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Technical Paper

CFD Modeling and Validation of the ECN Spray G Experiment under a Wide Range of Operating Conditions

2019-09-09
2019-24-0130
The increasing diffusion of gasoline direct injection (GDI) engines requires a more detailed and reliable description of the phenomena occurring during the fuel injection process. As well known the thermal and fluid-dynamic conditions present in the combustion chamber greatly influence the air-fuel mixture process deriving from GDI injectors. GDI fuel sprays typically evolve in wide range of ambient pressure and temperatures depending on the engine load. In some particular injection conditions, when in-cylinder pressure is relatively low, flash evaporation might occur significantly affecting the fuel-air mixing process. In some other particular injection conditions spray impingement on the piston wall might occur, causing high unburned hydrocarbons and soot emissions, so currently representing one of the main drawbacks of GDI engines.
Technical Paper

Chaos Theory Approach as Advanced Technique for GDI Spray Analysis

2017-03-28
2017-01-0839
The paper reports an innovative method of analysis based on an advanced statistical techniques applied to images captured by a high-speed camera that allows highlighting phenomena and anomalies hardly detectable by conventional optical diagnostic techniques. The images, previously elaborated by neural network tools in order for clearly identifying the contours, have been analyzed in their time evolution as pseudo-chaotic variables that may have internal periodic components. In addition to the Fourier analysis, tools as Lyapunov and Hurst exponents and average Kω permitted to detect the chaos level of the signals. The use of this technique has permitted to distinguish periodic oscillations from chaotic variations and to detect those parameters that actually determine the spray behavior.
Technical Paper

Emission Factors Evaluation in the RDE Context by a Multivariate Statistical Approach

2019-09-09
2019-24-0152
The Real Driving Emission (RDE) procedure will measure the pollutants, such as NOx, emitted by cars while driven on the road. RDE will not replace laboratory tests, such as the current WLTP but it will be added to them. RDE is complementary to the laboratory-based procedure to check the pollutant emissions level of a light-duty vehicle in real driving conditions. This means that the car will be driven on a real road according to random acceleration and deceleration patterns conditioned by traffic flow. So, the procedure will ensure that cars deliver real emissions over on-road and so the currently observed differences between emissions measured in the laboratory and those measured on road under real-world conditions, will be reduced. However, the identification of a path on the road to check the test conditions of RDE is not easy and hardly repeatable.
Journal Article

Experimental Characterization of High-Pressure Impinging Sprays for CFD Modeling of GDI Engines

2011-04-12
2011-01-0685
Today, Direct-Injection systems are widely used on Spark-Ignition engines in combination with turbo-charging to reduce the fuel-consumption and the knock risks. In particular, the spread of Gasoline Direct Injection (GDI) systems is mainly related to the use of new generations of multi-hole, high-pressure injectors whose characteristics are quite different with respect to the hollow-cone, low-pressure injectors adopted in the last decade. This paper presents the results of an experimental campaign conducted on the spray produced by a GDI six-holes injector into a constant volume vessel with optical access. The vessel was filled with air at atmospheric pressure. Different operating conditions were considered for an injection pressure ranging from 3 to 20 MPa. For each operating condition, spray images were acquired by a CCD camera and then post processed to evaluate the spray penetration and cone angles.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Characterization of Diesel Injection in Single-Cylinder Research Engine with Rate Shaping Strategy

2017-09-04
2017-24-0113
The management of multiple injections in compression ignition (CI) engines is one of the most common ways to increase engine performance by avoiding hardware modifications and after-treatment systems. Great attention is given to the profile of the injection rate since it controls the fuel delivery in the cylinder. The Injection Rate Shaping (IRS) is a technique that aims to manage the quantity of injected fuel during the injection process via a proper definition of the injection timing (injection duration and dwell time). In particular, it consists in closer and centered injection events and in a split main injection with a very small dwell time. From the experimental point of view, the performance of an IRS strategy has been studied in an optical CI engine. In particular, liquid and vapor phases of the injected fuel have been acquired via visible and infrared imaging, respectively. Injection parameters, like penetration and cone angle have been determined and analyzed.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Numerical Investigation of High-Pressure Diesel Sprays with Multiple Injections at Engine Conditions

2010-04-12
2010-01-0179
A numerical methodology to simulate the high pressure spray evolution and the fuel-air mixing in diesel engines is presented. Attention is focused on the employed atomization model, a modified version of the Huh and Gosman, on the definition of a turbulence length scale limiter and of an adaptive local mesh refinement technique to minimize the result grid dependency. All the discussed models were implemented into Lib-ICE, which is a set of libraries and solvers, specifically tailored for engine simulations, which runs under the open-source CFD technology OpenFOAM®. To provide a comprehensive assessment of the proposed methodology, the validation procedure consisted into simulating, with a unique and coherent setup of all models, two different sets of experiments: a non-evaporating diesel fuel spray in a constant-volume vessel with optical access and an evaporating non-reacting diesel fuel spray in an optical engine.
Technical Paper

Fuel Cell Propulsion System for Urban Bus Application

2005-09-11
2005-24-043
This paper presents the experimental results obtained on Fuel Cell System designed and realized in Istituto Motori and based on 16 kW PEM (Proton Exchange Membrane) stack. This activity is part of the HBUS Project, whose goal is the realization of a midi-bus for public transportation in urban areas based on fuel cell technology. This Project involves several private and public partners, comprising Istituto Motori as research institution, I2T3 (Industrial Innovation Through Technological Transfer) agency for technological innovation and project management, together with public transportation companies and vehicle component makers.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Logic Approach to GDI Spray Characterization

