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Technical Paper

A Research on Brand Sound Positioning and Implementing with Active Sound Design

2017-06-05
2017-01-1754
This paper aims to establish a systematic process of developing a brand driving sound. Firstly, principal factors of a brand sound identity are extracted from factor analysis of many sample cars. As a result, brand sound positioning map is drawn using jury test data. Also, the multiple regression analysis of subjective and objective test results is carried. As a result, the principal factors are expressed by objective test data and brand sound positioning map can be easily updated from the measurement data. In addition, what should be improved for designing a target sound is reviewed. Secondly, various technologies of target sound design are discussed to involve the brand identity and vehicle’s character in driving sound. Also, an efficient tool to implement the target sound with an active sound design (ASD) system in a vehicle is introduced. This tool enables to efficiently design, tune and simulate a target sound for ASD system in a laboratory.
Technical Paper

A Study for Improving the Sound Quality of Vehicle Horns through Acoustic Characteristics Analysis and CAE Method Development

2013-04-08
2013-01-0422
It is necessary for vehicle horns not only to satisfy regulations on the sound level but also to fulfill various demands related with sound quality. For example, a disk type horn which is attached on most of small size vehicles has been required to improve its sharp feeling sound. However, the improvement of horn sound has been deterred mainly due to the deficiency of the understanding on how design factors are related with emotional judgments on horn sound. In addition, a proper CAE tool is not available in the process of horn design since it is difficult to describe multi-physical phenomena engaged with horns. The purpose of this study is to improve the sound quality of a disk type horn. In order to achieve this goal, firstly, acoustic characteristics of horns were obtained through a series of experiments. In addition, various sound quality metrics were examined in order to derive design factors affecting sound quality enhancement.
Technical Paper

A Study on Control Logic Design for Power Seat

2019-04-02
2019-01-0466
The large luxury sedan seat has a 22-way Movement. It offers a wide range of adjustments to enhance passenger comfort performance while it has many constraints on movement in constrained indoor space. In addition, the power seat is operated by a motor, which makes it difficult for the user to determine the amount of adjustment, unlike determining the amount of adjustment by the power and feel of a person, such as manual seat adjustment. IMS, one-touch mode, is also constrained by parameters such as indoor space package, user's lifestyle, etc. during function playback. This paper aims to design the seat control logic to achieve the best seat comfort while satisfying each constraint. The results of this study are as follows. Increase robustness of power seat control logic. Provide optimal adjustments and comfort at each location. Offer differentiated custom control and seating modes for each seat. Improve customer satisfaction and quality by upgrading software.
Journal Article

A Study on North American Customer Preference to Interior Noise using Sound Balance Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0023
A new approach to achieve better customer perception of overall vehicle quietness is the sound balance improvement of vehicle interior sound during driving. Interior sound is classified into 3 primary sound source shares such as engine sound relative to revolution speed, tire road noise and wind noise relative to vehicle speed. Each interior sound shares are classified using the synchronous time-domain averaging method. The sound related to revolution order of engine and auxiliaries is considered as engine sound share, tire road noise and wind noise shares are extracted by multiple coherent output power analysis. Sound balance analysis focuses on improving the relative difference in interior sound share level between the 3 primary sound sources. Virtual sound simulator which is able to represent various driving conditions and able to adjust imaginary sound share is built for several vehicles in same compact segment.
Technical Paper

A Study on an Integrated System to Measure and Analyze Customer Vehicle Usage Monitoring through a Smartphone

2014-04-01
2014-01-0183
Customer vehicle usage monitoring is one of the most fundamental elements to consider in the process of developing a durable vehicle. The extant method to research customer vehicle usage takes considerable time and effort because it requires attaching a series of sensors to the vehicle-gyroscope, accelerometer, microphone, and GPS-to gather information through data logs and then to analyze data in a computer where designated analyzing software has been installed. To solve the problem, this paper introduces a new concept of integrated system developed to examine customer vehicle usage that can analyze data by collecting it from a variety of sensors installed on a smartphone.
Technical Paper

