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Technical Paper

6 Speed Automatic Transmission Vibration Magnitude Prediction and Whine Noise Improvement through Transmission System Modeling

As automotive technology has been developed, gear whine has become a prominent contributor for cabin noise as the masking has been decreased. Whine is not the loudest source, but it is of high tonal noise which is often highly unpleasant. The gear noise originates at gear mesh. Transmission Error acts as an excitation source and these vibrations pass through gears, shafts and bearings to the housing which vibrates to produce noise on surrounding air. As microgeometry optimization target to reduce the fundamental excitation source of the noise, it has been favored method to tackle gear whine noise, especially for manual transmission. However, practicality of microgeometry optimization for the planetary gear system has been still in question, because of complex system structure and interaction among multi mesh gear sets make it hard to predict and even harder to improve. In this paper, successful case of whine noise improvement by microgeometry is presented.
Technical Paper

A Development of the Model Based Torque Feedback Control with Disturbance Observer for Electric Power Steering System

Electric Power Steering (EPS) needs to meet both functional and stability requirements, it plays significant role in controlling vehicle motion. In the meantime, customers emphasizes natural steering feel which can reflect vehicle motion and road surface information while isolate unwanted external disturbances. In general, conventional EPS control algorithms exert assist torque according to driver torque measured from torque sensor, while maintaining stability using stabilizing compensator. However, there exist significant trade-off between steering feel and stability, because the performances of assist torque control and stabilizing compensator are strongly coupled. In this paper a torque feedback control algorithm for EPS system is proposed in order to overcome the trade-off, and to achieve more natural, robust steering feel.
Technical Paper

A Flexible Multi-Body Dynamic Model for Analyzing the Hysteretic Characteristics and the Dynamic Stress of a Taper Leaf Spring

This paper proposes a modeling technique which is able to not only reliably and easily represent the hysteretic characteristics but also analyze the dynamic stress of a taper leaf spring. The flexible multi-body dynamic model of the taper leaf spring is developed by interfacing the finite element model and computation model of the taper leaf spring. Rigid dummy parts are attached at the places where a finite element leaf model is in contact with an adjacent one in order to apply contact model. Friction is defined in the contact model to represent the hysteretic phenomenon of the taper leaf spring. The test of the taper leaf spring is conducted for the validation of the reliability of the flexible multi-body dynamic model of the taper leaf spring developed in this paper. The test is started at an unloaded state with the excitation amplitude of 1∼2mm/sec and frequency of 132mm. First, the simulation is conducted with the same condition as the test.
Technical Paper

A Novel Electric-Power-Steering (EPS) Control Algorithm Development for the Reference Steering Feel Tracking

This paper describes a reference steering feel tracking algorithm for Electric-Power-Steering (EPS) system. Development of the EPS system with intended steering feel has been time-consuming procedure, because the feedforward map-based method has been applied to the conventional EPS system. However, in this study, a three-dimensional reference steering feel surface, which is determined from current vehicle states, is proposed. In order to track the proposed reference steering feel surface, sliding mode approach is applied to second-order steering dynamics model considering a coulomb friction model. An adaptive technique is utilized for robustness against uncertainties. In order to validate the proposed EPS control algorithm, hardware-in-the-loop simulation (HILS) has been conducted with respect to a typical steering test. It is shown that the reference steering feel is realized well by the proposed EPS control algorithm.
Technical Paper

A Numerical and Experimental Study on Power Steering Shudder

Shudder vibration of a hydraulic power steering system during parking maneuver was studied with numerical and experimental methods. To quantify vibration performance of the system and recognize important stimuli for drivers, a shudder metric was derived by correlation between objective measurements and subjective ratings. A CAE model for steering wheel vibration analysis was developed and compared with measured data. In order to describe steering input dependency of shudder, a new dynamic friction modeling method, in which the magnitude of effective damping is determined by average velocity, was proposed. The developed model was validated using the measured steering wheel acceleration and the pressure change at inlet of the steering gear box. It was shown that the developed model successfully describes major modes by comparing the calculated FRF of the hydraulic system with measured one from the hydraulic excitation test.
Technical Paper

