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Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

An Advanced Diesel Fuels Test Program

This paper reports on DaimlerChrysler's participation in the Ad Hoc Diesel Fuels Test Program. This program was initiated by the U.S. Department of Energy and included major U.S. auto makers, major U.S. oil companies, and the Department of Energy. The purpose of this program was to identify diesel fuels and fuel properties that could facilitate the successful use of compression ignition engines in passenger cars and light-duty trucks in the United States at Tier 2 and LEV II tailpipe emissions standards. This portion of the program focused on minimizing engine-out particulates and NOx by using selected fuels, (not a matrix of fuel properties,) in steady state dynamometer tests on a modern, direct injection, common rail diesel engine.
Technical Paper

Cam-phasing Optimization Using Artificial Neural Networks as Surrogate Models-Fuel Consumption and NOx Emissions

Cam-phasing is increasingly considered as a feasible Variable Valve Timing (VVT) technology for production engines. Additional independent control variables in a dual-independent VVT engine increase the complexity of the system, and achieving its full benefit depends critically on devising an optimum control strategy. A traditional approach relying on hardware experiments to generate set-point maps for all independent control variables leads to an exponential increase in the number of required tests and prohibitive cost. Instead, this work formulates the task of defining actuator set-points as an optimization problem. In our previous study, an optimization framework was developed and demonstrated with the objective of maximizing torque at full load. This study extends the technique and uses the optimization framework to minimize fuel consumption of a VVT engine at part load.
Technical Paper

Development of the Direct Nonmethane Hydrocarbon Measurement Technique for Vehicle Testing

The Automotive Industry/Government Emissions Research CRADA (AIGER) has been working to develop a new methodology for the direct determination of nonmethane hydrocarbons (DNMHC) in vehicle testing. This new measurement technique avoids the need for subtraction of a separately determined methane value from the total hydrocarbon measurement as is presently required by the Code of Federal Regulations. This paper will cover the historical aspects of the development program, which was initiated in 1993 and concluded in 2002. A fast, gas chromatographic (GC) column technology was selected and developed for the measurement of the nonmethane hydrocarbons directly, without any interference or correction being caused by the co-presence of sample methane. This new methodology chromatographically separates the methane from the nonmethane hydrocarbons, and then measures both the methane and the backflushed, total nonmethane hydrocarbons using standard flame ionization detection (FID).
Technical Paper

Evaluation of the Bag Mini-Diluter and Direct Vehicle Exhaust Volume System for Low Level Emissions Measurement

With the adoption of the California Low-Emission Vehicle Regulations and the associated lower emission standards such as LEV (Low-Emission Vehicle in 1990), ULEV (Ultra-Low-Emission Vehicle), and LEV II (1998 with SULEV-Super Ultra Low Emission Vehicle), concerns were raised by emissions researchers over the accuracy and reliability of collecting and analyzing emissions measurements at such low levels. The primary concerns were water condensation, optimizing dilution ratios, and elimination of background contamination. These concerns prompted a multi-year research program looking at several new sampling techniques. This paper will describe the cooperative research conducted into one of these new technologies, namely the Bag Mini-Diluter (BMD) and Direct Vehicle Exhaust (DVE) Volume system.
Technical Paper

In Vehicle Exhaust Mount Load Measurement and Calculation

Exhaust durability is an important measure of quality, which can be predicted using CAE with accurate mount loads. This paper proposes an innovative method to calculate these loads from measured mount accelerations. A Chrysler vehicle was instrumented with accelerometers at both ends of its four exhaust mounts. The vehicle was tested at various durability routes or events at DaimlerChrysler Proving Grounds. These measured accelerations were integrated to obtain their velocities and displacements. The differences in velocities and displacements at each mount were multiplied by its damping and stiffness rates to obtain the mount load. The calculation was conducted for all three translational directions and for all events. The calculated mount loads are shown within reasonable range. Along with CAE, it is suggested to explore this method for exhaust durability development.
Technical Paper

Inline Monitoring and Evaluation of Inorganic Gases from a Nitrification Membrane Bioreactor

Integration of the water and air treatment systems in confined habitats for extended duration space missions will require characterization of the constituents in the gases produced by biological water processors. A membrane bioreactor was constructed to accomplish nitrification as part of a denitrification-nitrification biological water processor to treat a simulated early planetary base wastewater. A gas chromatograph was installed inline to the influent and effluent gas lines of the membrane bioreactor to monitor nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The inline monitoring system enabled sampling of gas effluent from the lumen of the membranes and from a gas-liquid separator. Mass flow of the gas streams was also measured to enable calculation of the mass flow rates of the four inorganic gases.
Technical Paper

Parameters Affecting Direct Vehicle Exhaust Flow Measurement

As SULEV emission regulations approach, the bag mini-diluter (BMD) technology is gaining acceptance as a replacement for the existing constant volume sampler (CVS) for SULEV exhaust emission measurement and certification. The heart of the BMD system is the direct vehicle exhaust (DVE) flow measurement system. Due to the transient nature of vehicle exhaust during a standard FTP emission test cycle, the DVE must be capable of rapid and accurate response in order to track these varying exhaust flow rates. The DVE must also be robust enough to accurately measure flow rate despite variations in exhaust gas composition, pulsation effects, and rapid changes in both exhaust temperature and pressure. One of the primary DVE systems used on BMDs is the E-Flow, an ultrasonic flow meter manufactured by Flow Technologies, Inc.
Technical Paper

Using a Vehicle Exhaust Emission Simulator (VEES) as a Cross Check Tool for Emission Test Cell Correlation

It is becoming increasingly difficult to obtain good repeatability from running lab vehicle correlation testing, since vehicle variability is so significant at the Low ULEV and SULEV emissions levels. These new emission standards are becoming so stringent that it makes it very difficult to distinguish whether a problem is a result of vehicle variability, test cell sampling or the analytical system. A vehicle exhaust emission simulator (VEES) developed by Horiba, can simulate emissions from low emitting gasoline vehicles by producing tailpipe flow rates containing emissions constituents ( HC, CH4, CO, NOx, CO2 ) injected at the tailpipe flow stream via mass flow controllers.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Simulator- A Quality Control Tool to evaluate the Performance of Low Level Emission Sampling and Analytical Systems

As the standards for exhaust emissions have become more stringent, the quality control tools used to evaluate the performance of low level samplers and analyzers has become more important. The Vehicle Exhaust Emissions Simulator (VEES) was developed to evaluate the performance of vehicle or engine exhaust emissions sampling and analytical systems. The simulator emulates emissions from low-emitting gasoline vehicles by producing a simulated exhaust stream containing emission constituents (HC, CO, CO2, and NOx) injected via Mass Flow Controllers (MFCs). This paper discusses various applications of the VEES as a quality control tool for ULEV and SULEV testing. A comparison is made between the injected amount of exhaust species by the VEES and the amounts recovered by the different sampling systems. Different root cause scenarios are discussed as to the source of discrepancies between the results on the CVS and BMD for different driving cycles.