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Technical Paper

A Compact Dual CAM Variable Valve Operation System to Improve Volumetric Efficiency of Small Engines

Setting the correct valve timing and lift based on the operating speed will be the key to achieving good volumetric efficiency and torque. Continuously variable valve timing systems are the best choice but are too expensive. In this work a novel two stage variable valve actuation system was conceived and developed for a small single cylinder three wheeler spark ignition engine. The constraints were space, cost and complexity. The developed system uses one cam for low speeds and another cam that has a higher lift and duration for high speeds. The shift between the cams occurs through the mechanism even as the engine runs by the operation of a stepper motor which can be connected to the engine controller. A one dimensional simulation model validated with experimental data was used to predict the suitable valve timings and lifts in low and high speed ranges. Two profiles were then selected.
Technical Paper

Air Assisted Direct Cylinder Barrel Injection of Gasoline in a Two-Stroke S.I. Engine

This experimental study was aimed at improving a two-stroke S.I engine by injecting gasoline with air assistance through the cylinder barrel. Experimentally obtained performance and emission parameters of the engine at 25% and 100% throttle positions were analyzed at 3000 rpm. The timing of air assisted injection was optimized at 25% throttle and 3000 rpm. The performance and emissions of the engine were compared with those obtained with an optimized manifold injection system. In all cases the best spark timing was used. At 25% throttle although the thermal efficiency was increased only slightly, there was a significant reduction in HC emissions to 6.63 g/kW-h with cylinder barrel injection from 10.69 g/kW-h with manifold injection due to reduced short circuiting of the fuel. There was a reduction in NO emissions as well with cylinder barrel injection. Comparisons were made at the point of highest thermal efficiency at 100% throttle also.
Journal Article

Analysis of In-Cylinder Air Motion in a DI Diesel Engine with Four Different Piston Bowl Configuration - A CFD and PIV Comparison

Air motion inside the engine cylinder plays a predominant role on combustion and emission processes. An attempt has been made in this investigation to simulate the in-cylinder air motion in a DI diesel engine with four different piston configurations such as dome piston, bowl on dome and pentroof piston and pentroof offset bowl piston. For computational analysis, the commercial general purpose code STAR-CD Es-ice has been used, which works on the method of finite volume. To validate the simulation, qualitative and quantitative comparisons have been done with the PIV results available in the literature. From this study, the best possible piston configuration has been arrived at.
Journal Article

Effect of Manifold Orientation on Non-Reacting In-Cylinder Tumble Flows in an IC Engine with Pentroof Piston - An Investigation Using PIV

This paper deals with experimental study of in-cylinder tumble flows in a single-cylinder, four-stroke, two-valve internal combustion engine using a pentroof-offset-bowl piston under non-reacting conditions with four intake manifold orientations at an engine speed of 1000 rev/min., during suction and compression strokes using particle image velocimetry. Two-dimensional in-cylinder tumble flow measurements and analysis are carried out in combustion space on a vertical plane passing through cylinder axis. Ensemble average velocity vectors are used to analyze the tumble flows. Tumble ratio (TR) and average turbulent kinetic energy (TKE) are evaluated and used to characterize the tumble flows. From analysis of results, it is found that at end of compression stroke, 90° intake manifold orientation shows an improvement in TR and TKE compared other intake manifold orientations considered.
Technical Paper

Effect of Mixture Distribution on Combustion and Emission Characteristics in a GDI Engine - A CFD Analysis

Mixture distribution in the combustion chamber of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines significantly affects combustion, performance and emission characteristics. The mixture distribution in the engine cylinder, in turn, depends on many parameters viz., fuel injector hole diameter and orientation, fuel injection pressure, the start of fuel injection, in-cylinder fluid dynamics etc. In these engines, the mixture distribution is broadly classified as homogeneous and stratified. However, with currently available engine parameters, it is difficult to objectively classify the type of mixture distribution. In this study, an attempt is made to objectively classify the mixture distribution in GDI engines using a parameter called the “stratification index”. The analysis is carried out on a four-stroke wall-guided GDI engine using computational fluid dynamics (CFD).
Technical Paper