A Performance Design of Constant Pressure Type Exhaust Brake

In commercial vehicles, the exhaust brake assists the service brake to share the excess load and is used as an auxiliary brake to assist with the safety of the engine and the service brake on downhill slopes. To meet the customer's demand for auxiliary brakes, the specification of auxiliary brakes must be determined at the product proposal stage. In this study, performance design was conducted to derive exhaust brake specifications that fit the customer's requirements. For performance design, a system model was created and key design factors with high performance contribution were extracted. Optimal specifications were derived from parameter studies for key design factors. Additionally, performance analysis was performed with design tolerances using the performance design model. Performance was verified through actual vehicle evaluation and design specifications were confirmed.
Technical Paper

A Study of Low-Friction Road Estimation using an Artificial Neural-Network

Road friction estimation algorithms had been studied for many years because it is very important factor for safety control and fuel efficiency of vehicle. But traditional solutions are hard to adapt in automotive industry because their performance is not sufficient enough and expensive to implement. Therefore, this paper proposes a road friction estimation algorithm based on a trained artificial neural-network which is low cost and robust. The suggested method doesn’t need expensive additional sensors such as optical or lidar sensor, also it shows better performance in real car environment compared to other algorithms based on vehicle dynamics. In this paper, we would describe this algorithm in detail and analyze the test results evaluated in real road conditions.
Technical Paper

A Study on Automated Tuning of the Head Gasket Coolant Passage Hole of the Gasoline Engine Cooling System Using Optimization Technology

Tuning the size and position of the cooling water holes in the head gasket during engine cooling system development is generally positioned at the final stage of the cooling system hardware design. Until now, the gasket hole tuning operation was dependent on the case study through repetitive CFD analysis. In this process, there was a difference in the optimization level by know-how and expertise of the person in charge. In this study, a gasket hole tuning technique was developed using optimization algorithms to improve the level of optimization. First, select factors and perform screening using the DOE(Design Of Experiments) method, and then find the optimal gasket hole size and arrangement through the optimal design process based on the results of the CFD analysis planned by DOE.
Technical Paper

A Study on the Acoustic Simulation for the Components of an Intake System

The reduction of intake noise is a very important factor in controlling the interior noise levels of vehicles, particularly at low and major engine operating speeds. A vehicle intake system generally consists of air cleaner box, hose, duct, and filter element. Also, resonators and porous duct are included, being used to reduce intake noise. For more accurate estimation of the transmission loss (TL), it seems important to develop a CAE model that accurately describes this system. In this paper, simple methods, which can consider the effects of filter element and vibro-acoustic coupling, are suggested which could remarkably improve estimation accuracy of the TL. The filter element is assumed as equivalent semi-rigid porous materials characterized by the flow resistivity defined by the pressure drop, velocity, and thickness.
Technical Paper

Accurate Reproduction of Wind-Tunnel Results with CFD

Aerodynamic simulation results are most of the time compared to wind tunnel results. It is too often simplistically believed that it suffice to take the CAD geometry of a car, prepare and run a CFD simulation to obtain results that should be comparable. With the industry requesting accuracies of a few drag counts when comparing CFD to wind tunnel results, a careful analysis of the element susceptible of creating a difference in the results is in order. In this project a detailed 1:4 scale model of the Hyundai Genesis was tested in the model wind tunnel of the FKFS. Five different underbody panel configurations of the car were tested going from a fully paneled car to a car without panels. The impact of the moving versus static ground was also tested, providing over all ten different experimental results for this car model.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Sensitivity and Optimization for Chassis Design Parameters on the X-Wind Stability