An Improved Methodology for Calculation of the Inertial Resistance of Automotive Latching Systems

2014-04-01
2014-01-0544
This paper outlines an improved methodology to perform calculations to verify the compliance of automotive door latch systems to minimum legal requirements as well as to perform additional due diligence calculations necessary to comprehend special cases such as roll over crashes and locally high inertial loadings. This methodology builds on the calculation method recommended by SAE J839 and provides a robust and clear approach for application of this method to cable release systems, which were not prevalent at the time J839 was originally drafted. This method is useful in and of itself but its utility is further increased by the application of the method to a Computer Aided Design (CAD) template (in this case for Catia V5), that allows some automation of the calculation process for a given latch type. This will result in a savings of time, fewer errors and allows for an iterative concurrent analysis during the design process.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Voice Recognition Performance in Response to Background Noise and Gender Based Frequency

2017-06-05
2017-01-1888
Voice Recognition (VR) systems have become an integral part of the infotainment systems in the current automotive industry. However, its recognition rate is impacted by external factors such as vehicle cabin noise, road noise, and internal factors which are a function of the voice engine in the system itself. This paper analyzes the VR performance under the effect of two external factors, vehicle cabin noise and the speakers’ speech patterns based on gender. It also compares performance of mid-level sedans from different manufacturers.
Technical Paper

Analysis of an Automotive Ground System Based on a Ground Model and Current Distribution in it

2004-03-08
2004-01-1598
Ground systems in automobiles become more important as more electric devices are installed and the amount of currents flowing increases. The performance of the devices depends on the ground voltage, which is generated between ground points by I-R voltage drops. Therefore, low ground voltages are required for the reduction of the unnecessary power dissipation as well as the reliable performance of the devices. In this paper, we propose an automotive ground system model to analyze ground structure and reveal the main cause of ground voltages. The equivalent resistor network model is presented to describe the relationship between ground points. Then, we validate the model by comparing the simulation results with the measurements in a real car. The presented analysis can provide guidance on designing a reliable ground system such as how to reduce the ground voltages for the proper operation of devices.
Technical Paper

Automated Optimizing Calibration of Engine Driveability on the Dynamic Powertrain Test Bed

2013-10-14
2013-01-2588
Engine calibration on the powertrain test bed with transient mode is proposed with dynamic powertrain test bed having low inertia dynamometer. Automated ECU (Engine Control Unit) calibration system is completed with the combination of experimental design software, powertrain test bed, evaluation tools and their electrical interfaces. The process is composed up of the system interface definition, test design using DoE skill, test proceedings by step sequence of connecting systems, measured data collecting, mathematical model and optimization result extraction at the end. All the processes are automated by interfaces between the systems. Acceleration surge is minimized by proposed process by optimizing combustion control labels and tip in driveability is maximized by manipulating torque filter labels of EMS (Engine Management System) logic. Their detailed steps from the problem definition to the verification test results of improved design with vehicle test are presented.
Technical Paper

Combustion System Development in a Small Bore HSDI Diesel Engine for Low Fuel Consuming Car

2001-03-05
2001-01-1257
As CO2 emissions from vehicles is gaining a global attention the low fuel consuming power-train is in much greater demand than before. Some alternatives are suggested but the HSDI diesel engine would be the most realistic solution. Vehicle simulation shows that low fuel consuming car can be realized by applying 1∼1.2L HSDI diesel engine in vehicles weighing about 750kg. While the direct injection diesel engine has been researched for a long time enhancement of mixing between air and fuel in a limited space makes it challenging area to develop a small swept volume HSDI diesel engine. We are investigating small HSDI diesel engine combustion technologies as an effort to realize low fuel consuming vehicle. Our main objective in this study is to have a better understanding of the combustion related parameters from such a small size HSDI diesel engine in order to improve engine performance.
Technical Paper

