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Technical Paper

Bio-Based Composites and Their Applications for Auto Interior Parts

Polylactide (PLA), which is one of the most important biocompatible polyesters that are derived from annually renewable biomass such as corn and sugar beets, has attracted much attention for automotive parts application. The manufacturing method of PLA is the ring-opening polymerization of the dimeric cyclic ester of lactic acid, lactide. For the PLA composites including stereocomplexed with L- and D-PLA, we developed the unit processes such as fermentation, separation, lactide conversion, and polymerization. We investigated D-lactic acid fermentation with a view to obtaining the strains capable of producing D-lactic acid, and through catalyst screening test for polycondensation and depolymerization reactions, we got a new method which shortens the whole reaction time of lactide synthesis step. Poly(d-lactide) is obtained from the ring-opening polymerization of d-lactide. Also we investigated several catalysts and polymerization conditions.
Technical Paper

Design of A Light Weight Suspension Component Using CAE

In this paper, a design procedure for the optimized light weight front cross member, which is a sub frame of the car chassis, without sacrificing basic functional requirements is presented. As the first step, optimal structural integrity was calculated and extracted using a CAE technique with the available volume constraint of the package layout. Quantitative design loads for the cross member was achieved by measurement. Dynamic load analysis using ADAMS was also performed to determine the loads. Later, these calculated loads were applied to the FEM stress analysis of the cross member. Furthermore, durability analysis was also performed using load profile database measured from ‘Hyundai Motor Co. Proving Ground’. Four constant amplitude durability tests and two static tests were performed on the cross member prototypes to confirm design reliability.
Technical Paper

Development of Cast-Forged Knuckle using High Strength Aluminum Alloy

Aluminum steering knuckles are widely employed for weight reduction and improvement of ride & handling performance. In this study, a high strength aluminum alloy for cast-forged knuckle was designed to achieve higher mechanical properties than those of the conventional foundry alloy. Using this alloy, high strength knuckles were manufactured and performed test of mechanical properties, suspension module strength and durability. The strength and the elongation of the developed knuckle were increased by 20% and 40%, respectively, as compared with the conventional alloy. Also this knuckle passed the static strength and durability test of the front suspension module.
Technical Paper

Development of the Overmolding Instrument Panel

We developed the hard IP (Instrument Panel) that is integrally over molded with a soft layer (TPO, Thermo Plastic Olefin) for the soft feeling and cost reduction. And also we produced the cost-effective PAB(Passenger-side Airbag) door system that had an in-mold tearseam and avoided competitors' patents simultaneously. The development procedure of this technology is; ① Material for overmolding ② Design optimization ③ Solving tool challenges. The reduction of process through integrally molding with soft material helped to accomplish a soft feeling on the IP and cost reduction at the same time. The deployment, head impact and heat aging tests were conducted and 5 patents were applied such as the optimization of the mold structure and injection condition.
Technical Paper

Effect of Normalized Microstructure in Alloy Steel on the Performance of Planetary Gear Set of Automatic Transmission

The banded microstructure of pearlite and ferrite in normalized alloy steel is susceptible to thermal distortion during carburizing process due to its unidirectional orientation parallel to rolling direction. The planetary gears with material of banded microstructure have been experienced in high thermal distortion during carburizing and quenching process and result in uneven surface hardness and effective case depth at the inside of pinion gear after honing. These defects played failure initiation site roles in durability test during development of new automatic transmission. The galling between the contacting components in severe lubricating system was the main failure mechanism. Double normalizing at 920 °C was designed to resolve the banded microstructure of normalized alloy steel. The microstructure and grain size of the double heated steel became equiaxed and fine due to homogenizing and recrystallization through double heat treatment.
Technical Paper

Invisible PAB Door Development Using Two-shot Molding

Invisible Passenger-side Airbag (IPAB) door system must be designed with a weakened area such that the airbag will break through the Instrument Panel (IP) in the intended manner, with no flying debris at any temperature. At the same time, there must be no cracking or sharp edges at the head impact test (ECE 21.01). Needless to say, Head impact test must keep pace with the deployment test. In this paper, we suggested soft airbag door system that is integrally molded with a hard instrument panel by using Two-shot molding. First of all, we set up the design parameters of IPAB door for the optimal deployment and head impact performance by CAE analysis. And then we optimized the open-close time at each gate of the mold so that the soft and hard material could be integrally molded with the intended boundary. We could make the boundary of two materials more constant by controlling the open-close time of each gate with resin temperature sensor.
Technical Paper

