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Technical Paper

Analysis of the Effects of Certain Alcohol and Furan-Based Biofuels on Controlled Auto Ignition

For gasoline engines controlled autoignition provides the vision of enabling the fuel consumption benefit of stratified lean combustion systems without the drawback of additional NOx aftertreatment. In this study the potential of certain biofuels on this combustion system was assessed by single-cylinder engine investigations using the exhaust strategy "combustion chamber recirculation" (CCR). For the engine testing sweeps in the internal EGR rate with different injection strategies as well as load sweeps were performed. Of particular interest was to reveal fuel differences in the achievable maximal load as well as in the NOx emission behavior. Additionally, experiments with a shock tube and a rapid compression machine were conducted in order to determine the ignition delay times of the tested biofuels concerning controlled autoignition-relevant conditions.
Technical Paper

Balancing of Engine Oil Components in a DI Diesel Engine with Exhaust Gas Aftertreatment

The influence of oil related emissions became more important in the past due to reduced engine-out emissions of combustion engines. Additionally the efficiency of exhaust gas after treatment components is influenced by oil derived components. A balancing of relevant engine oil components (Ca, Mg, Zn, P, S, Mo, B, Fe, Al, Cu) is presented in this paper. The oil components deposited in the combustion chamber, in the exhaust system as well as in the aftertreatment devices were determined and quantified. Therefore a completely cleaned DI Diesel engine with oxidation catalyst, Diesel particulate filter (DPF) and NOx adsorber catalyst (LNT) was operated in different operating conditions for 500 h in a development test cell. The operation included lean/rich cycling for NOx trap regeneration. After finishing the 500 h test procedure the engine was completely disassembled and all deposits were analyzed.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Diesel Combustion and Emissions with Newly Derived Biogenic Alcohols

Modern biofuels offer the potential to decrease engine out emissions while at the same time contributing to a reduction of greenhouse gases produced from individual mobility. In order to deeply investigate and improve the complete path from biofuel production to combustion, in 2007 the cluster of excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University. Since then, a whole variety of possible fuel candidates have been identified and investigated. In particular oxygenated fuels (e.g. alcohols, furans) have proven to be beneficial regarding the particulate matter (PM)/ NOx trade-off [1, 2, 3] in diesel-type combustion. Alcohols that provide a longer ignition delay than diesel might behave even better with regard to this trade-off due to higher homogenization of the mixture. Recent studies carried out within the Cluster of Excellence have discovered new pathways to derive 1-octanol from biomass [4], which features a derived cetane number (DCN) of 39.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels for Future Advanced Diesel Combustion Engines

The finite nature and instability of fossil fuel supply has led to an increasing and enduring investigation demand of alternative and regenerative fuels. The Institute for Combustion Engines at the RWTH Aachen University carried out an investigation program to explore the potential of tailor made fuels to reduce engine-out emissions while maintaining engine efficiency and an acceptable noise level. To enable optimum engine performance a range of different hydrocarbons having different fuel properties like cetane number, boiling temperature and different molecular compositions have been investigated. Paraffines and naphthenes were selected in order to better understand the effects of molecular composition and chain length on emissions and performance of an engine that was already optimized for advanced combustion performance. The diesel single-cylinder research engine used in this study will be used to meet Euro 6 emissions limits and beyond.
Technical Paper

Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass: Influence of Molecular Structures on the Exhaust Gas Emissions of Compression Ignition Engines

In order to deeply investigate and improve the complete path from biofuel production to combustion, the cluster of excellence “Tailor-Made Fuels from Biomass” was installed at RWTH Aachen University in 2007. Recently, new pathways have been discovered to synthesize octanol [1] and di-n-butylether (DNBE). These molecules are identical in the number of included hydrogen, oxygen and carbon atoms, but differ in the molecular structure: for octanol, the oxygen atom is at the end of the molecule, whereas for DNBE it is located in the middle. In this paper the utilization of octanol and DNBE in a state-of-the-art single cylinder diesel research engine will be discussed. The major interest has been on engine emissions (NOx, PM, HC, CO, noise) compared to conventional diesel fuel.