Effects of Cylinder Head Geometry on Mixture Stratification, Combustion and Emissions in a GDI Engine - A CFD Analysis

Preparation of air-fuel mixture and its stratification, plays the key role to determine the combustion and emission characteristics in a gasoline direct injection (GDI) engine working in stratified conditions. The mixture stratification is mainly influenced by the in-cylinder flow structure, which mainly relies upon engine geometry i.e. cylinder head, intake port configuration, piston profile etc. Hence in the present analysis, authors have attempted to comprehend the effect of cylinder head geometry on the mixture stratification, combustion and emission characteristics of a GDI engine. The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) analysis is carried out on a single-cylinder, naturally-aspirated four-stroke GDI engine having a pentroof shaped cylinder head. The analysis is carried out at four pentroof angles (PA) viz., 80 (base case), 140, 200 and 250 with the axis of the cylinder.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Flow Analysis in a Two-Stroke Engine - A Comparison of Different Turbulence Models Using CFD

This paper deals with in-cylinder flow field analysis in a motored two-stroke engine by CFD technique using STAR-CD. The main aim of this study is to find out the best turbulence model which predicts the fluid flow field inside the cylinder of a two-stroke engine. In this study, a single-cylinder, two-stroke engine which is very commonly used for two-wheeler application in India is considered. Entire analysis is done at an engine speed of 1500 rev/min. under motoring conditions. Here, three commonly used turbulence models viz. standard k-ε, Chen k-ε and RNG k-ε are considered. In addition, experiments were also conducted on the above engine at the motoring conditions to measure velocity vectors of in-cylinder flow fields using particle image velocimetry (PIV). The results of PIV were also used for validating the CFD predictions.
Technical Paper

Influence of a High-Swirling Helical Port with Axisymmetric Piston Bowls on In-Cylinder Flow in a Small Diesel Engine

This paper deals with a numerical investigation on swirl generation by a helical intake port and its effects on in-cylinder flow characteristics with axisymmetric piston bowls in a small four-valve direct injection diesel engine. The novelty of this study is in determining the appropriate design and orientation of the helical port to generate high swirl. A commercial CFD software STAR-CD is used to perform the detailed three dimensional simulations. Preliminary studies were carried out at steady state conditions with the helical port which demonstrated a good swirl potential and the CFD predictions were found to have reasonably good agreement with the experimental data taken from literature. For transient cold flow simulations, the STAR-CD code was validated with Laser Doppler Velocimetry (LDV) experimental velocity components’ measurements available in literature.
Journal Article

Investigating Combustion in a Mini Internal Combustion Engine

Owing to a high power-to-weight ratio, mini internal combustion engine is used in propelling an unmanned air vehicle. In comparison to the performance characteristics, the investigations on the combustion aspects of mini engines are scanty. This investigation concerns study of the combustion process of a mini engine and its variability. For this purpose, the experimental cylinder pressure histories were obtained on a laboratory set-up of a 7.45 cm3 capacity mini engine. The analyses of experimental data at different throttle settings reveal that there existed a varied range of rich and lean misfiring limits around a reference equivalence ratio that corresponds to the respective maximum indicated mean effective pressure. At the limiting equivalence ratios, cylinder pressure measurements showed a high degree of cycle-to-cycle variations. In some cases, a slow combustion or misfiring event preceded a rapid combustion.
Technical Paper

Simulation and Experimental Evaluation of Air Cooling for Motorcycle Engine

For more than a decade there is a progressive demand for fuel efficient and high specific power output engines. Optimization of engine cooling and thermal management is one of the important activities in engine design and development. In the present paper an effort has been made to simulate the heat transfer modes of cylinder block and head for a present 4-stroke air-cooled motorcycle engine. Two and three-dimensional decoupled and conjugate heat transfer analysis has been done with commercially available computational fluid dynamics (CFD) codes. Experimental results are also presented. A complete simulation model has been developed and CFD techniques have been applied to design and optimize air cooling surfaces of cylinder head and block, for an air cooled motorcycle engine. The two dimensional analysis is an easy and fast method to predict fin surface temperature, heat transfer co-efficient and flow velocity.