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Technical Paper

A Comparative Study of Non-Asbestos Organics vs. Low Steel Lomets for Humidity Sensitivity

Non-Asbestos Organic (NAO) disc pads and Low Steel Lomet disc pads were subjected to high and low humidity conditions to discover how humidity affects these two classes of formulations for physical properties, friction, wear and noise characteristics. The 2 classes of formulations show similarities and differences in response to increasing humidity. The humidity effect on deformation of the surface microstructure of the gray cast iron disc is also investigated. Humidity implications for pad quality control and brake testing are discussed.
Technical Paper

A Development of Active Vent Airbag for the Passenger New NCAP

For the robust passenger NCAP(New Car Assessment Program) 5star and the stable neck injury performance, a new concept of passenger airbag has been required. Especially, the deployment stability and the vent hole control technology of the passenger airbag can be improved. According to these requirements, the deployment stability technique has been studied and the ‘Active Vent’ technology has been developed. As a result, these technologies have led to achieve the robust NCAP rating and are applied to the production vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Holographic Lighting

A signal lamp performs a function to inform the position and behavior of the vehicle. And it represents a specific design identity of the vehicle or brand identity. Recently it implements the unique three-dimensional effect while using a LED. However, a number of LEDs and complex form of the lens shape have to be applied, so results in the size, weight, cost increase. In this study, the hologram technology that is an exemplary technique for implementing the described three-dimensional image is applied. With a hologram, it is possible to reproduce a complex shape three-dimensional image by using a hologram film. Therefore the number of parts can be reduced. And it is possible to copy the film has a mass production benefits.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Model Based Torque Feedback Control with Disturbance Observer for Electric Power Steering System

Electric Power Steering (EPS) needs to meet both functional and stability requirements, it plays significant role in controlling vehicle motion. In the meantime, customers emphasizes natural steering feel which can reflect vehicle motion and road surface information while isolate unwanted external disturbances. In general, conventional EPS control algorithms exert assist torque according to driver torque measured from torque sensor, while maintaining stability using stabilizing compensator. However, there exist significant trade-off between steering feel and stability, because the performances of assist torque control and stabilizing compensator are strongly coupled. In this paper a torque feedback control algorithm for EPS system is proposed in order to overcome the trade-off, and to achieve more natural, robust steering feel.
Technical Paper

A Flexible Multi-Body Dynamic Model for Analyzing the Hysteretic Characteristics and the Dynamic Stress of a Taper Leaf Spring

This paper proposes a modeling technique which is able to not only reliably and easily represent the hysteretic characteristics but also analyze the dynamic stress of a taper leaf spring. The flexible multi-body dynamic model of the taper leaf spring is developed by interfacing the finite element model and computation model of the taper leaf spring. Rigid dummy parts are attached at the places where a finite element leaf model is in contact with an adjacent one in order to apply contact model. Friction is defined in the contact model to represent the hysteretic phenomenon of the taper leaf spring. The test of the taper leaf spring is conducted for the validation of the reliability of the flexible multi-body dynamic model of the taper leaf spring developed in this paper. The test is started at an unloaded state with the excitation amplitude of 1∼2mm/sec and frequency of 132mm. First, the simulation is conducted with the same condition as the test.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study on Power Steering Shudder

Shudder vibration of a hydraulic power steering system during parking maneuver was studied with numerical and experimental methods. To quantify vibration performance of the system and recognize important stimuli for drivers, a shudder metric was derived by correlation between objective measurements and subjective ratings. A CAE model for steering wheel vibration analysis was developed and compared with measured data. In order to describe steering input dependency of shudder, a new dynamic friction modeling method, in which the magnitude of effective damping is determined by average velocity, was proposed. The developed model was validated using the measured steering wheel acceleration and the pressure change at inlet of the steering gear box. It was shown that the developed model successfully describes major modes by comparing the calculated FRF of the hydraulic system with measured one from the hydraulic excitation test.
Technical Paper

A Study for Fuel Economy Improvement on Applying New Technology for Torsional Vibration Reduction of Crank Pulley

The method of Front End Auxiliary Drive (FEAD) system optimization can be divided into two ways. One is to use a mechanical device that decouples crank pulley from torsional vibration of crank shaft by using characteristics of spring. The other is to control belt tension through auto-tensioner in addition of alternator pulley device. Because the former case has more potential to reduce belt tension than the latter case, the development of mechanically decoupled crank pulley, despite of its difficulty of development, is getting popular among the industry. This paper characterizes latest crank pulley technologies, Crank Decoupler and Isolation Pulley, for torsional vibration reduction through functionality measurement result which composed of irregularity, slip, tensioner movement, belt span vibration, bearing hubload of idler and so on. Also it investigates their potential of belt tension reduction through steady state point fuel consumption test on dynamometer.
Technical Paper

