-01-2501
Owing to the enhanced performance of engines these days, more heat should be dissipated in the braking system. Success of doing this properly causes more heat to the disc in the brake system which results in the deformation or scratches on the surface of it and a reduction in the appearance of the product. A study for detailed factors to aggravate this was done as a solution to prevent these from happening. In this paper, we present our work based on experiments to study MPU (Metal Pick Up) of the pad and the scoring(scratching) of the disc. MPU of which the main component is “Fe”, is formed through the process of fusing the separated materials from the disc by friction with the pad, and by local heat generation to the pad. [1,2,3,4,5] The occurrence of MPU and the possibility of the disc scoring resulting from this were studied by noting “Fe” which was transferred to the surface of the pad to different extent and degree of segregation according to the roughness of the disc.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction (II)

2018-10-05
2018-01-1891
In the latest paper [10], we presented our work based on experiments studying MPU (Metal Pick Up) of the pad and scoring(scratching) of the disc. The main component of MPU was iron “Fe”. If the roughness of the disc was small, the content of iron “Fe” was increased and the segregation of that was decreased especially in initial condition. In this study, we extended our study based on the results by adding some additional factors such as the location of the roughness of the disc, the coefficients brake pad friction, and disc slots. We made various discs of different roughness boundaries and slots, and pads of pad friction coefficients; and conducted two types of tests for whether a slot is present or not with the other same conditions to confirm the impact of the scoring. We find and believe that our experimental data should serve a useful guideline for reducing MPU of the pad and scoring of the disc.
Technical Paper

A Study on Control Logic Design for Power Seat

2019-04-02
2019-01-0466
The large luxury sedan seat has a 22-way Movement. It offers a wide range of adjustments to enhance passenger comfort performance while it has many constraints on movement in constrained indoor space. In addition, the power seat is operated by a motor, which makes it difficult for the user to determine the amount of adjustment, unlike determining the amount of adjustment by the power and feel of a person, such as manual seat adjustment. IMS, one-touch mode, is also constrained by parameters such as indoor space package, user's lifestyle, etc. during function playback. This paper aims to design the seat control logic to achieve the best seat comfort while satisfying each constraint. The results of this study are as follows. Increase robustness of power seat control logic. Provide optimal adjustments and comfort at each location. Offer differentiated custom control and seating modes for each seat. Improve customer satisfaction and quality by upgrading software.
Journal Article

A Study on How to Utilize Hilly Road Information in Equivalent Consumption Minimization Strategy of FCHEVs

2014-04-01
2014-01-1827
This paper presents an adaptation method of equivalent factor in equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) of fuel cell hybrid electric vehicle (FCHEV) using hilly road information. Instantaneous optimization approach such as ECMS is one of real-time controllers. Furthermore, it is widely accepted that ECMS achieves near-optimum results with the selection of the appropriate equivalent factor. However, a lack of hilly road information no longer guarantees near-optimum results as well as charge-sustaining of ECMS under hilly road conditions. In this paper, first, an optimal control problem is formulated to derive ECMS analytical solution based on simplified models. Then, we proposed updating method of equivalent factor based on sensitivity analysis. The proposed method tries to mimic the globally optimal equivalent factor trajectory extracted from dynamic programming solutions.
Journal Article

A Study on North American Customer Preference to Interior Noise using Sound Balance Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0023
A new approach to achieve better customer perception of overall vehicle quietness is the sound balance improvement of vehicle interior sound during driving. Interior sound is classified into 3 primary sound source shares such as engine sound relative to revolution speed, tire road noise and wind noise relative to vehicle speed. Each interior sound shares are classified using the synchronous time-domain averaging method. The sound related to revolution order of engine and auxiliaries is considered as engine sound share, tire road noise and wind noise shares are extracted by multiple coherent output power analysis. Sound balance analysis focuses on improving the relative difference in interior sound share level between the 3 primary sound sources. Virtual sound simulator which is able to represent various driving conditions and able to adjust imaginary sound share is built for several vehicles in same compact segment.
Technical Paper

A Study on an Integrated System to Measure and Analyze Customer Vehicle Usage Monitoring through a Smartphone

2014-04-01
2014-01-0183
Customer vehicle usage monitoring is one of the most fundamental elements to consider in the process of developing a durable vehicle. The extant method to research customer vehicle usage takes considerable time and effort because it requires attaching a series of sensors to the vehicle-gyroscope, accelerometer, microphone, and GPS-to gather information through data logs and then to analyze data in a computer where designated analyzing software has been installed. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new concept of integrated system developed to examine customer vehicle usage that can analyze data by collecting it from a variety of sensors installed on a smartphone.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Flow in the Engine Intake System

1995-09-01
952067
To design an optimum engine intake system, a flow model for the intake manifold was developed by the method of characteristics. The flow in the intake manifold was one-dimensional, and finite difference equations were derived from the governing equations of flow. The thermodynamic properties inside a cylinder were found by the first law of thermodynamics, and the boundary conditions were formulated using a steady flow model. By comparing the calculated results with experimental data, the appropriate boundary conditions and convergence limits for a flow model were established. From this model, design variables for the intake system were investigated. The optimum manifold length became shorter when the engine speed were increased. The effect of intake valve timings on inlet air mass was also studied by this model. Advancing intake valve opening decreased inlet air mass slightly, and the optimum intake valve closing was found.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Friction Characteristics of Engine Bearing and Cam/Tappet Contacts from the Measurement of Temperature and Oil Film Thickness

1995-10-01
952472
This paper discusses the effects of lubricant viscosity on the friction characteristics of engine bearing and cam/tappet which are the typical moving parts of an engine and operate in different lubrication regimes. Based on the measured crankshaft temperatures, we calculated the friction coefficient of the engine bearing according to Sommerfeld number by a simple heat equilibrium equation. The oil film thicknesses between cam and tappet were measured in a motored cylinder head which had a direct acting type overhead camshaft. The boundary and viscous friction components were estimated separately according to a parameter defined as the ratio of the central oil film thickness to the composite surface roughness. These two friction components were added to calculate the friction coefficient. Finally, the motoring friction torque was measured and compared with the estimated friction coefficient.
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