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Technical Paper

A Development of Urea Solution Injection Quantity Decision Logic for SCR System

In this project, phenomena in a SCR catalyst, such as heat transfer and catalytic reactions, are modeled numerically. The model is simplified to be integrated on an electronic control unit. The calibration process for this model has been developed, which is performed on gas bench and validated on a vehicle equipped with a Urea-SCR system and a Rapid Prototype Control Unit. With this simplified SCR reaction model, it is possible to estimate NH3 consumption and properly control the urea injection quantity with less calibration efforts.
Technical Paper

A Study of Combustion Control Parameter Optimization in a Diesel Engine Using Cylinder Pressure

In diesel engine development, fuel consumption, emissions and combustion noise have been main development objectives for fuel economy, low emissions and NVH. These main objectives can be achieved with advanced engine technologies. As electronic actuating systems are widely applied on diesel engines, elaborate control is required. This is because the main development targets are greatly affected by engine control parameters but frequently have a trade-off relationship. Therefore, the optimization of combustion control parameters is one of the most challenging tasks for improvement. As an efficient method, the DOE methodology has been used in engine calibration. In order to develop a mathematical model, the input and output values must be measured. Unlike other variables, combustion noise has been continually reported to have better indication method in simplified way. In this paper, advanced noise index from cylinder pressure signal is applied on engine test.
Technical Paper

A Study of Fuel Economy Improvement on US Fuel Economy Test Cycle by Model Based Cooled HP EGR System and Robust Logic through S-FMEA

This paper focuses on the vehicle test result of the US fuel economy test cycles such as FTP75, HWY and US06 with model based Cooled EGR system. Cooled EGR SW function was realized by Model Based Development (internal rapid prototyping) using iRPT tool. With EGR, mixing exhaust gas with clean air reduces the oxygen concentration in the cylinder charge, as a result, the combustion process is slowed, and the combustion temperature drops. This experiment confirmed that the spark timing was more advanced without knocking and manifold pressure was increased in all cases with EGR. A positive potential of fuel economy improvement on FTP mode, US06 mode have seen in this experiment but not for HWY where the engine load is quite low and the spark advance is already optimized. As a result, fuel economy was increased by maximum 3.3% on FTP, 2.7% on US06, decreased by 0.3% on HWY mode respectively with EGR.
Technical Paper

A Study on an Integrated System to Measure and Analyze Customer Vehicle Usage Monitoring through a Smartphone

Customer vehicle usage monitoring is one of the most fundamental elements to consider in the process of developing a durable vehicle. The extant method to research customer vehicle usage takes considerable time and effort because it requires attaching a series of sensors to the vehicle-gyroscope, accelerometer, microphone, and GPS-to gather information through data logs and then to analyze data in a computer where designated analyzing software has been installed. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new concept of integrated system developed to examine customer vehicle usage that can analyze data by collecting it from a variety of sensors installed on a smartphone.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Flow in the Engine Intake System

To design an optimum engine intake system, a flow model for the intake manifold was developed by the method of characteristics. The flow in the intake manifold was one-dimensional, and finite difference equations were derived from the governing equations of flow. The thermodynamic properties inside a cylinder were found by the first law of thermodynamics, and the boundary conditions were formulated using a steady flow model. By comparing the calculated results with experimental data, the appropriate boundary conditions and convergence limits for a flow model were established. From this model, design variables for the intake system were investigated. The optimum manifold length became shorter when the engine speed were increased. The effect of intake valve timings on inlet air mass was also studied by this model. Advancing intake valve opening decreased inlet air mass slightly, and the optimum intake valve closing was found.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Friction Characteristics of Engine Bearing and Cam/Tappet Contacts from the Measurement of Temperature and Oil Film Thickness

This paper discusses the effects of lubricant viscosity on the friction characteristics of engine bearing and cam/tappet which are the typical moving parts of an engine and operate in different lubrication regimes. Based on the measured crankshaft temperatures, we calculated the friction coefficient of the engine bearing according to Sommerfeld number by a simple heat equilibrium equation. The oil film thicknesses between cam and tappet were measured in a motored cylinder head which had a direct acting type overhead camshaft. The boundary and viscous friction components were estimated separately according to a parameter defined as the ratio of the central oil film thickness to the composite surface roughness. These two friction components were added to calculate the friction coefficient. Finally, the motoring friction torque was measured and compared with the estimated friction coefficient.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Transient Characteristics of Automatic Transmission with Detailed Dynamic Modeling

Transient characteristics during gear ratio change including the disturbance of output torque have been important issues in the study of passenger car automatic transmission. In this paper, to investigate the transient characteristics during gear ratio change, a detailed dynamic model of the power transmission system of a passenger car focused on the automatic transmission was proposed and the governing dynamic equations were derived and solved. The results of simulation showed good agreements with the experimental data. It was proved that the suggested dynamic model is very useful to analyze the phenomena occurred during the speed ratio change.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Vehicle Durability Analysis in Braking Mode