2016-04-05
2016-01-0874
Advanced numerical techniques, such as fuzzy logic and neural networks have been applied in this work to digital images acquired on a mono-component fuel spray (iso-octane), in order to define, in a stochastic way, the gas-liquid interface evolution. The image is a numerical matrix and so it is possible to characterize geometrical parameters and the time evolution of the jet by using deterministic, statistical stochastic and other several kinds of approach. The algorithm used works with the fuzzy logic concept to binarize the shades gray of the pixel, depending them, by using the schlieren technique, on the gas density. Starting from a primary fixed threshold, the applied technique, can select the ‘gas’ pixel from the ‘liquid’ pixel and so it is possible define the first most probably boundary lines of the spray.
Technical Paper

GDI Spray-Wall Interaction with Numerical Characterization: Wall Temperature Influence

2015-04-14
2015-01-0917
The work analyses, from both an experimental and a numerical point of view, the impingement of a spray generated from a GDI injector on a hot solid wall. The temperature of the surface is identified as an important parameter affecting the outcome after impact. A gasoline spray issuing from a customized single-hole injector is characterized in a quiescent optically-accessible vessel as it impacts on an aluminum plate placed at 22.5 mm from the injector tip. Optical investigations are carried out at atmospheric back-pressure by a direct schlieren optical set-up using a LED as light source. A synchronized C-Mos high-speed camera captures cycle-resolved images of the evolving impact. The spatial and temporal evolution of the liquid and vapor phases are derived. They serve to define a data base to be used for the validation of a properly formulated 3D CFD model suitable to describe the impact of the fuel on the piston head in a real engine.
Technical Paper

Imaging and Vibro-Acoustic Diagnostic Techniques Comparison for a GDI Fuel Injector

2019-09-09
2019-24-0058
This work presents the results of an experimental investigation on a GDI injector, in order to analyze fuel injection process and atomization phenomenon, correlating imaging and vibro-acoustic diagnostic techniques. A single-hole, axially-disposed, 0.200 mm diameter GDI injector was used to spray commercial gasoline in a test chamber at room temperature and atmospheric backpressure. The explored injection pressures were ranged from 5.0 to 20.0 MPa. Cycle-resolved acquisitions of the spray evolution were acquired by a high-speed camera. Simultaneously, the vibro-acoustic response of the injector was evaluated. More in detail, noise data acquired by a microphone sensor were analyzed for characterizing the acoustic emission of the injection, while a spherical loudspeaker was used to excite the spray injection at a proper distance detecting possible fuel spray resonance phenomena.
Technical Paper

In-Cylinder Spectroscopic Measurements of Combustion Process in a SI Engine Fuelled with Butanol-Gasoline Blend

2013-04-08
2013-01-1318
In-cylinder optical diagnostic was applied to study butanol-gasoline blend combustion in a SI engine. Spark timing and fuel injection mode were changed to work in normal and knocking conditions. The experiments were realized in a single-cylinder ported fuel injection SI engine with an external boosting device. The engine worked like-stoichiometric mixture at 2000 rpm, medium boosting and wide open throttle. UV-visible natural emission spectroscopy allowed to follow the formation and the evolution of the main compounds and radical species that characterize the combustion process from the spark ignition until the exhaust. Particular interest was devoted to OH and CO₂* evolution, and to the spectral evidence of soot precursors due to fuel deposits burning. OH resulted the best marker for combustion both in normal and abnormal conditions.
Technical Paper

Optical Investigation of Post-injection Strategy Impact on the Fuel Vapor within the Exhaust Line of a Light Duty Diesel Engine Supplied with Biodiesel Blends

2013-04-08
2013-01-1127
Multi-wavelength ultraviolet-visible extinction spectroscopy was applied to follow the evolution of fuel vapor injected by post-injection along the exhaust line of a common-rail turbocharged direct-injection diesel engine at moderate speed and load. The exhaust line was specifically designed and customized to allow the insertion of the optical access upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst. During the experimental campaign, the engine was fuelled with commercial B5 fuel and a B30 v/v blend of RME and ultra low sulfur diesel, monitoring emissions upstream of the catalyst and exhaust gas temperature across the catalyst. Tests were performed at different engine operating conditions with particular attention to moderate speed and load.
Technical Paper

Real Driving Emissions of a Light-Duty Vehicle in Naples. Influence of Road Grade

2015-09-06
2015-24-2509
The aim of this study is to investigate the parameters influencing the real driving emission monitoring with particular attention towards the influence of road gradient. For this purpose, an experimental activity was carried out with a Euro 5 Diesel light-duty vehicle, driven along two tracks of Naples characterized by a different road gradient: the first pattern is quite flat, the second includes positive (+2.9%) and negative (−3.6%) road gradient. Exhaust emissions of CO, THC, NOx, CO2 were acquired on road by using a portable emission measuring system (PEMS) connected also to the Engine Control Unit for saving the main engine parameters and to the GPS for the geographical coordinates and altitude. The acquired speed profiles were repeated on the chassis-dynamometer without simulating the road gradient.
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