Refine Your Search




Search Results

Technical Paper

A 1,5 KW Electric Power Microcogeneration Unit Suitable for Domestic Applications

The paper discusses the concept, specification and overall performance of a small microcogeneration unit of about 1,5 kW of electric power and about 4,5 kW of thermal power, suitable for domestic applications, designed at Istituto Motori CNR of Italy. This unit has been conceived specifically as a energy conversion system for houses, having in durability, electric and thermal efficiency the most important goals to be achieved. The paper starts by defining the state of art of small power microcogeneration units and then the ratio which leaded to the adoption of a single cylinder internal combustion engine derived from a motorcycle unit, in order to produce the above mentioned electric and thermal power. This is followed by an explanation of the main design characteristics of the system, with a discussion over the modified elements, made to enhance electric efficiency, emissions and durability and reduce, at the same time, cost coming from new design and manufacture.
Journal Article

A Comparison Between External and Internal Resonators Employment to Reduce the Gas-Dynamic Noise of a SI Engine

This paper reports 1D and 3D CFD analyses aiming to improve the gas-dynamic noise emission of a downsized turbocharged VVA engine through the re-design of the intake air-box device, consisting in the introduction of external or internal resonators. Nowadays, modern spark-ignition (SI) engines show more and more complex architectures that, while improving the brake specific fuel consumption (BSFC), may be responsible for the increased noise radiation at the engine intake mouth. In particular VVA systems allow for the actuation of advanced valve strategies that provide a reduction in the BSFC at part load operations thanks to the intake line de-throttling. In these conditions, due to a less effective attenuation of the pressure waves that travel along the intake system, VVA engines produce higher gas-dynamic noise levels.
Technical Paper

A Mixing Timescale Model for PDF Simulations of LTC Combustion Process in Internal Combustion Engines

Transported probability density function (PDF) methods are currently being pursued as a viable approach to model the effects of turbulent mixing and mixture stratification, especially for new alternative combustion modes as for example Homogeneous Charge Compression ignition (HCCI) which is one of the advanced low temperature combustion (LTC) concepts. Recently, they have been applied to simple engine configurations to demonstrate the importance of accurate accounting for turbulence/chemistry interactions. PDF methods can explicitly account for the turbulent fluctuations in species composition and temperature relative to mean value. The choice of the mixing model is an important aspect of PDF approach. Different mixing models can be found in the literature, the most popular is the IEM model (Interaction by Exchange with the Mean). This model is very similar to the LMSE model (Linear Mean Square Estimation).
Journal Article

A Modeling Study of Cyclic Dispersion Impact on Fuel Economy for a Small Size Turbocharged SI Engine

In this paper, the results of an extensive experimental analysis regarding a twin-cylinder spark-ignition turbocharged engine are employed to build up an advanced 1D model, which includes the effects of cycle-by-cycle variations (CCVs) on the combustion process. Objective of the activity is to numerically estimate the CCV impact primarily on fuel consumption and knock behavior. To this aim, the engine is experimentally characterized in terms of average performance parameters and CCVs at high and low load operation. In particular, both a spark advance and an air-to-fuel ratio (α) sweep are actuated. Acquired pressure signals are processed to estimate the rate of heat release and the main combustion events. Moreover, the Coefficient of Variation of IMEP (CoVIMEP) and of in-cylinder peak pressure (CoVpmax) are evaluated to quantify the cyclic dispersion and identify its dependency on peak pressure position.
Technical Paper

A Non-Linear Regression Technique to Estimate from Vibrational Engine Data the Instantaneous In-Cylinder Pressure Peak and Related Angular Position

In this paper, a downsized twin-cylinder turbocharged spark-ignition engine is experimentally investigated at test-bench in order to verify the potential to estimate the peak pressure value and the related crank angle position, based on vibrational data acquired by an accelerometer sensor. Purpose of the activity is to provide the ECU of additional information to establish a closed-loop control of the spark timing, on a cycle-by-cycle basis. In this way, an optimal combustion phasing can be more properly accomplished in each engine operating condition. Engine behavior is firstly characterized in terms of average thermodynamic and performance parameters and cycle-by-cycle variations (CCVs) at high-load operation. In particular, both a spark advance and an A/F ratio sweep are actuated. In-cylinder pressure data are acquired by pressure sensors flush-mounted within the combustion chamber of both cylinders.
Journal Article

