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Journal Article

A Comparative Low Speed Pre-Ignition (LSPI) Study in Downsized SI Gasoline and CI Diesel-Methane Dual Fuel Engines

2014-10-13
2014-01-2688
Low speed pre-ignition (LSPI) in downsized spark-ignition engines has been studied for more than a decade but no definitive explanation has been found regarding the exact sources of auto-ignition. No single mechanism can explain all the occurrences of LSPI and that each engine should be considered as a particular case supporting different conditions for auto-ignition. In a different context, dual fuel Diesel-Methane engines have been more recently studied in large to medium bore compression ignition engines. However, if Dual Fuel combustion is less knock sensitive, LSPI remains one of the main limitations of low-end torque also for dual fuel engines. Indeed, in some cases, premature ignition of CNG can be observed before the Diesel pilot injection as LSPI can classically be observed before the spark in gasoline engines. This article aims at highlighting the similarities and discrepancies between LSPI phenomena in SI gasoline and dual fuel engines.
Technical Paper

A Fully-Analytical Fuel Consumption Estimation for the Optimal Design of Light- and Heavy-Duty Series Hybrid Electric Powertrains

2017-03-28
2017-01-0522
Fuel consumption is an essential factor that requires to be minimized in the design of a vehicle powertrain. Simple energy models can be of great help - by clarifying the role of powertrain dimensioning parameters and reducing the computation time of complex routines aiming at optimizing these parameters. In this paper, a Fully Analytical fuel Consumption Estimation (FACE) is developed based on a novel GRaphical-Analysis-Based fuel Energy Consumption Optimization (GRAB-ECO), both of which predict the fuel consumption of light- and heavy-duty series hybrid-electric powertrains that is minimized by an optimal control technique. When a drive cycle and dimensioning parameters (e.g. vehicle road load, as well as rated power, torque, volume of engine, motor/generators, and battery) are considered as inputs, FACE predicts the minimal fuel consumption in closed form, whereas GRAB-ECO minimizes fuel consumption via a graphical analysis of vehicle optimal operating modes.
Technical Paper

A Sectional Soot Model for RANS Simulation of Diesel Engines

2014-04-01
2014-01-1590
In this paper, a sectional soot model coupled to a tabulated combustion model is compared with measurements from an experimental engine database. The sectional soot model, based on the work of Vervisch-Klakjic (Ph.D. thesis, Ecole Centrale Paris, Paris, 2011) and Netzell et al. (P. Combust. Inst., 31(1):667-674, 2007), has been implemented into IFPC3D (Bohbot et al., Oil Gas Sci Technol, 64(3):309-335, 2009), a 3D RANS solver. It enables a complex modeling of soot particles evolution, in a 3D Diesel simulation. Five distinct source terms are applied to each soot section at any time and any location of the flow. The inputs of the soot model are provided by a tabulated combustion model derived from the Engine Approximated Diffusion Flame (EADF) one (Michel and Colin, Int. J. Engine Res., 2013) and specifically modified to include the minor species required by the soot model.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Physical NOx Model for Diesel Engine Control

2013-04-08
2013-01-0356
In this paper, a new physics-based model for the prediction of NOx emissions produced by diesel engines is presented. The aim of this work is to provide a reference model for the validation of control strategies and NOx estimators. The model describes the NOx production in the burned gas zone where the burned gas temperature sub-model is adapted to be generic and tunable. The model consists of three main sub-models for the estimation of the burned gas temperature, the concentration of the species in the burned gases and the NOx formation, respectively. A new model for estimating the burned gas temperature, known to have a strong impact on thermal NOx formation rate, is proposed. The model depends on the intake burned gas ratio and the combustion phasing computed from the cylinder pressure. This model has a limited number of calibration parameters identified so that NOx model output matches with experimental data measured in a four-cylinder, four-stroke, direct-injection diesel engine.
Journal Article

Air Entrainment in Diesel-Like Gas Jet by Simultaneous Flow Velocity and Fuel Concentration Measurements, Comparison of Free and Wall Impinging Jet Configurations

2011-08-30
2011-01-1828
The air entrainment process of diesel-like gas jet was studied by simultaneous measurements of concentration and velocity fields. A high pressure gas jet was used to simulate diesel injection conditions. The injection mass flow rate was similar to that of typical diesel injection. The experiments were performed in a high pressure vessel at typical ambient gas density of diesel engine during spray injection. The ambient gas density was varied from 25 to 30 kg/m₃ and three nozzle diameters, 0.2, 0.35 and 0.5 mm were used. Both free and wall-impinging jet configurations were investigated by combining Laser-Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Particle Image Velocimetry (PIV) to obtain simultaneous planar measurements of concentration and velocity. Fuel concentration fields were used to define the edges of the jet and allow an accurate determination of the air entrainment rate both in free and wall-impinging configurations.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of the Effect of Bore-to-Stroke Ratio on a Diesel Engine

