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Technical Paper

A Development of Active Vent Airbag for the Passenger New NCAP

2015-03-10
2015-01-0024
For the robust passenger NCAP(New Car Assessment Program) 5star and the stable neck injury performance, a new concept of passenger airbag has been required. Especially, the deployment stability and the vent hole control technology of the passenger airbag can be improved. According to these requirements, the deployment stability technique has been studied and the ‘Active Vent’ technology has been developed. As a result, these technologies have led to achieve the robust NCAP rating and are applied to the production vehicles.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Holographic Lighting

2019-04-02
2019-01-0846
A signal lamp performs a function to inform the position and behavior of the vehicle. And it represents a specific design identity of the vehicle or brand identity. Recently it implements the unique three-dimensional effect while using a LED. However, a number of LEDs and complex form of the lens shape have to be applied, so results in the size, weight, cost increase. In this study, the hologram technology that is an exemplary technique for implementing the described three-dimensional image is applied. With a hologram, it is possible to reproduce a complex shape three-dimensional image by using a hologram film. Therefore the number of parts can be reduced. And it is possible to copy the film has a mass production benefits.
Technical Paper

A Study for Improving the Resistance to Fretting Corrosion of SCr 420 Gear Steel

2007-08-05
2007-01-3734
A study for improving the resistance to fretting corrosion of SCr 420 pinion gear was conducted. Fretting is the damage to contacting surfaces experiencing slight relative reciprocating sliding motion of low amplitude. Fretting corrosion is the fretting damage to unlubricated contacting surfaces accompanied by corrosion, mostly oxidation that occurs if the fretting occurs in air. Two kinds of conventional heat treatment and a newly designed one suggested for improving the resistance to the fretting corrosion of pinion gear were compared each other to find out what is the main factor for generating fretting corrosion phenomenon. Increased carbon potential at both the heating and diffusing zone and reduced time of tempering was found out to be a solution for improving the resistance to fretting corrosion of forged and heat treated gear steel. On the contrary, modified carbo-nitriding using ammonia gas has been getting worse the fretting corrosion problem.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Disc Scoring Generation Principle and Reduction(III)

2019-09-15
2019-01-2112
In the latest works [12], we presented the guideline for reducing Metal pick up(MPU, the main component of disc scoring) by controlling the location of the roughness of disc, the brake pad friction coefficients and the disc slot's size. In this study, the previously studied iron transfer theory to 'Cu free' brake pad and the disc surface roughness controlling methods which are based on the mass production manufacturing process are applied. It is possible to suggest the ways to improve the scoring-free disc without reducing friction coefficient between the disc and pad, and any demerit such as increased wear and airplane noise like conventional slot discs [11].
Technical Paper

A Study on Improvement of Sitting Posture Stability for Heavy Truck Drivers

2018-04-03
2018-01-1319
The driver’s seat in heavy trucks is designed for an upright driving posture with narrow back and cushion angles; thus, the seatback offers very little support. This makes the sitting posture prone to shifting during long trips, leading to loss of comfort and increase in fatigue. Sitting posture stability allows initial posture to be maintained during long drives, and the lack of stability causes fatigue and body pain during the drive. This study confirmed that enhancement of sitting posture stability of the driver’s seat in heavy trucks requires appropriate support from the cushion. The study also analyzed the support characteristics of each part of the cushion, and presented development guidelines of new cushion. Although subjective assessments of sitting posture stability have been performed, this study presented a method for quantitative and efficient assessment of sitting posture stability using the PAM-COMFORT simulation tool and virtual testing.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Optimization of Body Structure for Rattle Noise by Exciting Woofer Speakers