The verification of the durability for vehicle body and chassis components is a basic requirement for the vehicle development process. For this, automotive company performs durability test on the proving ground or predict the durability using CAE technology. The representative proving ground test that verifies the durability of vehicle body and chassis components are belgian(hereinafter B/G) and cross-country(hereinafter X/C) test road. The B/G test road verifies the durability of body and chassis components for periodic road load that the vehicle undergoes while travelling on a rough road with regular speed. The X/C test road is composed of squat, dive, bumping and bottoming test modes and this test verifies the durability under aperiodic road load. Because of the relatively long test load of X/C, the road load signal of X/C is too long and enormous to apply it to durability analysis.
Technical Paper

A Technique to Identify the Structure Borne Sound Sources Induced by Powertrain Vibration Behavior

Identification of structure borne sound sources induced by the structural vibration of an automotive powertrain has been studied. Based on the principal component analysis which uses singular value decomposition of a matrix consisting of the auto- and cross-spectra, the operating vibrational analysis is performed. The quantitative description of the output power due to intrinsic incoherent source is addressed. The applicability of the technique is tested both numerically and experimentally. First, the coherence analysis is numerically carried out with a simple structure which is modeled as multi-input and single output to identify the structure borne noise generation process. Second, the actual vibrational behavior of a powertrain structure and the interior noise analysis of a car under the running condition are carried out. The technique is shown to be very effective in the identification of the structure borne noise sources.
Technical Paper

A development of diesel oxidation catalyst and the evaluation of its performance characteristic

The new concept oxidation for diesel engine has been developed. It has been designed to use under circumstances of the "dry condition" of exhausted emission, which indicates low soluble organics and high dry soot concentration under high exhaust gas temperature. For the reliability and performance of catalysts in dry condition, several design concepts were established. First of all, extremely low sulfate formation on catalyst at high temperature conditions, and an improved soluble organic burning characteristics was required. A minimization of deposition of the particulate component, especially sulfate, was obtained from the adjustment of washcoat loading and material property. Six different types of catalysts have been prepared and tested in a laboratory. Diesel vehicle test showed the possibility that soluble organic could be removed mostly with minimal sulfate formation.
Technical Paper

A study on Reducing the Computing Burden of Misfire Detection using a Conditional Monitoring Method

This paper presents a conditional misfire monitoring method to reduce the computing burden of the motoring. In this conditional monitoring method, the ECU performs misfire detection only when there is high probability of misfire events. The condition for performing the misfire detection is determined by the pre-index which is defined as the deviation of the segment durations of the crankshaft in this paper. The quantity of the code of calculating the pre-index is 7 times less than that of a conventional monitoring method so that the computing burden can be reduced with the conditional monitoring method. The experimental results shown that the pre-index and the conditional monitoring method are valid.
Technical Paper

A throttle/brake control law for vehicle intelligent cruise control

A throttle/brake control law for the intelligent cruise control (ICC) system has been proposed in this paper. The ICC system consists of a vehicle detection sensor, a controller and throttle/brake actuators. For the control of a throttle/brake system, we introduced a solenoid-valve-controlled electronic vacuum booster (EVB) and a step-motor-controlled throttle actuator. Nonlinear computer model for the electronic vacuum booster has been developed and the simulations were performed using a complete nonlinear vehicle model. The proposed control law in this paper consists of an algorithm that generates the desired acceleration/deceleration profile in an ICC situation, a throttle/brake switching logic and a throttle and brake control algorithm based on vehicle dynamics. The control performance has been investigated through computer simulations and experiments.
Technical Paper

Active Type Variable Intake System

In this paper, an active type variable intake system is proposed, which improves both engine power and NVH performance. The proposed system uses a magnet valve to control the air path to the engine intake manifold. While other types of variable intake system such as vacuum actuator type or DC motor type need an ECU to control the valve, the proposed system only uses force equilibrium between magnetic force and vacuum pressure, resulting in weight and cost reduction. The system is composed of dual duct (duct A, duct B) and a magnet valve. In low RPM region, the magnet valve is closed and only duct A is used to supply air into the engine. In high RPM region the valve opens up and maximizes the amount of the air that goes into the engine intake manifold. The result is that the output power of the engine is maximized in high RPM region, as well as the NVH performance is improved in low RPM region.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Comparison Between Air-Assisted Injection System and High Pressure Injection System at 2-Stroke Engine

This study presents engine test results of HMC's piston-ported 2-stroke gasoline engine. This single cylinder engine of 400cc displacement has featured in direct injection(DI) of fuel and external blower scavenging of air. Two different concepts of DI system were adopted, one is high pressure fuel injection(HPFI) system for solid fuel only and the other is low pressure air-assisted fuel injection(AAFI) system. Two kinds of engines with different scavenging intake port shapes and areas were tested to find the effect of scavenging port type on engine performance. Also tested were trends of BSFC, BSHC and BSCO versus fuel injection timing and engine speed with HPFI and AAFI, respectively. Power and boost pressure at full load and BSFC and BSHC at part load were tested.
Technical Paper