Convolution of Engineering Methods (TRIZ, FMEA, Robust Engineering) to Creatively Develop New Technologies

2014-04-01
2014-01-0780
Many high risks of failure in developing and applying new technologies exist in the recent automotive industry because of big volume of selling cars in a global market. Several recalls cost companies more than $ 100 million per problem. New technologies always have uncertainty in performing intended functions at various given conditions despite the fact that engineers do their best to develop technologies to meet all the requirements. Uncertainty of new technologies put companies into danger of failing in their business. Therefore, many companies tend to take interest in reducing risks from the uncertainty in technologies, but the increasing complexity of modern automotive technologies make it difficult to develop complete technologies. A new engineering methodology called SPEED Engineering was introduced to reduce the risks of new technology applications and to facilitate engineers to conceive innovative ideas dominating the market in the future.
Technical Paper

Design and Structural Analysis of Bumper for Automobiles

1998-02-01
980114
An investigation has been performed to study the response of the front bumper beam of automobiles subjected to an external impact load. In the investigation, an aluminum shell structure is modeled as a beam, and the energy absorber of polyurethane is also modeled as statically equivalent springs attached to the beam. Castigliano's second theorem and principles of energy and momentum are then used to calculate the reaction forces and maximum deflection. Stress distribution is then calculated using the beam theory. The primary concern of the investigation is to present a procedure of how to design optimally the cross-sectional shape of the front bumper of automobiles.
Technical Paper

Development of Accelerated Reliability Testing Method for Electric Vehicle Motor and Battery System

2014-04-01
2014-01-0748
Currently, the interest in accelerated reliability testing (ART) of electric vehicles parts has been increasing. In particular, an electric motor and battery are vital components of battery powered electric vehicles. The electric motor has two major roles, to discharge or charge battery when it is driven or braking. For analyzing the exact behavior mechanism of electric motor and predicting lithium-ion battery cell degradation, new accelerated reliability testing technology is required. This paper describes the results of research and development in new approach to reliability testing for electric vehicles. The methodology to measure a precise motor output torque of the rotating rotor using telemetry system was provided. The electric energy quantities as well as the used quantities of the electric power were also analyzed. The results of research and development in new approach to reliability testing for electric vehicles were systematized and reflected in development.
Technical Paper

Development of Control Logic and Optimization of Catalyst in DeNOx System with Secondary Injection for Euro 6

2010-04-12
2010-01-1067
A technical approach to reduce NOx and to minimize the fuel consumption caused by the DeNOx aftertreatment system was introduced. The NEDC mode test of the HMC (Hyundai Motor Company) DeNOx system was done with a Euro 5 vehicle (ETW (Equivalent Test Weight) = 1,810 kg, 143 kW, 430 N⋅m), which resulted in that the Euro 6 legislation standards were met. The NOx and HC emissions were, respectively, measured to be 0.059 g/km and 0.087 g/km with the hydrothermal-aged catalysts, and CO₂ was increased by ≺ 4%.
Technical Paper

Development of Effective Bicycle Model for Wide Ranges of Vehicle Operations

2014-04-01
2014-01-0841
This paper proposes an effective nonlinear bicycle model including longitudinal, lateral, and yaw motions of a vehicle. This bicycle model uses a simplified piece-wise linear tire model and tire force tuning algorithm to produce closely matching vehicle trajectory compared to real vehicle for wide vehicle operation ranges. A simplified piece-wise tire model that well represents nonlinear tire forces was developed. The key parameters of this model can be chosen from measured tire forces. For the effects of dynamic load transfer due to sharp vehicle maneuvers, a tire force tuning algorithm that dynamically adjusts tire forces of the bicycle model based on measured vehicle lateral acceleration is proposed. Responses of the proposed bicycle model have been compared with commercial vehicle dynamics model (CarSim) through simulation in various vehicle maneuvers (ramp steer, sine-with-dwell).
Technical Paper

