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Technical Paper

6 Speed Automatic Transmission Vibration Magnitude Prediction and Whine Noise Improvement through Transmission System Modeling

As automotive technology has been developed, gear whine has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking has been decreased. Whine is not the loudest source, but it is of high tonal noise which is often highly unpleasant. The gear noise originates at gear mesh. Transmission Error acts as an excitation source and these vibrations pass through gears, shafts and bearings to the housing which vibrates to produce noise on surrounding air. As microgeometry optimization target to reduce the fundamental excitation source of the noise, it has been favored method to tackle gear whine noise, especially for manual transmission. However, practicality of microgeometry optimization for the planetary gear system has been still in question, because of complex system structure and interaction among multi mesh gear sets make it hard to predict and even harder to improve. In this paper, successful case of whine noise improvement by microgeometry is presented.
Technical Paper

A New Combustion Model Based on Transport of Mean Reaction Progress Variable in a Spark Ignition Engine

In this study a new model is proposed for turbulent premixed combustion in a spark-ignition engine. An independent transport equation is solved for the mean reaction progress variable in a propagation form in KIVA-3V. An expression for turbulent burning velocity was previously given as a product of turbulent diffusivity in unburned gas, laminar flame speed and maximum flame surface density. The model has similarity with the G equation approach, but originates from zone conditionally averaged formulation for unburned gas. A spark kernel grows initially as a laminar flame and becomes a fully developed turbulent flame brush according to a transition criterion in terms of the kernel size and the integral length scale. Simulation of a homogeneous charge pancake chamber engine showed good agreement with measured flame propagation and pressure trace. The model was also applied against experimental data of Hyundai θ-2.0L SI engine.
Technical Paper

A Research on the Prediction of Door Opening by the Inertia Effect during a Side Impact Crash

The purpose of this study is to develop a dynamic model that can accurately predict the motion of the door handle and counterweight during side impact crash tests. The door locking system, mainly composed of the door outside handle and door latch, is theoretically modeled, and it is assumed that the door outer panel can rotate and translate in all three directions during a side impact crash. Additionally, the numerical results are compared with real crash video footage, and satisfactory qualitative agreement is found. Finally, the simplified test rig that efficiently reflects the real crash test is introduced, and its operation is analyzed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flame Propagation for Different Combustion Chamber Configurations in an SI Engine

High speed natural light motion picture records synchronized with head gasket ionization probe and in-cylinder pressure data have been made in the transparent engine of different combustion chamber configurations. For knocking cycles, the head gasket ionization current method simultaneously taken with pressure data was able to find the location of knocking occurrence. To investigate the effects of combustion chamber configurations, the flame propagation experiments for pent-roof combustion chamber with center ignition ( Modified Type I engine ) and modified pent-roof ( Type II engine ) combustion chamber were performed with high speed natural light photography technique. The flame propagation of Modified Type I engine represents more uniform patterns than that of Type II engine. The investigation of knocking combustion was also made possible by observing flame propagation with the measuring techniques that use head gasket ionization probe and in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flow Characteristics Inside the Two Types of Exhaust Manifold and CCC Systems

A study of unsteady compressible flow for two types of exhaust manifold and CCC (Close-Coupled Catalyst) systems attached to a 4-cylinder DOHC gasoline engine was carried out to investigate the flow distribution of exhaust gases and finally to make the conversion efficiency of catalyst better. An experimental study was conducted, using LDV technique, to measure the velocity distributions inside exhaust manifolds and CCC under practical engine conditions. In this study, through experiment and calculation, the effects of geometric configuration of exhaust manifold on flow maldistribution in monolith were mainly investigated to understand the exhaust flow structure in terms of flow uniformity and to improve the conversion efficiency. As a result of this fundamental study, the modified exhaust manifold (Type B) was designed and manufactured. Full load performance tests and vehicle emission tests were performed to see the effects of flow characteristics on engine performance and emission.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Auxiliary Belt Drive System for Actual Fuel Saving

The engine indicated torque is not delivered entirely to the wheels, because it is lowered by losses, such as the pumping, mechanical friction and front auxiliary power consumption. The front auxiliary belt drive system is a big power consumer-fueling and operating the various accessory devices, such as air conditioning compressor, electric alternator, and power steering pump. The standard fuel economy test does not consider the auxiliary driving torque when it is activated during the actual driving condition and it is considered a five-cycle correction factor only. Therefore, research on improving the front end auxiliary drive (FEAD) system is still relevant in the immediate future, particularly regarding the air conditioning compressor and the electric alternator. An exertion to minimize the auxiliary loss is much smaller than the sustained effort required to reduce engine friction loss.
Technical Paper

Accurate Reproduction of Wind-Tunnel Results with CFD

Aerodynamic simulation results are most of the time compared to wind tunnel results. It is too often simplistically believed that it suffice to take the CAD geometry of a car, prepare and run a CFD simulation to obtain results that should be comparable. With the industry requesting accuracies of a few drag counts when comparing CFD to wind tunnel results, a careful analysis of the element susceptible of creating a difference in the results is in order. In this project a detailed 1:4 scale model of the Hyundai Genesis was tested in the model wind tunnel of the FKFS. Five different underbody panel configurations of the car were tested going from a fully paneled car to a car without panels. The impact of the moving versus static ground was also tested, providing over all ten different experimental results for this car model.
Journal Article