Analysis of an Automotive Ground System Based on a Ground Model and Current Distribution in it

Ground systems in automobiles become more important as more electric devices are installed and the amount of currents flowing increases. The performance of the devices depends on the ground voltage, which is generated between ground points by I-R voltage drops. Therefore, low ground voltages are required for the reduction of the unnecessary power dissipation as well as the reliable performance of the devices. In this paper, we propose an automotive ground system model to analyze ground structure and reveal the main cause of ground voltages. The equivalent resistor network model is presented to describe the relationship between ground points. Then, we validate the model by comparing the simulation results with the measurements in a real car. The presented analysis can provide guidance on designing a reliable ground system such as how to reduce the ground voltages for the proper operation of devices.
Technical Paper

Application of High Performance Powder Metal Connecting Rod in the V6 Engine

Today, light connecting rods are vital to satisfying the demands of modern internal combustion engines. HYUNDAI Motor Company (HMC) has applied powder metal forged connecting rods instead of conventional hot forged connecting rods to obtain low product costs and to improve NVH characteristics and bearing reliability. Light connecting rods were developed through optimized design with high quality and low cost. Notably, the mass of a powder metal forged connecting rod is 17.7% lighter than that of a conventional hot forged type connecting rod, and its crank end is 22.5 % lighter than that of a conventional type connecting rod. Light connecting rods result in reduced crankshaft mass, so the mass of the main moving parts can be reduced. With this mass reduction, bearing reliability and NVH characteristics can be enhanced.
Technical Paper

Application of a Wide Range Oxygen Sensor for the Misfire Detection

A new concept of misfire detection in spark ignition engines using a wide-range oxygen sensor is introduced. A wide-range oxygen sensor, installed at the confluence point of the exhaust manifold, was adopted to measure the variation in oxygen concentration in case of a misfire. The signals of the wide-range oxygen sensor were characterized over the various engine-operating conditions in order to decide the monitoring parameters for the detection of the misfire and the corresponding faulty cylinder. The effect of the sensor position, the transient response characteristics of the sensor and the cyclic variation in the signal fluctuation were also investigated. Limited response time of a commercially available sensor barely allowed to observe misfire. It was found that a misfiring could be distinguished more clearly from normal combustion through the differentiation of the sensor response signal. The differentiated signal has twin peaks for a single misfiring in a cylinder.
Technical Paper

Automated Optimizing Calibration of Engine Driveability on the Dynamic Powertrain Test Bed

Engine calibration on the powertrain test bed with transient mode is proposed with dynamic powertrain test bed having low inertia dynamometer. Automated ECU (Engine Control Unit) calibration system is completed with the combination of experimental design software, powertrain test bed, evaluation tools and their electrical interfaces. The process is composed up of the system interface definition, test design using DoE skill, test proceedings by step sequence of connecting systems, measured data collecting, mathematical model and optimization result extraction at the end. All the processes are automated by interfaces between the systems. Acceleration surge is minimized by proposed process by optimizing combustion control labels and tip in driveability is maximized by manipulating torque filter labels of EMS (Engine Management System) logic. Their detailed steps from the problem definition to the verification test results of improved design with vehicle test are presented.
Technical Paper

Characterization of High Temperature Properties in Al Matrix Composite Fabricated by the Low Pressure Squeeze Infiltration Process

Al matrix composites containing alumina (Al2O3) fibers are fabricated by the low pressure (25MPa) squeeze infiltration process which is suitable for the low cost mass production. Mechanical properties at room temperature as well as elevated temperatures (250°C, 350°C) are improved due to the presence of reinforcements. Upto 350°C, composites maintain a reasonable strength, which is much better than strength of the conventional Al alloy. Composites have equivalent wear rates to those of Ni - resist cast iron. Wear behavior is changed with the sliding speed. At low sliding speed, wear proceeds by the excessive failure of matrix and fiber, whilst, at higher sliding speed, matrix fracture near fiber plays a major role in wear. Wear resistance of 125°C is inferior to that of room temperature due to the reduction of mechanical properties followed by matrix softening and poor bonding.
Technical Paper

Closed-Loop Control of Spark Advance and Air-Fuel Ratio in SI Engines Using Cylinder Pressure

The introduction of inexpensive cylinder pressure sensors provides new opportunities for precise engine control. This paper presents a control strategy of spark advance and air-fuel ratio based upon cylinder pressure for spark ignition engines. In order to extend the cylinder pressure based engine control to a wide range of engine speeds, the appropriate choice of control parameters is important as well as essential. For this control scheme, peak pressure and its location for each cylinder during every engine cycle are the major parameters for controlling the air-fuel ratio and spark timing. However, the conventional method requires the measurement of cylinder pressure at every crank angle degree to determine the peak pressure and its location. In this study, the peak pressure and its location were estimated, using a multi-layer feedforward neural network, which needs only five cylinder pressure samples at -40°, -20°, 0°, 20°, and 40° after TDC.