In the view point of driving safety, the crosswind sensitivity of a vehicle becomes more important, as the driving speed in highway gets higher in these days. The sensitivity of a vehicle to crosswind depends on many factors, including the design of the suspension and aerodynamics of the body, etc. However, the knowledge about this phenomenon has still to be improved, in order to develop vehicle with optimum characteristics for crosswind stability. In this research, the physics behind the sensitivity of a vehicle is discussed in detail through various kinds of virtual test using computer aided engineering (CAE) simulation scheme. In the first, a reliable simulation model for vehicle, driver, wind generator and interactions among them is built. This simulation model is verified by comparison with test results of real vehicle. Then, the sensitivity analysis is carried out to find out the most influential design parameters.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of the Luxury Sound Quality of a Premium Class Passenger Car

Luxury sound is one of the most important sound qualities in a premium passenger car. Previous work has shown that, because of the effects of many different interior sounds, it is difficult to evaluate the luxury sound objectively by using only the A-weighted sound pressure level. In this paper, the characteristics of such sound were first investigated by a systematic approach and a new objective evaluation method for luxury sound-the luxury sound quality index--which was developed by the systematic combination of the seven major interior sound quality indexes based on path analysis. The seven major sounds inside a passenger car were selected by a basic investigation evaluated by the members of a luxury automotive club. Seven major interior sound quality indexes were developed by using sound metrics, which are the psychoacoustic parameters, and the multiple regression method used for the modeling of the correlation between objective and subjective evaluation.
Technical Paper

Co-operative Control of Regenerative Braking using a Front Electronic Wedge Brake and a Rear Electronic Mechanical Brake Considering the Road Friction Characteristic

In this study, a co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm was developed for an electric vehicle (EV) equipped with an electronic wedge brake (EWB) for its front wheels and an electronic mechanical brake (EMB) for its rear wheels. The co-operative regenerative braking control algorithm was designed considering the road friction characteristic to increase the recuperation energy while avoiding wheel lock. A powertrain model of an EV composed of a motor, and batteries and a MATLAB model of the control algorithm were also developed. They were linked to the CarSim model of the vehicle under study to develop an EV simulator. The EMB and EWB were modeled with an actuator, screw, and wedge to develop an EMB and EWB simulator. A co-simulator for an EV equipped with an EWB for the front wheels and an EMB for the rear wheels was fabricated, composed of the EV and the EMB and EWB simulator.
Technical Paper

Combustion Process Analysis in a HSDI Diesel Engine Using a Reduced Chemical Kinetics

The combustion characteristics of a HSDI diesel engine were analyzed numerically using a reduced chemical kinetics. The reaction mechanism consisting of 26 steps and 17 species including the Zel'dovich NOx mechanism for the higher hydrocarbon fuel was implemented in the KIVA-3V. The characteristic time scale model was adopted to account for the effects of turbulent mixing on the reaction rates. The soot formation and oxidation processes are represented by Hiroyasu's model and NSC's model. The validation cases include the homogenous fuel/air mixture and the spray combustion in a constant volume chamber. After the validation, the present approach was applied to the analysis of the spray combustion processes in a HSDI diesel engine. The present approach reasonably well predicts the ignition delay, combustion processes, and emission characteristics in the high-pressure turbulent spray flame-field encountered in the practical HSDI diesel engines.
Technical Paper

Concept Study on Windshield Actuation for Active Control of Wind Noise in a Passenger Car

The windshield is an integral part of almost every modern passenger car. Combined with current developments in the automotive industry such as electrification and the integration of lightweight material systems, the reduction of interior noise caused by stochastic and transient wind excitation is deemed to be an increasing challenge for future NVH measures. Active control systems have proven to be a viable alternative compared to traditional passive NVH measures in different areas. However, for windshield actuation there are neither comparative studies nor actually established actuation concepts available to the automotive industry. This paper illustrates a comparative conceptual study on windshield actuation for the active control of wind noise in a passenger car. Making use of an experimental modal analysis of the windshield installed in a medium-sized vehicle, a reduced order numerical simulation model is derived.
Technical Paper