An Experimental Study on the Effect of Stroke-to-Bore Ratio of Atkinson DISI Engines with Variable Valve Timing

In this study, fundamental questions in improving thermal efficiency of spark-ignition engine were revisited, regarding two principal factors, that is, stroke-to-bore (S/B) ratio and valve timings. In our experiment, late intake valve closing (LIVC) camshaft and variable valve timing (VVT) module for valve timing control were equipped in the single-cylinder, direct-injection spark-ignition (DISI) engine with three different S/B ratios (1.00, 1.20, and 1.47). In these three setups, displacement volume and compression ratio (CR) were fixed. In addition, the tumble ratio for cylinder head was also kept the same to minimize the flow effect on the flame propagation caused by cylinder head while focusing on the sole effect of changing the S/B ratio.
Journal Article

An Improvement of Brake Squeal CAE Model Considering Dynamic Contact Pressure Distribution

In the brake system, unevenly distributed disc-pad contact pressure not only leads to a falling-off in braking feeling due to uneven wear of brake pads, but also a main cause of system instability which leads to squeal noise. For this reason there have been several attempts to measure contact pressure distribution. However, only static pressure distribution has been measured in order to estimate the actual pressure distribution. In this study a new test method is designed to quantitatively measure dynamic contact pressure distribution between disc and pad in vehicle testing. The characteristics of dynamic contact pressure distribution are analyzed for various driving conditions and pad shape. Based on those results, CAE model was updated and found to be better in detecting propensity of brake squeal.
Technical Paper

An Optimization of Dual Continuously Variable Valve Timing for Reducing Intake Orifice Noise of a SI Engine

For optimizing the performance of SI engine such as engine torque, fuel consumption, and emissions, various types of system for variable valve timing were developed by many automotive researchers. In this paper, we investigated the relationship between valve timing and intake orifice noise, and suggested how to improve NVH (Noise, Vibration and Harshness) performance as well as engine torque. Some experiments using the engine dynamometer were carried over about 150 different operating conditions. BEM analysis was also conducted in order to calculate acoustic modes of intake system. The results show that the valve timing and overlap of breathing systems have influence on NVH behavior, especially intake orifice noise over whole range of operating conditions. Valve timing and overlap of intake and exhaust valve were optimized in the view of sound quality as well as overall noise level.
Technical Paper

Development of Accelerated Corrosion Test Mode Considering Environmental Condition

Accelerated simulation of vehicle corrosion in a controlled environment not only involves large chambers for actual vehicle tests, but also requires careful consideration of interactions between various parameters given a short time period within which the test is bounded. A new corrosion durability test mode reproducing various field conditions using salt spray, climatic, sunlight simulation and cold chambers has been developed. Verification of the test mode is carried out using four actual vehicle corrosion tests correlated against used cars of Nort h America and Northern Europe. The process of new corrosion test mode is discussed along with the characteristics of the test chambers.
Technical Paper

Development of Single Coated Pd/Rh Three Way Catalyst for CCC Application

We developed new single coated Pd/Rh three-way catalysts (TWC). Several Pd/Rh single layered catalysts were prepared by changing the precious metal (PM) fixation method and adding new base metal oxides (BMO). These samples were compared with double-coated catalyst by using model gas activity test, BET test, XRD test and vehicle emission test. It is found that the performance of the single coated catalyst is as good as that of commercialized double-coated catalyst. The oxygen storage capacity of the single coated catalyst is better than that of double-coated catalyst. Moreover, manufacturing the single coated catalyst enables us to eliminate the unnecessary coating process which is essential to the conventional one. Our test results demonstrate that the developed catalyst has sufficient activity and durability of OSC to meet emission and OBD-II regulations.
Technical Paper

Development of Two-Shot Injection-Compression Soft Instrument Panel

In order to reduce the cost and weight of the soft-foamed instrument-panel (IP), we developed the new IP which is made by the 2 kinds of injection methods. One is the compression-injection with back-foamed foil inserted, and the other is two-shot injection with the passenger-side airbag (PAB) door. We named it ‘IMX-IP’ which means that all components (‘X’) of the IP with different resins are made In a Mold. The development procedure of this technology was introduced (1) Design of the new injection mold through TRIZ application, (2) Optimization of the injection conditions and back foamed-foil for minimizing the foam loss and thickness deviation, (3) Development of CAE method for two-shot injection compression, (4) Reliability performance test and application to the mass production. The reduction of the processes through the two-shot molding with back foamed-foil inserted made it possible to enhance soft feeling on IP and reduce the cost and weight simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Effects of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on the Efficiency and Knock Characteristics in a Single-Cylinder GDI Engine