2013-09-08
2013-24-0065
The more and more severe regulations on exhaust emissions from vehicles and the worldwide demand for fuel consumption reduction impose continuous improvements of the engine thermal efficiency. Base engine geometrical setups are important aspects which have to be taken into account to improve the engine efficiency. This paper discusses the influence of the bore-to-stroke ratio on emissions, fuel consumption and full load performances of a Diesel engine. The expected advantage of a reduced bore-to-stroke ratio is mainly a decrease of the thermal losses, due to a higher volume-to-surface ratio, reducing the wall surfaces, responsible for the heat losses, per volume of gas. The advantages concerning the wall heat losses are opposed to the disadvantages of lower volumetric efficiency, as a smaller bore requires smaller valve diameter. Additionally does a reduction of the bore-to-stroke ratio lead to an increase of the friction losses, as the mean piston speed increases.
Technical Paper

An ICE Map Generation Tool Applied to the Evaluation of the Impact of Downsizing on Hybrid Vehicle Consumption

2015-09-06
2015-24-2385
Legal constraints concerning CO2 emissions have made the improvement of light duty vehicle efficiency mandatory. In result, vehicle powertrain and its development have become increasingly complex, requiring the ability to assess rapidly the effect of several technological solutions, such as hybridization or internal combustion engine (or ICE) downsizing, on vehicle CO2 emissions. In this respect, simulation is nowadays a common way to estimate a vehicle's fuel consumption on a given driving cycle. This estimation can be done with the knowledge of vehicle main characteristics, its transmission ratio and efficiency and its internal combustion engine fuel consumption map. While vehicle and transmission parameters are relatively easy to know, the ICE consumption map has to be obtained through either test bench measurements or computation.
Technical Paper

An Innovative Approach Combining Adaptive Mesh Refinement, the ECFM3Z Turbulent Combustion Model, and the TKI Tabulated Auto-Ignition Model for Diesel Engine CFD Simulations

2016-04-05
2016-01-0604
The 3-Zones Extended Coherent Flame Model (ECFM3Z) and the Tabulated Kinetics for Ignition (TKI) auto-ignition model are widely used for RANS simulations of reactive flows in Diesel engines. ECFM3Z accounts for the turbulent mixing between one zone that contains compressed air and EGR and another zone that contains evaporated fuel. These zones mix to form a reactive zone where combustion occurs. In this mixing zone TKI is applied to predict the auto-ignition event, including the ignition delay time and the heat release rate. Because it is tabulated, TKI can model complex fuels over a wide range of engine thermodynamic conditions. However, the ECFM3Z/TKI combustion modeling approach requires an efficient predictive spray injection calculation. In a Diesel direct injection engine, the turbulent mixing and spray atomization are mainly driven by the liquid/gas coupling phenomenon that occurs at moving liquid/gas interfaces.
Technical Paper

Automatic Body Fitted Hybrid Mesh Generation for Internal Combustion Engine Simulation

2014-04-01
2014-01-1133
An automatic mesh generation process for a body fitted 3D CFD code is presented in this paper along with the methodology to guarantee the mesh quality. This tool named OMEGA (Optimized MEsh Generation Automation) uses a direct coupling procedure between the IFP-C3D solver and a hybrid mesher Centaur. Thanks to this automatic procedure, the engineering time needed for body fitted 3D CFD simulation in internal combustion engines is drastically reduced from a few weeks to a few hours. Valve and piston motion laws are just given as input files and geometries and meshes are automatically moved and generated. Unlike other procedures, this automatic mesh generation does not use an intermediate geometry discretization (STL file, tetrahedral surface mesh) but directly the original CAD that has been modified thanks to the geometry motion functionalities integrated into the mesher.
Journal Article

Characterization of a Set of ECN Spray A Injectors: Nozzle to Nozzle Variations and Effect on Spray Characteristics

2013-09-08
2013-24-0037
The Engine Combustion Network (ECN) is becoming a leading group concerning the experimental and computational analysis of Engine combustion. In order to establish a coherent database for model validation, all the institutions participating to the experimental effort carry out experiments at well-defined standard conditions (in particular at Spray A conditions: 22.8kg/m3, 900K, 0% and 15% O2) and with Diesel injectors having the same specifications. Due to the rising number of ECN participants and also to unavoidable damages, additional injectors are required. This raises the question of injector's characteristics reproducibility and of the appropriate method to introduce such new injectors in the ECN network. In order to investigate this issue, a set of 8 new injectors with identical nominal Spray A specification were purchased and 4 of them were characterized using ECN standard diagnostics.
Technical Paper