2009-05-19
2009-01-2110
With the recent development of technologies for interpreting vibration and noise of vehicles, it has become possible for carmakers to reduce idle vibration and driving noise in the phase of preceding development. Thus, the issue of noise generation is drawing keen attention from production of prototype car through mass-production development. J. D. Power has surveyed the levels of customer satisfaction with all vehicles sold in the U.S. market and released the Initial Quality Study (IQS) index. As a growing number of emotional quality-related items are added to the IQS evaluation index, it is necessary to secure a sufficiently high quality level of low-frequency speaker sound against rattle noise. It is required to make a preceding review on the package tray panel, which is located at the bottom of the rear glass where the woofer speakers of a passenger sedan are installed, the door module panel in which the door speakers are built.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Optimum Reduction of Required Brake Fluid Level for Improvement of the High Speed Continuous Brake Distance

2019-09-15
2019-01-2121
The high speed continuous braking distance assessment is the worst condition for thermal fades. This study was conducted to investigate the relationship between fade characteristic and friction materials & brake fluid amount for improving braking distance. So, we used the dynamometer to measure the friction coefficient, braking distance and required brake fluid amount. Through the measurements, the research was carried out as follows. First of all, we studied the influence of friction coefficient about different shapes (chamfer shape, area of the friction material, number of slots) on the same friction material. Secondly, we knew the effects of braking distance by the shape of the friction material. Through these two studies, the shape of the friction material favorable to the fade characteristics was derived. Finally, we measured the amount of required brake fluid in caliper after 10 consecutive braking cycles through Dynamometer.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Muscle Fatigue for Urban Bus Drivers using Electromyography

2011-04-12
2011-01-0801
Professional bus drivers are highly exposed to physical fatigue and work-related injuries because driving task includes complicated actions that require a variety of ability and cause extreme concentration or strain. For this reason, there has always been some sense of concern regarding driver fatigue, especially for drivers of commercial vehicles. In this study, we have tried to analyze quantitative fatigue degree of urban bus drivers by measuring their physiological signals. The investigation is made up of the following approaches: a traditional questionnaire survey and video-ethnographic method with 4-way cameras. The close-circuit cameras are installed to observe the upper and lower body of real drivers when they are in driving or even resting. This approach can help to understand urban bus drivers' behaviors and fatigue-related issues. Based on the video-ethnographic investigation results above, we have got certain patterns of drivers.
Technical Paper

Corrosion Induced Brake Torque Variation: The Effect from Gray Iron Microstructure and Friction Materials

2005-10-09
2005-01-3919
Brake judder caused by corrosion of gray iron disks was investigated. In this study, the microstructure of the gray iron disks and the friction film developed on the disk surface by commercial friction materials were examined to find the root cause of the corrosion induced brake torque variation. Corrosion of the disk was carried out in an environmental chamber, simulating in-vehicle disk corrosion. Moisture content and acidity of the friction materials were also taken into account for this investigation and brake tests to examine torque variation during brake applications were performed using a single-end brake dynamometer. Results showed that the friction film developed on the disk surface strongly affected the amount of corrosion, while graphite morphology of the gray iron had little effect on the corrosion.
Technical Paper

Development New Organic Composite Materials with Excellent Long-Term High-Temperature Durability and Reliability for Automotive Parts

2018-04-03
2018-01-0151
In recent years, the emerging technology competitions in automotive industry are improving engine efficiency and electronizing for coping with stringent fuel-economy regulations. However, fuel-economy technologies such as engine down-sizing and numerous electronic parts entrust burden plastic materials acing as mainly electric insulation and housing to have to be higher performance, especially temperature endurance. Engineering plastics (EPs) have critical limitations in terms of degradation by heat. Heat-resisting additives in EP are generally used to be anti-degradation as activating non-radical decomposition of peroxide. However, it could not be effective way to impede the degradation in long term heat aging over 1,000 hours at high temperature above 180 °C. In this study, we suggested the new solution called ‘shield effect’ that is purposeful oxidation at the surface and local crystallization of EP to stop prevent penetrating oxygen to inside of that.
Technical Paper

Development of Accelerated Corrosion Test Mode Considering Environmental Condition

