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Technical Paper

Air and Fuel Characteristics in the Intake Port of a SI Engine

The interaction of fuel sprays and airflow in the intake system of a port fuel-injected spark-ignition engine has been examined experimentally in a pulsating-flow rig which comprised the cylinder head and intake manifold of a production engine connected to a large-capacity plenum chamber, with the camshaft of the intake valves driven by an electrical motor at engine speeds between 1000 and 5000 rpm and with air sucked through the system by a suction fan. Static pressure measurements in the intake port showed periodic pulsations with frequencies of 360 and 200 Hz with open and closed valves, respectively, and these corresponded to quarter- and half-waves in the manifold and were independent of engine speed.
Technical Paper

An Approach to Charge Stratification in Lean-Burn, Spark- Ignition Engines

A constant-volume combustion chamber was used to examine injection of a small quantity of slightly rich fuel/air mixture towards the spark plug around the time of ignition, in an overall very lean mixture rotating at velocities representative of modern spark-ignition engines. The results show that it is possible to achieve 100% ignitability with overall air-fuel ratios in excess of 50 and much faster burn rates than those with initially homogenous mixtures of the same equivalence ratio with high swirl and turbulence. The advantages of this method of local charge stratification have been demonstrated in terms of both pressure measurements and shadowgraphs of the early flame development while the transient characteristics of the injected rich mixture at the spark plug gap were monitored by a fast flame ionization detector.
Technical Paper

Control of A/F Ratio During Engine Transients

Variations in air-fuel ratio within a 16-valve port-injection spark-ignition engine have been examined as a consequence of rapid transients in load at constant speed with fuel injection controlled by the production engine-management system and by a custom-built controller. The purpose was to minimize excursions from stoichiometry by the use of a controller to impose an injection strategy, guided by results obtained with the production management system. The strategy involves a model that takes account of manifold filling and the delays in transport of fuel from the injectors to the cylinder. The results show that the excursions in air-fuel ratio from stoichiometry were reduced from more than 25% to 6%.
Technical Paper

Cyclic Variations of Initial Flame Kernel Growth in a Honda VTEC-E Lean-Burn Spark-Ignition Engine

Lean combustion in spark-ignition engines has long been recognised as a means of reducing both exhaust emissions and fuel consumption. However, problems associated with cycle-by-cycle variations in flame initiation and development limit the range of lean-burn operation. An experimental investigation was undertaken in order to quantify the effects of spark energy released and initial flame kernel growth on the cyclic variability of IMEP and crank angle at which 5% mass fraction was burned in a Honda VTEC-E, stratified-charge, pentroof-type, single-cylinder, optically accessed, spark-ignition engine. Simultaneous CCD images of the flame at the spark plug were acquired from two orthogonal views (one through the piston crown and one through the pentroof) on a cycle-by-cycle basis during the first 40 crank angle degrees after ignition timing, for isooctane port injection at an air to fuel ratio of 22, engine speed of 1500 RPM, 30% volumetric efficiency and 40° crank angle spark advance.
Technical Paper

Droplet Velocity/Size and Mixture Distribution in a Single-Cylinder Four-Valve Spark-Ignition Engine

Laser Doppler velocimetry, phase Doppler anemometry and Mie scattering were applied to a single-cylinder, four-valve, spark-ignition gasoline research engine equipped with a fully transparent liner and piston, to obtain information about the tumble flow and the droplet size and velocity distributions during induction and compression, for lean air/fuel mixture ratios of 17.5 and 24 and with closed-valve and open-valve fuel injection. The mixture distribution obtained with the two injection strategies was correlated with flame images, pressure analysis and exhaust emissions which confirmed the advantages of combining open-valve injection with tumble to allow stable and efficient engine operation at an air/fuel ratio of 24 through charge stratification and faster flame growth.
Technical Paper

Effect of Tumble Strength on Combustion and Exhaust Emissions in a Single-Cylinder, Four-Valve, Spark-Ignition Engine

Direct flame imaging and pressure analysis were applied to the combustion of gasoline and compressed natural gas (CNG) in a single-cylinder, four-valve spark-ignition engine equipped with optical access via quartz windows in the cylinder liner and piston crown. Tests were performed at three engine speed/load conditions and at equivalence ratios of 1.0, 0.9 and 0.8. The four-valve head incorporated two different port geometries, with and without metal sleeves to deflect the intake air flow, in order to investigate the effect of tumble strength on combustion and engine-out emissions of unburned hydrocarbons and NOx. The results showed that sleeving of the intake ports produced a significant increase in IMEP and a reduction in CoV IMEP for both CNG and gasoline, due to the greatly reduced bum duration.
Technical Paper

Flow and Combustion in a Four-Valve, Spark-Ignition Optical Engine

The in-cylinder flow during induction and compression in the pentroof chamber of a four-valve, single-cylinder, spark-ignition optical engine was quantified by LDV and correlated with combustion development especially under lean mixture conditions. The tumble-generating capacity of the cylinder head was first characterised by a tumble adaptor under steady flow conditions and, subsequently, enhanced by two sleeves introduced into the intake ports which generated a stronger tumbling motion.
Technical Paper

Fuel Droplets Inside a Firing Spark-Ignition Engine

Experiments have been performed in one cylinder of a production two-valve engine under firing conditions and quantify the velocity, size and number density of droplets as a function of position, crank angle, injection timing, rotational speed, load and cooling water temperature. They were obtained with a phase-Doppler velocimeter with measurements ensembled in relation to an optical shaft encoder. The engine was also instrumented to provide pressure traces, air and fuel flow rates and temperatures. The injection timings included those with open and closed inlet valve. The results show that most of the droplets emerge in a comparatively small region of the inlet valve and that the characteristics of the spray are important mainly when injection takes place with the inlet valve open.
Technical Paper

Imaging of Lean Premixed Flames in Spark-Ignition Engines

Two optical single-cylinder spark-ignition engines equipped with two- and four-valve cylinder heads were used to examine the flow and flame interaction under lean mixture conditions. Images of the developing flame under quiescent, swirl, low tumble and high tumble flow conditions corresponding to a wide range of mean velocity and turbulence levels around the time of ignition were obtained with an image-intensified CCD camera using the light radiated by the flame and the flow in the vicinity of the spark plug was quantified by laser Doppler velocimetry. In the case of the tumbling flow, the flame images were software-processed to allow estimation of the total flame area, the displacement of its centre as a function of crank angle and their correlation with the cylinder pressure.