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Technical Paper

0D/3D Simulations of Combustion in Gasoline Engines Operated with Multiple Spark Plug Technology

2015-04-14
2015-01-1243
A simulation method is presented for the analysis of combustion in spark ignition (SI) engines operated at elevated exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) level and employing multiple spark plug technology. The modeling is based on a zero-dimensional (0D) stochastic reactor model for SI engines (SI-SRM). The model is built on a probability density function (PDF) approach for turbulent reactive flows that enables for detailed chemistry consideration. Calculations were carried out for one, two, and three spark plugs. Capability of the SI-SRM to simulate engines with multiple spark plug (multiple ignitions) systems has been verified by comparison to the results from a three-dimensional (3D) computational fluid dynamics (CFD) model. Numerical simulations were carried for part load operating points with 12.5%, 20%, and 25% of EGR. At high load, the engine was operated at knock limit with 0%, and 20% of EGR and different inlet valve closure timing.
Technical Paper

A Highly Efficient Simulation-Based Calibration Method Exemplified by the Charge Control

2005-04-11
2005-01-0052
A physically based simulation program developed by IAV makes a notable reduction of test bed measurements for the calibration of the cylinder charge calculation possible. Based upon geometric engine parameters and camshaft profiles, the cylinder charge is calculated from thermodynamic relationships taking into account the contribution of residual gas. After successful engine-specific calibration of the simulation model on the basis of a reduced set of test bed measurements, it is possible to calculate the cylinder air mass over the entire range of valve timing settings and operating points (engine load and speed). The simulation-generated “virtual” measurements can then be used for calibration of the control unit software over the entire operating range.
Technical Paper

A New Approach for a Multi-Fuel, Torque Based ECU Concept using Automatic Code Generation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0267
The software design of this new engine control unit is based on a unique and homogenous torque structure. All input signals are converted into torque equivalents and a torque coordinator determines their influence on the final torque delivered to the powertrain. The basic torque structure is independent on the type of fuel and can be used for gasoline, diesel, or CNG injection systems. This allows better use of custom specific algorithms and facilitates reusability, which is supported by the graphical design tool that creates all modules using automatic code generation. Injection specific algorithms can be linked to the software by simply setting a software switch.
Technical Paper

A New Hardware-Assisted Inlet Port Development Process for Diesel Engines Using Doppler Global Velocimetry

2005-04-11
2005-01-0640
As more virtual product development is integrated into the mass-production development process and overall development times are shortened, efficient intake-port design requires closer cooperation between design, simulation and test engineers. Doppler Global Velocimetry (DGV) has become an important link in the overall intake-port development process as it provides 3D-vector fields of flow velocity. Hence, it can be used to make direct comparisons with 3D-CFD-simulation results. The present paper describes the hardware-assisted inlet port development process for diesel engines, the cooperation among port design, 3D-CFD-simulation with the creation of alternative geometries and DGV flow-measurement of preferred variants with their capability of checking and improving simulation results.
Technical Paper

A Simulation-Based Comparison of Different Power Split Configurations with Respect to the System Efficiency

2012-04-16
2012-01-0438
In power-split configuration, the input power is split into two parts, one of which is transmitted from the internal combustion engine through one or more planetary gear(s) to the wheels. The other part is generated as electricity and passes through an electrical variator to assist the driving torque. The latter has the characteristic of poor efficiency. In this simulation study, a comparison among the input power-split, compound power-split, and two mode power-split are discussed. Output power-split is not mentioned in this paper due to its limited applicability in specific vehicles. The idea of selection of the electrical machines is explained: the speed and torque of electrical machines was taken into consideration for the required transmission ratios spread.
Journal Article

Achieving Very Low PN Emissions with an Advanced Multi-Hole Injector Functionality and Adapted Spray Targeting Under High Fuel Pressure Conditions

2014-10-13
2014-01-2605
In the near future, emissions legislation will become more and more restrictive for direct injection SI engines by adopting a stringent limitation of particulate number emissions in late 2017. In order to cope with the combustion system related challenges coming along with the introduction of this new standard, Hitachi Automotive Systems Ltd., Hitachi Europe GmbH and IAV GmbH work collaboratively on demonstrating technology that allows to satisfy EU6c emissions limitations by application of Hitachi components dedicated to high pressure injection (1). This paper sets out to describe both the capabilities of a new high pressure fuel system improving droplet atomization and consequently mixture homogeneity as well as the process of utilizing the technology during the development of a demonstrator vehicle called DemoCar. The Hitachi system consists of a fuel pump and injectors operating under a fuel pressure of 30 MPa.
Technical Paper

Achieving the Max - Potential from a Variable Compression Ratio and Early Intake Valve Closure Strategy by Combination with a Long Stroke Engine Layout