Mechanical Properties and Fatigue Crack Propagation Behavior of Hybrid Metal Matrix Composites

The objective of this study is to investigate mechanical properties and fatigue crack propagation behavior in hybrid metal matrix composites by squeeze infiltration method (15% Al2O3 + SiCw/6061Al). The mechanical properties of Al2O3+SiCw/Al composites including tensile strength, yield strength, Young's modulus, were improved compared with those of unreinforced alloy and Al203/Al composites. The hybrid composites were more ductile than Al2O3/Al composites. Fatigue crack propagation rates of both Al2O3/Al and Al2O3+SiCw/Al composites showed a similar behavior in region II. Their propagation rates were higher in entire ▵K region compared with that of 6061 Al alloy. From the crack path morphology, fatigue cracks propagated linearly and smoothly in 6061 Al alloy. However, in the metal matrix composites cracks tend to avoid the reinforcements promoting crack deflection. It was observed that crack deflection enhanced crack closure due to wedging phenomenon.
Technical Paper

Recycling of Automotive Tail Lamp Assembly

A new recycled material has been developed by using the scrap of tail lamp assembly, made of poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) for the lens and acrylonitrile-butadiene-styrene terpolymer (ABS) for the housing. Lamp scrap was extruded in a twin-screw extruder, and mechanical properties of the scrap were compared with ABS, PMMA, and an ABS/PMMA (60/40) blend. The recycled material from 100% tail lamp scrap has similar modulus to the 60/40 blend, however, notched Izod impact strength and thermal resistance were lower than that of the blend, probably due to the presence of hot melt adhesive and silver paint. Scrap/virgin polymer mixtures showed improved thermal resistance and impact strength. The effects of composition and type of mixed polymer on mechanical properties were also investigated.
Technical Paper

The Effect of Tempering on Mechanical and Fatigue Properties in Gas-Carburized Cr-Mo Gear Steel

The effects of tempering on carburized Cr-Mo gear steel were investigated through mechanical and fatigue tests. Specimens were carburized at 900°C for 180 minutes, and then oil quenched at 150°C for 10 minutes of holding time and cooled to room temperature. The subsequent tempering process was performed to 160°C for 90 minutes. Surface hardness and residual compressive stress were decreased by tempering treatment, whereas tensile strength, yield strength and impact energy were increased. Bending fatigue endurance limits for both tempered and untempered specimens were same as 779MPa. The strength of roller contact fatigue is also not greatly influenced by tempering treatment. Thermal distortion for carburized transfer driven gear before and after tempering exhibited a similar distribution. Microstructural changes during tempering were also discussed.
Technical Paper

The Root Cause Analysis of Steel Fuel Tank Cracking at a Fatigue Point and Test Method Development of Durability

Fuel tank in vehicle must hold the fuel in a stable way under any driving condition. However, the fuel tank might not conserve the fuel firmly in case a crack emerged while the fuel tank is exposed to different driving condition. Basically, when the engine is in purging at a normal ambient temperature before fuel boiling, the pressure inside the fuel tank decreases. However, the pressure inside a fuel tank increases while a vehicle is driven at extreme hot ambient temperature as fuel is boiling. This repetitive pressure change in the fuel tank comes with fuel tank’s physical expansion and shrink, which would cause a damage to the fuel tank. The main purpose of this research is to investigate the root cause of why fuel tank cracks at a fatigue point. We also aim to set up the method of how to test durability of the fuel tank in association with the pressure inside the tank.
Technical Paper

The Wettability of Silicon Carbide by Liquid Pure Aluminum and Aluminum Alloys

There have been strong moves in recent years to introduce the metal matrix composites concept into higher volume applications, notably the automotive field where large volume production and lower material costs are required. The wettability between reinforcing materials and base material is one of important factors for the strength of composites and its manufacture. The main objective of this paper is to establish a basic understanding of wetting phenomena in SiC/liquid aluminum and aluminum alloy systems. In the present paper, results from the sessile drop method are reported for the effects on the wetting angle, θ, of free silicon in the silicon carbide substrate and of alloying additions of silicon, copper or magnesium to the aluminum drop for the temperature range 700-900 or 1400°C in the titanium-gettered vacuum (1.3 x 10-2 / 1.3 x 10-3 Pa).