Combustion Optimization of a Multi-Cylinder CI Engine Running with a Low RON Gasoline Fuel Considering Different Air Loop and After-Treatment Configurations

2017-10-08
2017-01-2264
Recent work has demonstrated the potential of gasoline-like fuels to reduce NOx and particulate emissions when used in compression ignition engines. In this context, low research octane number (RON) gasoline, a refinery stream derived from the atmospheric crude oil distillation process, has been identified as a highly valuable fuel. In addition, thanks to its higher H/C ratio and energy content compared to diesel, CO2 benefits are also expected when used in such engines. In previous studies, different cetane number (CN) fuels have been evaluated and a CN 35 fuel has been selected. The assessment and the choice of the required engine hardware adapted to this fuel, such as the compression ratio, bowl pattern and nozzle design have been performed on a single cylinder compression-ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Detonation Peninsula for TRF-Air Mixtures: Assessment for the Analysis of Auto-Ignition Events in Spark-Ignition Engines

2018-09-10
2018-01-1721
Controlling abnormal auto-ignition processes in spark-ignition engines requires understanding how auto-ignition is triggered and how it propagates inside the combustion chamber. The original Zeldovich theory regarding auto-ignition propagation was further developed by Bradley and coworkers, who highlighted different modes by considering various hot spot characteristics and thermodynamic conditions around them. Dimensionless parameters (ε, ξ) were then proposed to classify these modes and to define a detonation peninsula for H2-CO-air mixtures. This article deals with numerical simulations undertaken to check the relevancy of this original detonation peninsula when considering realistic gasoline fuels. 1D calculations of auto-ignition propagation are performed using the Tabulated Kinetics for Ignition model.
Technical Paper

Development of a Quasi-Dimensional Spray Evaporation and Mixture Formation Model for Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition Engines

2015-09-06
2015-24-2471
This paper presents a phenomenological quasi-dimensional model of the processes that lead to charge preparation in a Direct-Injection Spark-Ignition (DI-SI) engine, focusing on the physics of atomization and drop evaporation, spray development and the mutual interaction between these phenomena. Atomization and drop evaporation are addressed by means of constant-diameter drop parcels, which provide a discrete drop-size distribution. A discrete Probability Density Function (PDF) approach to fuel/air mixing is proposed, based on constant-mixture-fraction classes that interact with each other and with the drop parcels. The model has been developed in the LMS Imagine.Lab Amesim™ system simulation platform for multi-physical modeling and integrated in a generic SI combustion chamber submodel, CFM1D [15], of the IFP-Engine library.
Technical Paper

Diesel Oxidation Catalyst and HC Investigations of a Low RON Gasoline Fuel in a Compression Ignition Engine

2017-10-08
2017-01-2405
Fuels from crude oil are the main energy vector used in the worldwide transport sector. But conventional fuel and engine technologies are often criticized, especially Diesel engines with the recent “Diesel gate”. Engine and fuel co-research is one of the main leverage to reduce both CO2 footprint and criteria pollutants in the transport sector. Compression ignition engines with gasoline-like fuels are a promising way for both NOx and particulate emissions abatement while keeping lower tailpipe CO2 emissions from both combustion process, physical and chemical properties of the low RON gasoline. To introduce a new fuel/engine technology, investigation of pollutants and After-Treatment Systems (ATS) is mandatory. Previous work [1] already studied soot behavior to define the rules for the design of the Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) when used with a low RON gasoline in a compression ignition engine.
Technical Paper

Direct Injection of CNG on High Compression Ratio Spark Ignition Engine: Numerical and Experimental Investigation

2011-04-12
2011-01-0923
CNG is one of the most promising alternate fuels for passenger car applications. CNG is affordable, is available worldwide and has good intrinsic properties including high knock resistance and low carbon content. Usually, CNG engines are developed by integrating CNG injectors in the intake manifold of a baseline gasoline engine, thereby remaining gasoline compliant. However, this does not lead to a bi-fuel engine but instead to a compromised solution for both Gasoline and CNG operation. The aim of the study was to evaluate the potential of a direct injection spark ignition engine derived from a diesel engine core and dedicated to CNG combustion. The main modification was the new design of the cylinder head and the piston crown to optimize the combustion velocity thanks to a high tumble level and good mixing. This work was done through computations. First, a 3D model was developed for the CFD simulation of CNG direct injection.
Journal Article