2017-09-04
2017-24-0155
The combination of geometrically variable compression (VCR) and early intake valve closure (EIVC) proved to offer high potential for increasing efficiency of gasoline engines. While early intake valve closure reduces pumping losses, it is detrimental to combustion quality and residual gas tolerance due to a loss of temperature and turbulence. Large geometric compression ratio at part load compensates for the negative temperature effect of EIVC with further improving efficiency. By optimizing the stroke/bore ratio, the reduction in valve cross section at part load can result in greater charge motion and therefore in turbulence. Turbocharging means the basis to enable an increase in stroke/bore ratio, called β in the following, because the drawbacks at full load resulting from smaller valves can be only compensated by additional boosting pressure level.
Technical Paper

Advanced Turbocharger Model for 1D ICE Simulation - Part I

2013-04-08
2013-01-0581
Standard compressor and turbine maps obtained from steady-state test bench measurements are not sufficient for assessing transient turbocharger behavior. This also makes them inappropriate for gauging combustion-engine response and fuel consumption. Nor do they allow for the widely differing operating conditions which, apart from aerodynamics, have a major influence on heat transfer and turbocharger efficiency. This paper looks at a more complex approach of modeling the turbocharger as well developing appropriate measurement methods (“advanced turbocharger model”). This includes non-destructive measurements under various heat transfer conditions to define the turbocharger's adiabatic behavior needed to describe charge-air pressure increase in the compressor and engine exhaust gas backpressure from the turbine for transient engine operation.
Technical Paper

Advantages of Diesel Engine Control Using In-Cylinder Pressure Information for Closed Loop Control

2003-03-03
2003-01-0364
Increasing emissions regulations, diagnostics capability, and other demands in vehicle refinement, have led to the need for increasingly complex engine control systems. These demands have led to in-cylinder combustion control, especially for the diesel engine. Diesel engine combustion relies heavily on the auto-ignition process. Therefore accurate control of this process is important and will become even more important for HCCI-engines. This paper discusses the configuration of a diesel engine for in-cylinder combustion control. It describes the digital evaluation of the cylinder pressure signal and the computation of the physical parameters necessary for proper combustion analysis, along with methods for using the calculated combustion parameter for engine control. The paper demonstrates the advantages of electronic engine control combined with in-cylinder pressure information. The paper also addresses some of the future challenges of engine control.
Technical Paper

Air System Control for Advanced Diesel Engines

2007-04-16
2007-01-0970
In order to satisfy environmental regulations while maintaining strong performance and excellent fuel economy, advanced diesel engines are employing sophisticated air breathing systems. These include high pressure and low pressure EGR (Hybrid EGR), intake and exhaust throttling, and variable turbine geometry systems. In order to optimize the performance of these sub-systems, system level controls are necessary. This paper presents the design, benefits and test results of a model-based air system controller applied to an automotive diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Battery Simulation

2001-03-05
2001-01-0776
Battery simulation by a DSP-controlled high current power supply is used to improve repeatability and comparability of starting tests, especially at low temperatures. The simulator's algorithm calculates the internal resistance of the battery by a timely constant resistor and a variable resistor representing the actual discharge history. The output voltage of the simulator is set as a function of internal resistor and load current with temperature and state of charge as setup parameter. The simulator was evaluated in cold start testing in comparison to real batteries. As a result, batteries are simulated with high repeatability. Deviations to real battery behavior are in the range of test to test deviations using real batteries.
Technical Paper

Boost and EGR System for the Highly Premixed Diesel Combustion

2006-04-03
2006-01-0204
Advanced Diesel combustion strategies with the focus on the reduction of NOx and PM emission as well as fuel consumption need an increase of the EGR rate and therefore improved boost concepts. The suppression of the nitrogen oxide build up requires changes in the charge condition (charge temperature, EGR rate), which have to be realized by the gas exchange system. The gas exchange system of IAV's ADCS test engine was dimensioned with the help of the engine process simulation software THEMOS®. This paper shows simulation and test bench results of the potential to increase the EGR rate and the charge density at stationary and transient operation. The increase of both EGR rate and boost pressure, as well as the need for a better control of transient operation leads to greater requirements for the engine control system. The potential of the engine and its control system for an application to a demo vehicle will be assessed.
Technical Paper

Calibration of Torque Structure and Charge Control System for SI Engines Based on Physical Simulation Models

2006-04-03
2006-01-0854
A physics-based simulation program developed by IAV is used to calibrate the torque structure and cylinder charge calculation in the electronic control unit of SI engines. The model calculates both the charge cycle and combustion phase based on flow mechanics and a fractal combustion model. Once the air mass in the charge cycle has been computed, a fractal combustion model is used for the ongoing calculation of cylinder pressure and temperature. The progression of cylinder pressure over the high and low-pressure phases also provides information on engine torque. Following the engine-specific calibration of the model using elemental geometric information and reduced test bench measurements, the physical engine properties can be simulated over the operating cycle. The calibrated model allows simulations to be carried out at all operating points and the results to be treated as virtual test bench measurements.
Technical Paper

Cold Start Simulation and Test on DISI Engines Utilizing a Multi-Zone Vaporization Approach