A Study of Flame Propagation for Different Combustion Chamber Configurations in an SI Engine

High speed natural light motion picture records synchronized with head gasket ionization probe and in-cylinder pressure data have been made in the transparent engine of different combustion chamber configurations. For knocking cycles, the head gasket ionization current method simultaneously taken with pressure data was able to find the location of knocking occurrence. To investigate the effects of combustion chamber configurations, the flame propagation experiments for pent-roof combustion chamber with center ignition ( Modified Type I engine ) and modified pent-roof ( Type II engine ) combustion chamber were performed with high speed natural light photography technique. The flame propagation of Modified Type I engine represents more uniform patterns than that of Type II engine. The investigation of knocking combustion was also made possible by observing flame propagation with the measuring techniques that use head gasket ionization probe and in-cylinder pressure data.
Technical Paper

A Study of Layout Regarding Integrated Controls on the Steering Wheel

In order to utilize in-vehicle systems efficiently, many vehicles are becoming equipped with integrated controls near the center fascia or the control box. However, the placement of these control systems can cause safety issues and risks due to visual distractions. In this study, we proposed a new integrated touch screen on the steering wheel. For this experiment, a control system was placed on the steering wheel or the center fascia. 15 participants were required to drive while utilizing vent and navigation control tasks regarding four different locations. Three of these locations were based on the steering wheel (center, upper right, lower right) and one location on the center fascia. Afterwards, the task completion time and visual distraction rate of the different locations were measured and compared. The results showed that a touch screen placed on the upper right section of the steering wheel had better performance and lower user discomfort.
Technical Paper

A Study of Suspension Tightening Torque on the R&H Performance of High Performance Vehicles

Suspension is a system which operates dynamically according to road condition unlike other system statically mounted to the body. Especially this is more remarkable in high performance vehicle because there are more high inputs from road to suspension than normal vehicle. For this reason, the tightening torque of suspension system of high performance vehicle is more important than other systems and normal vehicle. To support the clamping between parts against force from road when cornering, optimized tightening torque is required to maximize R&H performance. For this optimization, it should be conducted first to comprehend how much performance effects on vehicle by tightening torque. This paper presents relationship between tightening torque of suspension parts hardware and R&H performance.
Journal Article

A Study of Wheel Guards for Reduction of High Frequency Road-Noise

This Study describes about the development of new concept' rear wheel guards for the reduction of Road Noise in the passenger vehicles. The new wheel guards are proposed by various frequency chamber concept and different textile layers concept. Two wheel guards were verified by small cabin resonance and vehicle tests. Through new developing process without vehicle test, Result of road noise will be expected if this concepts and materials of wheel guard are applied into automotive vehicle. As this concept consider tire radiation noise frequency and multilayers sound control multilayers, 2 concepts reduced road noise from 0.5 to 1.0dB. The proposed method of part reverberant absorption is similar to results of vehicle tests by part absorption index. Furthermore, optimization of frequency band in wheel guards will reduce more 0.5 dB noises. As a result of the application of Aimed Helmholtz and Multilayers concept, this paper classifies reduction of the road noise, cost and weights.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Auxiliary Belt Drive System for Actual Fuel Saving

The engine indicated torque is not delivered entirely to the wheels, because it is lowered by losses, such as the pumping, mechanical friction and front auxiliary power consumption. The front auxiliary belt drive system is a big power consumer-fueling and operating the various accessory devices, such as air conditioning compressor, electric alternator, and power steering pump. The standard fuel economy test does not consider the auxiliary driving torque when it is activated during the actual driving condition and it is considered a five-cycle correction factor only. Therefore, research on improving the front end auxiliary drive (FEAD) system is still relevant in the immediate future, particularly regarding the air conditioning compressor and the electric alternator. An exertion to minimize the auxiliary loss is much smaller than the sustained effort required to reduce engine friction loss.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction(III)

In the latest works [12], we presented the guideline for reducing Metal pick up(MPU, the main component of disc scoring) by controlling the location of the roughness of disc, the brake pad friction coefficients and the disc slot's size. In this study, the previously studied iron transfer theory to 'Cu free' brake pad and the disc surface roughness controlling methods which are based on the mass production manufacturing process are applied. It is possible to suggest the ways to improve the scoring-free disc without reducing friction coefficient between the disc and pad, and any demerit such as increased wear and airplane noise like conventional slot discs [11].
Technical Paper

A Study on Automated Tuning of the Head Gasket Coolant Passage Hole of the Gasoline Engine Cooling System Using Optimization Technology