Energy Management Strategy and Optimal Hybridization Level for a Diesel HEV

2012-04-16
2012-01-1019
The design and the supervision of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) are strongly coupled. The mutual influence between the optimal components sizing and the optimal operating points choice makes the problem complex. This was previously exposed in literature for spark ignition (SI) HEV. In this paper, we address the same issue for diesel HEV. In this case, the energy management strategy must take nitrogen oxides (NOx) emissions into account in addition to fuel consumption. This paper presents an optimal supervision strategy and its impact on the electric components sizing. The energy management strategy is based on the equivalent consumption minimization strategy (ECMS) using Pontryagin's minimum principle. It allows an adjustable trade-off between NOx and fuel consumption to be minimized. It was validated experimentally with a hardware-in-the-loop test bed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Analysis of Diluted Combustion in a Direct Injection CNG Engine Featuring Post- Euro-VI Fuel Consumption Targets

2018-04-03
2018-01-1142
The present paper is concerned with part of the work performed by Renault, IFPEN and Politecnico di Torino within a research project founded by the European Commission. The project has been focused on the development of a dedicated CNG engine featuring a 25% decrease in fuel consumption with respect to an equivalent Diesel engine with the same performance targets. To that end, different technologies were implemented and optimized in the engine, namely, direct injection, variable valve timing, LP EGR with advanced turbocharging, and diluted combustion. With specific reference to diluted combustion, it is rather well established for gasoline engines whereas it still poses several critical issues for CNG ones, mainly due to the lower exhaust temperatures. Moreover, dilution is accompanied by a decrease in the laminar burning speed of the unburned mixture and this generally leads to a detriment in combustion efficiency and stability.
Technical Paper

Exploring and Modeling the Chemical Effect of a Cetane Booster Additive in a Low-Octane Gasoline Fuel

2019-09-09
2019-24-0069
Increasing the internal combustion engine efficiency is necessary to decrease their environmental impact. Several combustion systems demonstrated the interest of low temperature combustion to move toward this objective. However, to ensure a stable combustion, the use of additives has been considered in a several studies. Amongst them, 2-Ethylhexyl nitrate (EHN) is considered as a good candidate for these systems but characterizing its chemical effect is required to optimize its use. In this study, its promoting effect (0.1 - 1% mol.) on combustion has been investigated experimentally and numerically in order to better characterize its behavior under different thermodynamic and mixture. Rapid compression machine (RCM) experiments were carried out at equivalence ratio 0.5 and pressure 10 bar, from 675 to 995 K. The targeted surrogate fuel is a mixture of toluene and n-heptane in order to capture the additive effect on both cool flame and main ignition.
Journal Article

HC-SCR on Silver-Based Catalyst: From Synthetic Gas Bench to Real Use

2011-08-30
2011-01-2092
The challenge for decreasing the emissions of compression ignition engines now remains mainly on NOx control. If the Lean NOx Trap (LNT) and Selective Catalytic Reduction by Urea (Urea-SCR) are very efficient, their extra-cost and management are a major issue for the OEMs. In that context, the selective catalytic reduction by hydrocarbons (HC-SCR) appears to be an interesting alternative solution, with a more limited NOx conversion efficiency but an easier packaging (diesel fuel as a reductant) and a limited price (reasonable coating cost / no PGM). In the framework of the RedNOx project, a prototype catalyst made of 2% silver on Alumina coated on cordierite was manufactured and tested on a synthetic gas bench. In parallel, an exhaust implementation study has been led to ensure the most suited conditions for injection. Thanks to SGB and simulation results, adapted engine tests have been designed and performed.
Technical Paper

How to Improve Light Duty Diesel Based on Heavy Duty Diesel Thermodynamic Analysis?

2013-04-08
2013-01-1623
The Diesel engine has now become a vital component of the transport sector, in view of its performance in terms of efficiency and therefore CO2 emissions some 25 % less than a traditional gasoline engine, its main competitor. However, the introduction of more and more stringent regulations on engine emissions (NOx, PM) requires complex after-treatment systems and combustion strategies to decrease pollutant emissions (regeneration strategies, injection strategies, …) with some penalty in fuel consumption. It becomes necessary to find new ways to improve the Diesel efficiency in order to maintain its inherent advantage. In the present work, we are looking for strategies and technologies to reduce Diesel engine fuel consumption. Based on the observation that large Diesel engines have a better efficiency than the smaller ones, a detailed thermodynamic combustion analysis of one Heavy Duty (HD) engine and two Passenger car (PC) engines is performed to understand these differences.
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