2012-04-16
2012-01-0402
Recent years have witnessed a dramatic increase in global ethanol production, while cellulosic feedstock or the algae-based production approach make more sustainable ethanol production foreseeable in many countries. The ethanol produced will increasingly penetrate the markets not only as blending component, but also as main fuel component, boosting demand for flex-fuel vehicles. One of the main challenges for flex-fuel vehicles is the cold start due to the poor vapor pressure of ethanol. This is detrimental to starting capability in DISI engines in particular, with increased cylinder wall wetting causing higher oil dilution. The most efficient solution for DISI engines is a smart injection strategy, enabling fuel vaporization during injection in the compression stroke. But this requires optimum injection parameters such as injection timing, split ratio and rail pressure.
Technical Paper

Comparison and Evaluation of a New Innovative Drive Concept for the Air Conditioning Compressor of Electric Vehicles

2015-01-14
2015-26-0045
The development of energy efficient air conditioning systems for electric vehicles is an ever increasing challenge, because the cooling as well as the heating of the passenger compartment reduces the cruising range dramatically. Electric cars are usually equipped with a scroll compressor and a separate electric motor with appropriate power electronics. However, this solution is critical in terms of the installation space, the weight and also the costs. Therefore, an innovative and energy efficient drivetrain structure for electric vehicles was developed, which integrates the motor of the A/C-compressor directly into the drivetrain. Thus it is possible to switch off the compressor motor and to use the main motor for the drive of the compressor at certain driving situations. As a result, the operating point of the main motor can be shifted to a better efficiency.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Different Transient Air Charge Models

2005-04-11
2005-01-0051
The correct estimation of the air charge is crucial for the control of gasoline engines. This paper introduces an air charge estimation based on both physical and statistical models. For the physical model, an investigation was made to determine if the assumption of an isothermal process in the intake manifold is too strict and should be weakened to an assumption of an adiabatic process. For the adaptation of the statistical models, the Design of Experiments (DoE) method is used. The DoE method can shorten test expenses and calibration time significantly. The resulting model was tested with a 2-liter gasoline engine.
Video

Development of a Hybrid Control Strategy for an Advanced Parallel HEV Powertrain with Two Electrical Axles

2012-05-29
This paper proposes a current limits distribution control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (parallel HEV) which includes an advanced powertrain concept with two electrical driving axles. One of the difficulties of an HEV powertrain with two electrical driving axles is the ability to distribute the electrical current of one high voltage battery appropriately to the two independent electrical motors. Depending on the vehicle driving condition (i.e., car maneuver) or the maximization of the entire efficiency chain of the system, a suitable control strategy is necessary. We propose an input-output feedback linearization strategy to cope with the nonlinear system subject to input constraints. This approach needs an external, state dependent saturation element, which translates the state dependent control input saturation to the new feedback linearizing input and therefore preserves the properties of the differential geometric framework.
Technical Paper

Development of a Hybrid Control Strategy for an Advanced Parallel HEV Powertrain with Two Electrical Axles

2012-04-16
2012-01-1007
This paper proposes a current limits distribution control strategy for a parallel hybrid electric vehicle (parallel HEV) which includes an advanced powertrain concept with two electrical driving axles. One of the difficulties of an HEV powertrain with two electrical driving axles is the ability to distribute the electrical current of one high voltage battery appropriately to the two independent electrical motors. Depending on the vehicle driving condition (i.e., car maneuver) or the maximization of the entire efficiency chain of the system, a suitable control strategy is necessary. We propose an input-output feedback linearization strategy to cope with the nonlinear system subject to input constraints. This approach needs an external, state dependent saturation element, which translates the state dependent control input saturation to the new feedback linearizing input and therefore preserves the properties of the differential geometric framework.
Technical Paper

Diesel Combustion and Control Using a Novel Ignition Delay Model

2018-04-03
2018-01-1242
The future emission standards, including real driving emissions (RDE) measurements are big challenges for engine and after-treatment development. Also for development of a robust control system, in real driving emissions cycles under varied operating conditions and climate conditions, like low ambient temperature as well as high altitude are advanced physical-based algorithms beneficial in order to realize more precise, robust and efficient control concepts. A fast-running novel physical-based ignition delay model for diesel engine combustion simulation and additionally, for combustion control in the next generation of ECUs is presented and validated in this study. Detailed chemical reactions of the ignition processes are solved by a n-heptane mechanism which is coupled to the thermodynamic simulation of in-cylinder processes during the compression and autoignition phases.
Technical Paper

Effects of Charge Motion Characteristics on Engine Variables such as Emission Behavior and Efficiency

2007-04-16
2007-01-0640
Mixture formation in the combustion chamber is of paramount significance for diesel combustion processes. Particularly in inhomogeneous combustion processes with internal mixture formation, the course of combustion and composition of combustion products are heavily influenced by charge motion and material transport during the compression phase and during combustion itself. Charge motion is normally quantified in steady-state flow testing. This model-based test takes place under idealized conditions. This means that with a permanently open valve and constant pressure differential over the inlet port, a steady-state flow of air is established in the simulated cylinder. The influence of piston movement is neglected. The test delivers integral characteristic flow figures, such as swirl number, flow number and tumble number.
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