Tuning the size and position of the cooling water holes in the head gasket during engine cooling system development is generally positioned at the final stage of the cooling system hardware design. Until now, the gasket hole tuning operation was dependent on the case study through repetitive CFD analysis. In this process, there was a difference in the optimization level by know-how and expertise of the person in charge. In this study, a gasket hole tuning technique was developed using optimization algorithms to improve the level of optimization. First, select factors and perform screening using the DOE(Design Of Experiments) method, and then find the optimal gasket hole size and arrangement through the optimal design process based on the results of the CFD analysis planned by DOE.
Technical Paper

A Study on Optimization of the Multi-function Drive Plate for High Performance Engine

The multi-function drive plate used for a high performance engine was developed by optimizing its structure, material and design features. To do so, the investigation of the load characteristics was done in order to increase FEA reliability. DFSS was utilized for optimizing the design features and defining the effect of geometric parameters on the durability. The durability of the optimized drive plate was verified by comparing the FEA and test results with other drive plates which were already verified. Finally, the real powertrain test was done to confirm its durability for a high performance engine.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Advanced Technology Analysis Process of Steering System for Idle Performance

This paper describes the optimal design process of the steering column system and the supporting system. At the initial concept stage of development process, a design guide is proposed to obtain sufficient stiffness of the steering system while reducing idle vibration sensitivity of the system. Case studies on resonance isolation are summarized, in which separated vibration modes among systems by applying Vibration Mode Map at the initial stage of design process. This study also makes it possible to provide design guideline for optimal dynamic damper system using CAE (computer aided engineering) analysis. The damper FE (finite element) model is added to vehicle model to analyze the relation between the frequency and the sensitivity of steering column system. This analysis methodology enables target performance achievement in early design stage and reduction of damper tuning activity after proto car test stage.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Optimization of Body Structure for Rattle Noise by Exciting Woofer Speakers

With the recent development of technologies for interpreting vibration and noise of vehicles, it has become possible for carmakers to reduce idle vibration and driving noise in the phase of preceding development. Thus, the issue of noise generation is drawing keen attention from production of prototype car through mass-production development. J. D. Power has surveyed the levels of customer satisfaction with all vehicles sold in the U.S. market and released the Initial Quality Study (IQS) index. As a growing number of emotional quality-related items are added to the IQS evaluation index, it is necessary to secure a sufficiently high quality level of low-frequency speaker sound against rattle noise. It is required to make a preceding review on the package tray panel, which is located at the bottom of the rear glass where the woofer speakers of a passenger sedan are installed, the door module panel in which the door speakers are built.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Optimum Reduction of Required Brake Fluid Level for Improvement of the High Speed Continuous Brake Distance

The high speed continuous braking distance assessment is the worst condition for thermal fades. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fade characteristic and friction materials & brake fluid amount for improving braking distance. So, we used the dynamometer to measure the friction coefficient, braking distance and required brake fluid amount. Through the measurements, the research was carried out as follows. First of all, we studied the influence of friction coefficient about different shapes (chamfer shape, area of the friction material, number of slots) on the same friction material. Secondly, we knew the effects of braking distance by the shape of the friction material. Through these two studies, the shape of the friction material favorable to the fade characteristics was derived. Finally, we measured the amount of required brake fluid in caliper after 10 consecutive braking cycles through Dynamometer.
Journal Article

A Study on the Role of TRIZ in DFSS

The Design For Six Sigma (DFSS) process consists of four phases, identification & definition of opportunity, concept development, design optimization, and design verification. In the phase of concept development, TRIZ (Russian acronym for Theory of Inventive Problem Solving) is useful for creating new ideas from the present ideas, which includes the trimming strategy, the antidote strategy, and the picket fence strategy. In this paper, systems of a vehicle such as Variable Compression Ratio (VCR) engine, windshield wiper blade, and Continuously Variable Valve Actuation (CVVA) of engine, are selected and new concepts for each system are created by applying the previously mentioned three strategies. FMEA (Failure Mode and Effects Analysis), the latter part in the phase of concept development in DFSS, is conducted for newly generated concepts of systems that are mentioned above. As a result of FMEA, it is found that the wind lift of the wiper blade can be a serious problem.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Vehicle Body Effect on Brake Noise

Creep groan noise occurs in a just moving vehicle by the simultaneous application of torque to the wheel and the gradual release of brake pressure in-vehicle. It is the low frequency noise giving the driver a very uncomfortable feeling. Recently, the field claims regarding the creep groan noise are increasing. So far, creep groan noise has been improved by means of chassis modification the transfer system. But vehicle body the response system does not. In this paper, the effect between vibration characteristics of vehicle body, creep groan noise was analyzed. Then presented analysis method for vehicle body effect regarding creep groan noise.