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Technical Paper

A Multiple Order Conformability Model for Uniform Cross-Section Piston Rings

2005-04-11
2005-01-1643
This paper examines the conformability of elastic piston rings to a distorted cylinder bore. Several bounds are available in the literature to help estimate the maximum allowable Fourier coefficient in a Fourier expansion of bore distortion: the analytically derived bounds in [7] and [8], and the semi-empirically derived bounds discussed in [9]. The underlying assumptions for each set of analytic bounds are examined and a multiple order algorithm is derived. The proposed algorithm takes account of multiple orders of distortion at once. It is tested with finite element (FE) data and compared to the classical bound approach. The results indicate that the bounds in [7] are compatible with linear elasticity theory (LET), whereas the bounds in [8] are not. Furthermore, numerical evidence indicates that the present multiple order algorithm can predict seal breaches more accurately than either of the other analytic bounds.
Technical Paper

Advantages of Adaptive Wall Wind Tunnel Technology: A CFD Study for Testing Open Wheel Race Cars

2007-04-16
2007-01-1048
The primary advantage of an Adaptive Wall wind tunnel is that the test section walls and ceiling are contoured to closely approximate the ‘open road' flowfield around the test vehicle. This reproduction of the open road flowfield then results in aerodynamic forces and moments on the test vehicle that are consistent with actual open road forces and moments. Aerodynamic data measured in the adaptive wall test section do not require blockage corrections for adjusting the data to open road results. Extensive full scale experiments, published scale model studies, and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) studies have verified the simulation capability of adaptive wall technology. For the CFD study described here, high-downforce, open-wheel race cars were studied. The numerical simulations with a race car in an Adaptive Wall Test Section (AWTS) wind tunnel are compared with simulations in ‘free air' condition and in a closed wall test section.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Wind Tunnel Configurations for Testing Closed-Wheel Race Cars: A CFD Study

2006-12-05
2006-01-3620
This paper investigates the aerodynamic simulation accuracy of several types of wind tunnel test sections. Computational simulations were performed with a closed wheel race car in an 11.0 m2 adaptive wall, a 16.8 m2 open jet, and a 29.7 m2 slotted wall test section, corresponding to model blockage ratios of 20.9%, 13.7%, and 7.7%, respectively. These are compared to a simulation performed in a nearly interference-free condition having a blockage ratio of 0.05%, which for practical purposes of comparison, is considered a free air condition. The results demonstrate that the adaptive wall most closely simulates the free air condition without the need for interference corrections. In addition to this advantage, the significantly smaller size of the adaptive wall test section offers lower capital and operating costs.
Technical Paper

Determining Blockage Corrections in Climatic Wind Tunnels Using CFD

2003-03-03
2003-01-0936
Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) was applied to investigate blockage effects (or velocity correction) in a climatic wind tunnel (CWT) test environment. Different blockage effects in the CWT were modeled using four simplified vehicles that approximated a sedan, an SUV, a pickup truck, and a minivan. Blockage dependence on nozzle size and spacing between the nozzle exit plane (NEP) and the vehicle were also investigated. The study quantified the blockage effect using different correction methods based on vehicle frontal velocity profiles and upper surface pressure traces. The blockage-free solution was also simulated for each vehicle in an ‘open road’ or free air condition. The CFD study revealed that all the test cases resulted in blockage correction factors, defined by Vactual/Vsimulated greater than 1.0. This is a condition in which the uncorrected wind tunnel velocity was higher than the ‘open road’ condition.
Technical Paper

Development of Lift and Drag Corrections for Open Jet Wind Tunnel Tests for an Extended Range of Vehicle Shapes