Alternative Diesel Fuels Effects on Combustion and Emissions of an Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

The present paper describes some results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori of CNR aimed at studying the impact of FAME and GTL fuel blends on the performance, emissions and fuel consumption of the latest-generation automotive diesel engines. The investigation was carried out on the newly released GM 2.0L 4-cylinder “torque-controlled” Euro 5 diesel engine for PC application and followed previous tests on its Euro 4 version, in order to track the interaction between the alternative fuels and the diesel engine, as the technology evolves. Various blends of first generation biodiesels (RME, SME) and GTL with a reference diesel fuel were tested, notably B20, B50 and B100. The tests were done in a wide range of engine operation points for the complete characterization of the biodiesels performance in the NEDC cycle, as well as in full load conditions.
Technical Paper

An Assessment of Predictivity of CFD Computations of Combustion and Pollutants Formation in D.I. Diesel Engines

In the present paper the status of development of diesel combustion and pollutants formation modelling at Diesel Engines and Fuels Research Division of Istituto Motori is pointed out. The main features and performances of the model are discussed comparing the numerical results with some experimental data. For the experiments a single cylinder direct injection diesel engine was used. In the head of the engine two small quartz windows have been mounted, in order to obtain pictures of the injection and combustion processes by high speed cinematography, and to apply the two colour technique for soot temperature and soot loading measurements. The soot loading was measured by the two colour technique and the a priori and the experimental uncertainties of the measurement technique were carefully evaluated. In addition, the engine may be also equipped with a second head, in which a fast acting valve allows the direct sampling of the combustion products.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of Alcohol/Diesel Fuel Blends on Combustion and Emissions in a Single-Cylinder Compression Ignition Engine

UV-visible digital imaging and 2D chemiluminescence were applied on a single cylinder optically accessible compression ignition engine to investigate the effect of different alcohol/diesel fuel blends on the combustion mechanism. The growing request for greenhouse gas emission reduction imposes to consider the use of alternative fuels with the aim of both partially replacing the diesel fuel and reducing the fossil fuel consumption. To this purpose, the use of ABE (Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol) fermentation could represent an effective solution. Even if the different properties of alcohols compared to Diesel fuel limit the maximum blend concentration, low blend volume fractions can be used for improving combustion efficiency and exhaust emissions. The main objective of this study was to investigate the effects of the different fuel properties on the combustion evolution within the combustion chamber of a prototype optically accessible compression ignition engine.
Technical Paper

An Experimental and Numerical Investigation of GDI Spray Impact over Walls at Different Temperatures

Internal combustion engines performance greatly depends on the air-fuel mixture formation and combustion processes. In gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines, in particular, the impact of the liquid spray on the piston or cylinder walls is a key factor, especially if mixture formation occurs under the so-called wall-guided mode. Impact causes droplets rebound and/or deposition of a liquid film (wallfilm). After being rebounded, droplets undergo what is called secondary atomization. The wallfilm may remain of no negligible size, so that fuel vapor rich zones form around it leading to so-called pool-flames (flames placed in the piston pit), hence to unburned hydrocarbons (HC) and particulate matter (PM) formation. A basic study of the spray-wall interaction is here performed by directing a multi-hole GDI spray against a real shape engine piston, possibly heated, under standard air conditions.
Technical Paper

An experimental investigation on combustion and engine performance and emissions of a methane-gasoline dual-fuel optical engine

The use of methane as supplement to liquid fuel is one of the solution proposed for the reduction of the internal combustion engine pollutant emissions. Its intrinsic properties as the high knocking resistance and the low carbon content makes methane the most promising clean fuel. The dual fuel combustion mode allows improving the methane combustion acting mainly on the methane slow burning velocity and allowing lean burn combustion mode. An experimental investigation was carried out to study the methane-gasoline dual fuel combustion. Methane was injected in combustion chamber (DI fuel) while gasoline was injected in the intake manifold (PFI fuel). The measurements were carried out in an optically accessible small single-cylinder four-stroke engine. It was equipped with the cylinder head of a commercial 250 cc motorcycles engine representative of the most popular two-wheel vehicles in Europe.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Diesel Injector Nozzle Flow Number Impact on Emissions and Performance of a Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