2002-03-04
2002-01-1231
Accelerated simulation of vehicle corrosion in a controlled environment not only involves large chambers for actual vehicle tests, but also requires careful consideration of interactions between various parameters given a short time period within which the test is bounded. A new corrosion durability test mode reproducing various field conditions using salt spray, climatic, sunlight simulation and cold chambers has been developed. Verification of the test mode is carried out using four actual vehicle corrosion tests correlated against used cars of Nort h America and Northern Europe. The process of new corrosion test mode is discussed along with the characteristics of the test chambers.
Technical Paper

Development of Aluminum Suspension Part using by High Pressure Casting of Electro-Magnetic Stirring

2018-04-03
2018-01-1394
The weight reduction of the car suspension parts has a direct influence on the ride and handling. However, the application of nonferrous metal materials, such as aluminum and magnesium, which results in a lighter weight of the suspension can lead to an increase in manufacturing costs compared to cast iron. In this study, vertical type high-pressure die casting using by electro-magnetic stirring (EMS) with A356 alloy in the sleeve was used to control the fine microstructure. Process optimization and part development, as well as unit product and automotive assessment were carried out for electro-magnetic stirring methods. Without making the slurry, the mechanical properties were obtained through optimization of process variables UTS 320MPa, YS 239MPa, EL 13.3%. It also succeeded in mass production with minimum cost increase of aluminum suspension components.
Journal Article

Development of Fatigue Durability Analysis Techniques for Engine Piston using CAE

2009-04-20
2009-01-0820
A piston in a diesel engine is subject to the high pressure and the high thermal load. The high structural reliability is required to the piston in the automotive diesel engine and it is important to confirm the design parameters of piston in initial design stage. There are lots of research works proposing new geometries, materials and manufacturing techniques for engine pistons. But, the failures of piston occur frequently in development stage. Failure mechanisms are mainly fatigue related. This paper presents failure mechanisms of the high cycle fatigue and low cycle thermal fatigue cracks which occur on the piston during durability test using engine dynamometer. In this study, FE analysis was carried out to investigate the root cause of piston failure. The analysis includes the FE model of the piston moving system, temperature dependent material properties, mechanical and thermal loadings.
Technical Paper

Development of High Wear Resistant and Durable Coatings for Al Valve Spring Retainer

2007-04-16
2007-01-1748
The use of light-weight materials in automotive engine components has increased in order to achieve better fuel efficiency and engine performance. In this study, Al alloy (AI5056) valve spring retainer can reduce a weight by 63% in comparison to steel and improve the upper limit of engine speed by about 500rpm. The Al valve spring retainer was fabricated by cold forging and coated with hard anodizing, DLC (diamond like coating), cold spray and thermal spray for better wear resistance and durability. We conclude that among these materials the DLC coating improves the wear resistance of Al valve spring retainer and has a sufficient durability after endurance testing.
Technical Paper

Development of Module Based IPS Evaluation System

2006-04-03
2006-01-1569
A module based IPS (Intelligent Power Switch) evaluation system is proposed in this paper. As the IPS is gradually replacing the conventional relay and fuses, the stability and reliability of power system depends more on these IPS. The proposed IPS evaluation system outperforms the conventional manual evaluation in terms of speed and efficiency. This paper will introduce the structure of hardware and software of the IPS evaluation system. The system is placed between the module and cable connector to evaluate the module in an operating car without changing the cables. The control and signal processing is carried out by personal computer which is connected to the evaluation system by USB (Universal Serial Bus). The load resistance can be switch from actual load to arbitrary value using relay circuitry and DC electric load controlled by GPIB (General Purpose Interface Bus). CAN (Controller Area Network) circuits were added to control the IPS mounted inside the module.
Journal Article