Development of an Automatic Climate Control(ACC) Algorithm and the Roof Mounted System for Busses

1998-11-16
982777
Air conditioning is defined as the process of treating air so as to control simultaneously its temperature, humidity, cleanliness and distribution to meet the requirements of the conditioned space. As in the definition, the important actions involved in the operation of an air conditioning system are temperature and humidity control, air purification and movement. For these conditions this paper proposes a Automatic Climate Control(ACC) system of the bus. The system has cooling, heating, and dehumidifying modes, and is governed by dual 8-bit microprocessors. These modes are broken down into sub-modules dealing with control of the compressor, blower speed, damper position, air purifier, ventilators, preheater, air mixing damper and so on.
Technical Paper

In search of SULEV-compliant THC emission reduction technologies

2000-06-12
2000-05-0298
This paper describes the development of THC reduction technologies compliant with SULEV regulations. Technologies embodied by the developmental work include improvement of fuel spay atomization, quick warm-up through coolant control shut off, and acceleration of fuel atomization for the fast rise of cylinder head temp inside the water jacket as well as the improvement of combustion state. The technologies likewise entail reduced HC while operating in lean A/F condition during engine warm-up with the cold lean-burn technology, individual cylinder A/F control for improvement of catalytic converting efficiency, aftertreatment such as thin-wall catalyst, HC absorber and EHC and etc., through vehicle application evaluation in cold start. We carried out an experimental as well as a practical study against SULEV regulations, and the feasibility of adopting these items in vehicle was likewise investigated.
Technical Paper

Incorporation of Friction Material Surface Inhomogeneity in Complex Eigenvalue Analysis to Improve the Accuracy of Brake Squeal Analysis

2018-10-05
2018-01-1873
The sliding surface of the brake friction material is not uniform but composed of random contact plateaus with a broad pressure distribution, which are known to closely related to the triggering mechanism of friction induced noise and vibrations. The non-uniform contact plateaus are attributed to the various ingredients in the friction material with a broad range of physical properties and morphology and the size and stiffness of the plateau play crucial roles in determining the friction instability. The incorporation of friction surface inhomogeneity is, therefore, crucial and has to be counted to improve the accuracy of the numerical calculation to simulate brake noise. In this study, the heterogeneous nature of the friction material surface was employed in the simulation to improve the correlation between numerical simulations and experimental results.
Technical Paper

Learning Slip Control of an Engine Clutch in a Parallel Hybrid Electric Vehicle for Linear Vehicle Launch

2014-04-01
2014-01-1745
This work studied the control technique for the engine clutch engagement at launch for the TMED parallel HEV for the improved drivability and dynamic performance. Analysis are done on the speed synchronization of the clutch plates, the speed control using the starter motor (ISG), and the fluid pressure control for the clutch. Possible external factors such as changes in the friction coefficient of transmission fluid, temperature variation, auxiliary power and pressure losses are identified and their effects on the targeted dynamic performance are examined. The targeted system performance was achieved with a learning control technique using fluid pressure as the only control input. This involves the compensation for the effect of external factors on the fluid pressure profile and this effect is memorized for the subsequent slip-launch application.
Journal Article

Mode-Dynamic Task Allocation and Scheduling for an Engine Management Real-Time System Using a Multicore Microcontroller

2014-04-01
2014-01-0257
A variety of methodologies to use embedded multicore controllers efficiently has been discussed in the last years. Several assumptions are usually made in the automotive domain, such as static assignment of tasks to the cores. This paper shows an approach for efficient task allocation depending on different system modes. An engine management system (EMS) is used as application example, and the performance improvement compared to static allocation is assessed. The paper is structured as follows: First the control algorithms for the EMS will be classified according to operating modes. The classified algorithms will be allocated to the cores, depending on the operating mode. We identify mode transition points, allowing a reliable switch without neglecting timing requirements. As a next step, it will be shown that a load distribution by mode-dependent task allocation would be better balanced than a static task allocation.
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