The present paper describes the results of a research project aimed at studying the impact of nozzle flow number on a Euro5 automotive diesel engine, featuring Closed-Loop Combustion Control. In order to optimize the trade-offs between fuel economy, combustion noise, emissions and power density for the next generation diesel engines, general trend among OEMs is lowering nozzle flow number and, as a consequence, nozzle hole size. In this context, three nozzle configurations have been characterized on a 2.0L Euro5 Common Rail Diesel engine, coupling experimental activities performed on multi-cylinder and optical single cylinder engines to analysis on spray bomb and injector test rigs. More in detail, this paper deeply describes the investigation carried out on the multi-cylinder engine, specifically devoted to the combustion evolution and engine performance analysis, varying the injector flow number.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Dual Fuel Combustion in Single Cylinder Research Engine Fueled with Methane and Diesel by IR Diagnostics

In the present study, dual fuel mode is investigated in a single cylinder optical compression ignition (CI) research engine. Methane is injected in the intake manifold while the diesel is delivered via the standard injector directly into the engine. The aim is to study by non-intrusive diagnostics the effect of increasing methane concentration at constant injected diesel amount during the combustion evolution from start of combustion. IR imaging is applied in cycle resolved mode. Three filters are adopted to detect from injection to combustion phase with high spatial and temporal resolution: OD1.45 (3-5.5 μm), band pass 3.3 μm (hydrocarbons) and band pass 4.2 μm (CO2). Using the band pass IR imaging qualitative information about fuel-vapor distribution and ignition locations during low and high temperature combustion have been provided.
Journal Article

Analysis of Knock Tendency in a Small VVA Turbocharged Engine Based on Integrated 1D-3D Simulations and Auto-Regressive Technique

In the present paper, two different methodologies are adopted and critically integrated to analyze the knock behavior of a last generation small size spark ignition (SI) turbocharged VVA engine. Particularly, two full load operating points are selected, exhibiting relevant differences in terms of knock proximity. On one side, a knock investigation is carried out by means of an Auto-Regressive technique (AR model) to process experimental in-cylinder pressure signals. This mathematical procedure is used to estimate the statistical distribution of knocking cycles and provide a validation of the following 1D-3D knock investigations. On the other side, an integrated numerical approach is set up, based on the synergic use of 1D and 3D simulation tools. The 1D engine model is developed within the commercial software GT-Power™. It is used to provide time-varying boundary conditions (BCs) for the 3D code, Star-CD™.
Technical Paper

Analysis of the Combustion Process of SI Engines Equipped with Non-Conventional Ignition System Architecture

The use of lean or ultra-lean ratios is an efficient and proven strategy to reduce fuel consumption and pollutant emissions. However, the lower fuel concentration in the cylinder hinders the mixture ignition, requiring greater energy to start the combustion. The prechamber is an efficient method to provide high energy favoring the ignition process. It presents the potential to reduce the emission levels and the fuel consumption, operating with lean burn mixtures and expressive combustion stability. In this paper the analysis of the combustion process of SI engines equipped with an innovative architecture and operating in different injection modes was described. In particular, the effect of the prechamber ignition on the engine stability and the efficiency was investigated in stoichiometric and lean-burn operation conditions. The activity was carried out in two parts.
Technical Paper

Application of a Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG Configuration in a Euro 5 Automotive Diesel Engine

An increasing interest in the use of natural gas in CI engines is currently taking place, due to several reasons: it is cheaper than conventional Diesel fuel, permits a significant reduction of carbon dioxide and is intrinsically clean, being much less prone to soot formation. In this respect, the Dual Fuel concept has already proven to be a viable solution, industrially implemented for several applications in the heavy duty engines category. An experimental research activity was devoted to the analysis of the potentiality offered by the application of a Dual Fuel Diesel-CNG configuration on a light duty 2L Euro 5 automotive diesel engine, equipped with an advanced control system of the combustion. The experimental campaign foresaw to test the engine in dynamic and steady state conditions, comparing engine performance and emissions in conventional Diesel and Dual Fuel combustion modes.
Technical Paper

Assessment of Closed-Loop Combustion Control Capability for Biodiesel Blending Detection and Combustion Impact Mitigation for an Euro5 Automotive Diesel Engine