Development of Nano Diamond Polymer Coating on Piston Skirt for Fuel Efficiency

2011-04-12
2011-01-1401
Various polymer-based coatings are applied on piston skirt to reduce friction loss between the piston skirt and cylinder bore which is one of main factors of energy loss in an automotive engine system. These coatings generally consist of polymer binder (PAI) and solid lubricants (graphite or MoS₂) for low friction property. On the other hand, the present study found that PTFE as a solid lubricant and nano diamond as hard particles can be used to improve the low friction and wear resistance simultaneously. In the process of producing coating material, diamond particles pulverized to a nano size tend to agglomerate. To prevent this, silane (silicon coupling agent) treatment was applied. The inorganic functional groups of silane are attached to the nano diamond surface, which keep the diamond particles are apart.
Journal Article

Development of Personalized Engine Sound System using Active Sound Design Technology

2015-06-15
2015-01-2216
An important trend among vehicle NVH engineers is the production of attractive engine acceleration sound quality for the enhancement of a vehicle's image and performance. In addition, customers have increasing interest and enjoyment in customizing their cars to reflect their personal taste and preferences. The PESS (Personalized Engine Sound System) has been developed for making a unique and individually customizable vehicle concept. The system allows the customers an opportunity to create a variety of engine sounds in a single vehicle using active sound design technology. In this system, three different engine sound concepts are pre-defined, Dynamic, Sporty, and Extreme. Each of the engine sounds can then be adjusted with parameters that determine the timbre, such as main order, rumble, and high order. In addition, the pedal position during acceleration has also been used as a parameter to further personalize the experience.
Technical Paper

Development of Polymer Composite Battery Pack Case for an Electric Vehicle

2013-04-08
2013-01-1177
A battery pack case of an electric vehicle was developed with a fibrous thermoplastic composite material. Due to cost effectiveness, long-fiber-reinforced thermoplastics by direct process (D-LFT) were adopted. PA6 (Polyamide 6)-based composites were processed using a D-LFT pilot machine at the temperature range between 250° and 290°. Glass and carbon fibers were added in the matrix varying the mixture ratio of the fibers while keeping the weight fraction 40%. The increase of carbon fibers in the mixture increased tensile modulus and strength, however, decreased Izod impacts strength. The fatigue life of developed composites was evaluated by fatigue tests in tension, which were over one million cycles at the maximum fatigue loading less than 60% of the composite strength. Associated with fiber orientation, anisotropic mechanical behavior was investigated in terms of flexural properties and mold shrinkage.
Technical Paper

Development of Si-DLC Coated Tappet for Improved Wear Resistance

2015-04-14
2015-01-0685
Most bucket type valvetrain engines use DLC coated tappet for low friction and fuel efficiency. However the requirements on coating robustness have been increased as the tribological environments have become more severe by use of low viscosity oil or higher engine output. In order to obtain higher coating efficiency and improved wear resistance, 5∼9 at.% Si doped DLC (Si-DLC) coated tappet has been developed using PACVD process. Thermal stability and wear resistance of Si-DLC were improved impressively than those of DLC, although mechanical properties such as hardness and adhesion were degradated. It seems that Si suppresses a graphitization of DLC and thin SixOy film on coating surface acts as a barrier to oxidation or flash heat.
Technical Paper

Development of Special Heat Treatment to Improve the Bearing Fatigue Life

1999-03-01
1999-01-0289
A new technique of heat treatment is developed for the bearings of automotive transmission and chassis to maximize their service life under contaminated and severe environments. This study demonstrates an improvement of the microstructure of bearing steels by applying special heat treatments. The microstructure is developed by optimizing various heat treating parameters (temperature, cycle time and gas atmosphere, etc.) as well as by modifying the quenching processes (double quenching and press quenching). We obtained a desirable microstructure of dense and fine martensite with optimum levels of retained austenite and compressive residual stress on the subsurface. The size and distribution of carbides and grains are found to be very fine and homogeneous. The endurance test results show that the specimens with new treatment have an excellent fatigue life compared with the conventional bearing samples.
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