As a result of stringent global regulations on fuel economy and CO2 emissions, the development of high-efficiency SI engines is more urgent now than ever before. Along with advanced techniques in friction reduction, many researchers endeavor to decrease the B/S (bore-to-stroke) ratio from 1.0 (square) to a certain value, which is expected to reduce the heat loss and enhance the burning rate of SI engines. In this study, the effects of B/S ratios were investigated in aspects of efficiency and knock characteristics using a single-cylinder LIVC (late intake valve closing) GDI (gasoline direct injection) engine. Three B/S ratios (0.68, 0.83 and 1.00) were tested under the same mechanical compression ratio of 12:1 and the same displacement volume of 0.5 L. The head tumble ratio was maintained at the same level to solely investigate the effects of geometrical changes caused by variations in the B/S ratio.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on DGPS/RTK Based Path Following System Using Backstepping Control Methodology

This paper mainly focuses on a lateral control law for pre-given path following which is developed by using the backstepping control design methodology. The position information of the vehicle is obtained by Real Time Kinematic DGPS, and the yaw rate and side-slip angle used in controller are estimated by Kalman estimator. To show the performance of the proposed controller under different speed and various path curvature conditions, the results are given through experiments which are executed on proving ground especially designed for high maneuvering test of which minimum radius of curvature is about 60 m.
Technical Paper

Front Loading NVH Test on the Highly Dynamic Powertrain Test Bed

Advanced powertrain test, which is simulating real road load condition, was performed on the dynamic test bed. This cutting edge system can reproduce real road resistance based upon the vehicle dynamic model and wheel slip model. This wheel slip function is simulating the real behavior of the powertrain wheel as close as possible at each wheel independently. Additionally, low inertia of dynamometer motor themselves is another advantage for this purpose. This test bed is capable of testing all kinds of 2WD and 4WD powertrain configuration regardless of transmission type. Also, vehicle configuration can be mounted and tested on this test bed with small addition of supporting system alternatively. For the application, a four wheel drive powertrain was mounted on the test bed and driveline noise and vibration behavior such as transfer rattling noise and tip in/out shock were reproduced on this test bed.
Technical Paper

Hyundai Full Scale Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel

A new Hyundai Aero-acoustic Wind Tunnel (HAWT) has been opened in the Nam-yang Technical Center of Hyundai Motor Company (HMC) since August 1999. This wind tunnel has a 3/4 semi-open jet test section and a closed circuit in order to improve aerodynamic and wind noise and thermodynamic characteristics of vehicles. The HMC technical center had started the feasibility study of full-scale wind tunnel in 1995, to improve the aerodynamic characteristics and to meet fuel consumption regulations. The main purpose of this facility is conduct various kinds of tests on customer driving conditions, including aerodynamic and aero-acoustic tests and engine cooling simulations, etc. The technical specification was made on the basis of HMC engineers' experience of their own model scale and full-scale wind tunnels (like MIRA or DNW) during last 10 years.
Technical Paper

Improvement of Tire Development Process Through Study of Tire Test Procedure and Vehicle Correlation

The tire is the vital element in vehicle dynamics, as its contact patch transmits all forces and moments to the ground (accelerating, braking, cornering, rolling).Over the recent decades tire development for passenger cars has been continuously improved and optimized in order to achieve a good overall vehicle performance in R&H that is in balance with all other tire performances (Wear, Durability, NVH, RR, Miles). This general development process has to be suitable for various vehicle types from regular passenger cars over eco-friendly hybrid or electric vehicles to high performance sport cars. The balance between Ride and Handling performance is further adjusted to local customer preferences that are usually distinguished by markets (US, EU, Asia). The tire development process, which is embedded in the overall vehicle development, is usually realized in a mutual collaboration between OEM and tire supplier.
Technical Paper

New 1.4ℓ SI Engine Development with the Aluminum Thermal Spray Coated Counter Spiny Thin-Wall Cast Iron Liner

For the lightweight and compact cylinder block, new cast iron liner was developed, which has counter spiny form on the out side of the liner. Additionally, the outer surface was spray-coated with Aluminum in order to enhance the heat conductivity and to increase the grip force between the liner and the block. Without any redesign of cylinder block or crankshaft, the displacement of the engine could be increased from 1.25ℓ to 1.4ℓ by adapting this new liner only. This liner enabled to expand the engine displacement without both great dimension changes and production facility changes.
Technical Paper

Performance Analysis and Valve Event Optimization for SI Engines Using Fractal Combustion Model

On the basis of the newly-developed fractal combustion model, the engine-thermodynamic-cycle simulations were conducted with the 1D engine-cycle-simulation program AVL-BOOST for a passenger-car SI engine with a fully-variable valve train. Results of the simulations showed a good agreement with measurements for both full and part load at various engine speeds. On the basis of the thermodynamic model for the engine, the valve event optimization was carried out for both full and part load with a partial factorial DoE plan consisting of various valve event durations and timings. For each of the selected cases, an independent optimization for the ignition timing was performed to determine the minimum BSFC under a constraint on specified knock criteria. Satisfactory results for the valve event optimization were achieved.