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Technical Paper

Development of New Hydraulic Fluids Specifications for Construction Machinery

Hydraulic fluid (HF) specifications for mobile construction equipment called JCMAS HK and HKB have been established by the Fuels and Lubricants Committee of Japan Construction Mechanization Association (JCMA). The specifications are designated by two viscosity categories of single grade and multigrade. Each category has ISO viscosity grade (VG) 32 and 46. The JCMAS HK oils are recommended for use in hydraulic systems designed at pressure up to 34.3MPa(5000psi) and to heat hydraulic fluid up to 100 °C. These oils also provide wear control, friction performance, oxidation and rust protection, seal swell control and filterability performance. Two piston pump test procedures were developed to evaluate lubricating performance of these oils under high pressure conditions. The JACMAS HKB oils are classified as environmentally friendly oils due to the additional requirement for biodegradability.
Journal Article

Impact of Boundary Lubrication Performance of Engine Oils on Friction at Piston Ring-Cylinder Liner Interface

To explore the measures that can be used to improve the fuel economy of internal combustion engines, we investigated how friction at the piston ring-cylinder liner interface is influenced by the boundary lubrication performance of engine oils. We formulated several engine oils with varying boundary lubrication performance and tested them for ring-liner friction by using a floating liner friction tester. We used friction modifiers (FMs) to modify the boundary lubrication performance of engine oils. We found that ring-liner friction is well correlated with the friction coefficients in boundary lubrication regimes when measured by a laboratory friction tester. We also found that the impact of the boundary lubrication performance of engine oils was emphasized in low viscosity engine oils. It makes it possible for improved boundary lubrication performance to inhibit or overcome the viscosity reduction-induced increase of friction energy.
Technical Paper

JCMAS New Grease Specifications for Construction Machinery

Since construction machinery manufacturers recommend various brands and types of greases for their machinery, customers would benefit from a standardized grease which can be used in all construction machinery. Furthermore, construction machinery manufacturers have many experiences of field problems caused by commercially available and commonly used EP Lithium greases. Therefore, the Fuels and Lubricants Committee of Japan Construction Mechanization Association (JCMA) has developed a new grease specification called “Japan Construction Mechanization Association Specification (JCMAS) GK,” for construction equipment. The JCMAS GK includes requirements for National Lubrication and Grease Institute (NLGI) No. 1 and No. 2 consistency grades. The JCMAS GK greases have enough lubricating properties for periodical grease fitting of most construction machines, hydraulic excavators, bulldozers and wheel loaders. The JCMAS GK greases are applicable from -20 to +130 degrees Celsius.
Technical Paper

Steric Effects on Tribochemical Reactivity in Detergent-Containing Lubricants under Nanoconfinement

Modern formulation in a wide variety of lubricants including engine oils and transmission fluids is designed to control friction through film-forming tribochemical reactions induced by the functional additives mixtures. Although many cases on the synergistic or antagonistic effects of additives on friction have been reported, their mechanisms are poorly understood. This study focused on the influences of metallic detergents on tribochemical reactions. We examined the mechanical properties of detergent-containing lubricants confined at a single-asperity contact and their contributions to tribochemical phenomena. We found that detergents enlarged the confinement space required for generating repulsive force and shear resistance. This means that these detergents provide steric effects under nanoconfinement at interfacial contacts.
Technical Paper

The Development of Lubricating Oils for Rotary Racing Engines

In order to achieve the highest power output and lowest fuel consumption for the rotary engine in endurance race such as Le Mans, two types of lubricating oils were developed by conducting a single - rotor engine test at the rotational speed of 7500 rpm under full load. One was the engine oil for the lubrication of the combustion chamber. The other was a so - called system oil for lubrication of the engine system outside the combustion chamber. The conclusions obtained from the development are as follows: 1) Engine oil for the combustion chamber The engine oil greatly influences spitback phenomenon1) which can cause rotary engine trouble in an endurance race. The spitback phenomenon is decreased by the decrease of carbonaceous deposit and ash in the apex seal grooves.
Technical Paper

The Development of PAG Refrigeration Lubricants for Air Conditioner with HFC134a

In order to clarify the relationship between the chemical structure of PAG (polyalkylene glycol) and the performance characteristics as the refrigeration lubricants used for HFC134a, performance tests were conducted using PAGs with different end groups and alkylene oxide chains in the presence of HFC134a. Newly developed dimethyl ether capped PAGs having more than 70 mol.% PO (propylene oxide) to less than 30 mol.% EO (ethylene oxide) as a monomer ratio were the most preferable of all PAGs tested. The refrigeration lubricants using these PAGs have been successfully introduced into the market for mobile air conditioning systems with refrigerant HFC134a.