2003-03-03
2003-01-0934
Wind Tunnel 8 of the Driveability Test Facility (DTF), which achieved full operational status in 2001, is designed to provide full powertrain, aerodynamic, and aero-acoustic test capabilities for automotive product development. In order for it to be fully integrated into product testing, the Ford product engineering community needed to correlate the facility. The major objective of the correlation is quantitative aerodynamic correlation, which will be achieved when aerodynamic coefficients measured in Wind Tunnel 8 can be understood in the context of aerodynamic measurements obtained in other wind tunnels that Ford has used for product testing. The motivation for this study is the aerodynamic interference that is present in all wind tunnels. Aerodynamic interference is the deviation between the true result—which is difficult to determine—and the actual result obtained from the wind tunnel.
Technical Paper

Emergency Oxygen System Evaluation for Exploration PLSS Applications

2006-07-17
2006-01-2208
The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) emergency oxygen system is being reexamined for the next generation of suits. These suits will be used for transit to Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and to Mars as well as on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Currently, the plan is that there will be two different sets of suits, but there is a strong desire for commonality between them for construction purposes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate what the emergency PLSS requirements are and how they might best be implemented. Options under consideration are enlarging the tanks on the PLSS, finding an alternate method of storage/delivery, or providing additional O2 from an external source. The system that shows the most promise is the cryogenic oxygen system with a composite dewar which uses a buddy system to split the necessary oxygen between two astronauts.
Technical Paper

Inline Monitoring and Evaluation of Inorganic Gases from a Nitrification Membrane Bioreactor

2005-07-11
2005-01-3021
Integration of the water and air treatment systems in confined habitats for extended duration space missions will require characterization of the constituents in the gases produced by biological water processors. A membrane bioreactor was constructed to accomplish nitrification as part of a denitrification-nitrification biological water processor to treat a simulated early planetary base wastewater. A gas chromatograph was installed inline to the influent and effluent gas lines of the membrane bioreactor to monitor nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The inline monitoring system enabled sampling of gas effluent from the lumen of the membranes and from a gas-liquid separator. Mass flow of the gas streams was also measured to enable calculation of the mass flow rates of the four inorganic gases.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Transfer Case Imbalance

2005-05-16
2005-01-2297
Different methodologies to test transfer case imbalance were investigated in this study. One method utilized traditional standard single plane and two plane methods to measure the imbalance of the transfer case when running it on a dynamic balance machine at steady RPM, while a second method utilized accelerometers and a laser vibrometer to measure vertical vibration on the transfer case when running it on a dynamic balance machine in 4 Hi open mode during a run up from 1000 to 4000 RPM with a 40 RPM difference between the input and output shaft speeds. A comparison of all of the measurements for repeatability and accuracy was done with the goal of determining an appropriate and efficient method that generates the most consistent results. By using the traditional method, the test results were not repeatable. This may be due to the internal complexity of transfer cases. With the second method, good correlation between the measurements was obtained.
Technical Paper

Performance Testing in DTF Wind Tunnel No. 8

2004-11-30
2004-01-3549
Since being commissioned in 2001, the aero-acoustic wind tunnel at DTF, Wind Tunnel 8 (WT8) has been used to conduct a wide variety of tests. In 2003 alone, over 5250 hours of aerodynamic and aero-acoustic testing were run on over 2000 test articles, including commercial cars, trucks and racing vehicles. Additionally, more unique test articles such as solar cars, motorcycles, Olympic sleds, and others have also been recently tested. The demand for WT8 is driven by the fact that it is among the quietest wind tunnels in the world and one of a very small number of facilities that combines aerodynamic, aero-acoustic, and climatic capabilities in one facility. To enhance WT8's ability to meet the ever-increasing demands of the testing community, and the Motorsports community specifically, an effort was recently initiated to optimize and document the repeatability of aerodynamic force measurements in this tunnel.
Technical Paper

The DaimlerChrysler Full-Scale Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel

2003-03-03
2003-01-0426
This paper provides an overview of the design and commissioning results for the DaimlerChrysler full-scale vehicle Aeroacoustic Wind Tunnel (AAWT) brought online in 2002. This wind tunnel represents the culmination of the plan for aeroacoustic facilities at the DaimlerChrysler Corporation Technical Center (DCTC) in Auburn Hills, Michigan. The competing requirements of excellent flow quality, low background noise, and constructed cost within budget were optimized using Computational Fluid Dynamics, extensive acoustic modeling, and a variety of scale-model experimental results, including dedicated experiments carried out in the 3/8-scale pilot wind tunnel located at DCTC. The paper describes the project history, user requirements, and design philosophy employed in realizing the facility. The AAWT meets all of DaimlerChrylser's performance targets, and was delivered on schedule. The commissioning results presented in this paper show its performance to be among the best in the world.
Technical Paper

The Plenum Method Versus Blockage Corrected Nozzle Method for Determining Climatic Wind Tunnel Air Speed

2004-03-08
2004-01-0668
Recently, computational fluid dynamics (CFD) was applied to investigate blockage (or velocity) corrections using the nozzle method for a climatic wind tunnel (CWT) test environment (SAE 2003-01-0936). The study included two blockage corrections to the nozzle method reference velocity: vehicle frontal velocity and vehicle upper surface pressure trace. These methods resulted in well correlated predictions between the open road and CWT flow conditions. These CFD predicted blockage corrections are experimentally verified in a climatic wind tunnel in this study. A non-intrusive method applying particle image velocimetry is applied to acquire the velocity field in front of the test vehicle. The experimental data verifies the blockage correction predictions derived from the previous CFD work.
Technical Paper

Transitioning Automotive Testing from the Road to the Lab

2004-03-08
2004-01-1770
The importance of the automotive test facility has increased significantly due in large part to continuous pressure on manufactures to shorten product development cycles. Test facilities are no longer used only for regulatory testing, or development testing in which the effects of small design changes (A-to-B testing) are determined; automotive manufacturers are beginning to use these facilities for final design validation, which has traditionally required on road testing. A host of resources have gone into the design and construction of facilities with the capability to simulate nearly any environment of practical importance to the automotive industry. As a result, there are now a number of test facilities, and specifically wind tunnels, in which engineers can test most aspects of a vehicle's performance in real-world environments.
Technical Paper

Uncertainty Analysis of Aerodynamic Coefficients in an Automotive Wind Tunnel

2005-04-11
2005-01-0870
This paper presents an uncertainty analysis of aerodynamic force and moment coefficients for production vehicles in an automotive wind tunnel. The analysis uses a Monte Carlo numerical simulation technique. Emphasis is placed on defining the elemental random and systematic uncertainties from the tunnel’s instrumentation, understanding how they propagate through the data reduction equations and under what conditions specific elemental error sources are or are not important, and how the approach to data reduction influences the overall uncertainties in the coefficients. The results of the analysis are used to address the issue of averaging time in the context of maintaining a maximum allowable uncertainty level. Also, a maximum error requirement in the vehicle’s installation is suggested to allow the use of rapid but approximate vehicle alignment methods without incurring errors that exceed the data uncertainty. Observed reproducibility results are presented spanning a 16 month period.
Technical Paper

Wissler Simulations of a Liquid Cooled and Ventilation Garment (LCVG) for Extravehicular Activity (EVA)

2006-07-17
2006-01-2238
In order to provide effective cooling for astronauts during extravehicular activities (EVAs), a liquid cooling and ventilation garment (LCVG) is used to remove heat by a series of tubes through which cooling water is circulated. To better predict the effectiveness of the LCVG and determine possible modifications to improve performance, computer simulations dealing with the interaction of the cooling garment with the human body have been run using the Wissler Human Thermal Model. Simulations have been conducted to predict the heat removal rate for various liquid cooled garment configurations. The current LCVG uses 48 cooling tubes woven into a fabric with cooling water flowing through the tubes. The purpose of the current project is to decrease the overall weight of the LCVG system. In order to achieve this weight reduction, advances in the garment heat removal rates need to be obtained.
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