Control of Steer by Wire System for Reference Steering Wheel Torque Tracking and Return-Ability

This paper proposes a torque tracking algorithm via steer by wire to achieve the target steering feel and proposed a modified friction model to obtain return-ability. A three dimensional reference steering wheel torque map is designed using the measurement data of the steering characteristics of the target vehicle at a transition test and a weave test. In order to track the reference steering wheel torque, a sliding mode control is used in the tracking algorithm. In addition, to achieve return-ability, the modified friction model for steer by wire is used instead of the friction model defined in the reference steering wheel torque map. The modified friction model is composed of various models according to the angular velocity. The angular velocity and the angular acceleration used in the control algorithm are estimated using a kalman filter.
Technical Paper

Design Optimization of Alternator and Battery Systems with a Recuperation Control Algorithm for a Mid-Sized Sedan

The fuel economy of a vehicle can be improved by recuperating the kinetic energy when the vehicle is decelerated. However, if there is no electrical traction component, the recuperated energy can be used only by the other electrical systems of the vehicle. Thus, the fuel economy improvement can be maximized by balancing the recuperated energy and the consumed energy. Also, suitable alternator and battery management is required to maximize the fuel economy. This paper describes a design optimization process of the alternator and battery system equipped with recuperation control algorithms for a mid-sized sedan based on the fuel economy and system cost. A vehicle model using AVL Cruise is developed for cycle simulations and validated with experimental data. The validated model is used for the parametric study and design optimization of the alternator and battery systems with single and dual energy storage.
Technical Paper

Development of CAE Methodology for Rollover Sensing Algorithm

The Rollover CAE model is developed for Rollover sensing algorithm in this paper. By using suggested CAE model, it is possible to make sensing data of rollover test matrix and these data can be used for calibration of rollover sensing algorithm. Developed vehicle model consists of three parts: a vehicle parts, an occupant parts and a ground boundary conditions. The vehicle parts include detailed suspension model and FE structure model. The occupant parts include ATD (anthropomorphic test device) male dummy and restraint systems: Curtain Airbag and Seat-Belt. We find analytical value of the suspension model through correlation with vehicle drop test, simulate this model under the conditions of untripped (Embankment, Corkscrew) and tripped (Curb-Trip, Soil-Trip) rollover scenarios. Comparison of the simulation and experimental data shows that the simulation results of suggested CAE model can be substituted for the experimental ones in calibration of rollover sensing algorithm.
Technical Paper

Development of Finite Element US-SID and Euro-SID Model

In contrast to the other types of crash simulation, integrated analysis is needed to perform the side impact simulation, and the acquired injury values are so sensitive that they are difficult to assess by the deformed vehicle structure itself. Therefore, the accurate FE side impact dummy (US-SID, Euro-SID) models are needed to predict the various injury values in side impact simulation. In the past, rigid body model or coarse FE model have been used. The advantage of these models is low computing power, but they have lack of predictability especially in the high-speed crash analysis such as NCAP and car-to-car simulations. The deviations are caused by inaccurate geometry and improper material characteristic expression of the side impact dummy models. In this paper, the development of new side impact dummy models and their applications at full car simulations are introduced. Also, the analyses about injury values are illustrated in side impact simulation.
Technical Paper

Development of Fuel Cell Hybrid Vehicle by Using Ultra-Capacitors as a Secondary Power Source

Hyundai motor company has developed a fuel cell hybrid vehicle that has ultra-capacitors as a secondary power source. The simulation of fuel cell vehicles allows the user to analyze various types of fuel cell systems and hybrid configurations before implementing into a real system and to reduce the development time and cost. Before implementing fuel cell vehicles, a fuel cell vehicle simulation model, that has component modularity and forward facing characteristics, was developed. The simulation model was used in designing the fuel cell hybrid vehicle to select component sizes and a hybrid configuration. The hybridization by using ultra-capacitors provided better fuel economy and power response than the hybridization by using batteries.