The present paper describes the results of a cooperative research project between GM Powertrain Europe and Istituto Motori - CNR aimed at studying the impact of both fresh and highly oxidized Rapeseed Methyl Ester (RME) at different levels of blending on performance, emissions and fuel consumption of modern automotive diesel engines featuring Closed-Loop Combustion Control (CLCC). In parallel, the capability of this system to detect the level of biodiesel blending through the use of specific detection algorithms was assessed. The tests were performed on the recently released 2.0L Euro5 GM diesel engine for passenger car application equipped with embedded pressure sensors in the glow plugs. Various blends of fresh and aged RME with reference diesel fuel were tested, notably 20% RME by volume (B20), 50% (B50) and pure RME (B100).
Technical Paper

Assessment of Engine Control Parameters Effect to Minimize GHG Emissions in a Dual Fuel NG/Diesel Light Duty Engine

The interest in Natural Gas (NG) as alternative fuel for transportation is constantly growing, mostly due to its large availability and lower environmental impact with respect to gasoline or diesel fuel. In this scenario, the application of the Dual Fuel (DF) Diesel- Natural Gas (NG) combustion concept to light duty engines can represent an important route to increment the diffusion of natural gas use. Many studies have proven the benefits of DF with respect to conventional diesel combustion in terms of CO2, NOx, PM and PN emissions, with the main drawback of high unburned hydrocarbon, mainly at low/partial engine loads. This last aspect still prevents the application of DF mode to small displacement engines. In the present work, a 2.0 L Euro 5 compliant diesel engine, equipped with an advanced electronic closed-loop combustion control (CLCC) system, has been set up to operate in DF mode and tested on a dyno test bench.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the Effect of Low Cetane Number Fuels on a Light Duty CI Engine: Preliminary Experimental Characterization in PCCI Operating Condition

The goal of this paper is to acquire insight into the influence of cetane number (CN) and fuel oxygen on overall engine performance in the Premixed Charge Compression Ignition (PCCI) combustion mode. From literature, it is known that low reactive (i.e., low CN) fuels increase the ignition delay (ID) and therefore the degree of mixing prior to auto-ignition. With respect to fuel oxygen, it is known that this has a favorable impact on soot emissions by means of carbon sequestration. This makes the use of low CN oxygen fuels an interesting route to improve the applicability of PCCI combustion in diesel engines. In earlier studies, performed on a heavy-duty engine, cyclic oxygenates were found to consistently outperform their straight and branched counterparts with respect to curbing soot. This was attributed to a considerably lower CN.
Technical Paper

Assessment of the New Features of a Prototype High-Pressure “Hollow Cone Spray” Diesel Injector by Means of Engine Performance Characterization and Spray Visualization

The application of more efficient compression ignition combustion concepts requires advancement in terms of fuel injection technologies. The injector nozzle is the most critical component of the whole injection system for its impact on the combustion process. It is characterized by the number of holes, diameter, internal shape, and opening angle. The reduction of the nozzle hole diameter seems the simplest way to promote the atomization process but the number of holes must be increased to keep constant the injected fuel mass. This logic has been applied to the development of a new generation of injectors. First, the tendency to increase the nozzle number and to reduce the diameter has led to the replacement of the nozzle with a circular plate. The vertical movement of the needle generates an annulus area for the fuel delivery on 360 degrees, so controlling the atomization as a function of the vertical plate position.
Technical Paper

Back-Pressure and Fuel Type Effects on Exhaust Gas Oxygen Sensor Readings for a Single Cylinder Spark Ignition Engine Running on Gasoline and Ethanol

Application of more and more complex control strategies in spark ignition (SI) engines is required for ensuring high conversion efficiency and effective emissions reduction. Closed loop fuel injection is being implemented on an ever wider scale in small size SI units that generally feature single cylinder architecture. For such systems the readings from the exhaust gas oxygen sensor are essential for controlling air-fuel ratio and indirectly combustion. The present study looked at the influence of pressure oscillations on the values given by the sensor, for different equivalence ratio settings in wide open throttle conditions for an experimental SI unit. As expected, the readings were found to be influenced by pressure oscillations in the exhaust line during lean operation, while with stoichiometric and rich fueling the effects were minimal. Fuel type was also found to be an important aspect.