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Technical Paper

248mm Elliptical Torque Converter from DaimlerChrysler Corporation

The need for efficient space utilization has provided a framework for the design of a 248mm family of torque converters that supports a wide choice of engine and transmission combinations. The axial length of the part and its weight have been substantially reduced while the performance range has been broadened without degradation of efficiency. The new converter operates in an expanded slipping clutch mode. It significantly contributes to the performance and fuel economy improvements of related vehicles. To meet the cost target, the comprehensive lineup and the resulting complexity have required a high level of component interchangeability. During the design phase, the manufacturing core competencies were scrutinized and process redundancies eliminated, both resulting in optimization of material selection and applicable technology.
Technical Paper

A Minimum-Effort Motion Algorithm for Digital Human Models

A new realistic motion control algorithm for digital human models is presented in this paper based on the principle of effort minimization. The proposed algorithm is developed through an innovative mathematical model to make the applications more flexible and more global, especially for the visualization of human motions in automotive assembly operations. The central idea of this unique model is to interpret the solution of the homogeneous Lagrange equation for a mannequin as the origin of dynamic motion. Furthermore, a digital human possesses about 42 joints over the main body except the head, fingers and toes, and offers a large room of kinematic redundancy. We have found 14 new 3-D independent motion markers assigned over the human body to constitute a Cartesian coordinate system, under which a minimum-effort based dynamic control scheme is developed using a state-feedback linearization procedure.
Technical Paper

A New Way of Electrical/Electronic Systems Endurance Testing of Vehicles in a Real World Environment Prior to Production Launch

With the increasing emphasis on Systems Engineering, there is a need to ensure that Electrical/Electronic (E/E) Systems Endurance Testing of vehicles, in a real world environment, prior to Production Launch, is performed in a manner and at a technological level that is commensurate with the high level of electronics and computers in contemporary vehicles. Additionally, validating the design and performance of individual standalone electronic systems and modules “on the bench” does not guarantee that all the permutations and combinations of real-world hardware, software, and driving conditions are taken into account. Traditional Proving Ground (PG) vehicle testing focuses mainly on powertrain durability testing, with only a simple checklist being used by the PG drivers as a reminder to cycle some of the electrical components such as the power window switches, turn signals, etc.
Technical Paper

Air Bag Loading on In-Position Hybrid III Dummy Neck

The Hybrid III family of dummies is used to estimate the response of an occupant during a crash. One recent area of interest is the response of the neck during air bag loading. The biomechanical response of the Hybrid III dummy's neck was based on inertial loading during crash events, when the dummy is restrained by a seat belt and/or seat back. Contact loading resulting from an air bag was not considered when the Hybrid III dummy was designed. This paper considers the effect of air bag loading on the 5th percentile female Hybrid III dummies. The response of the neck is presented in comparison to currently accepted biomechanical corridors. The Hybrid III dummy neck was designed with primary emphasis on appropriate flexion and extension responses using the corridors proposed by Mertz and Patrick. They formulated the mechanical performance requirements of the neck as the relationship between the moment at the occipital condyles and the rotation of the head relative to the torso.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

Chrysler 45RFE a New Generation Light Truck Automatic Transmission

The 45RFE is a new generation electronically controlled rear wheel drive automatic transmission. It employs real-time feedback, closed-loop modulation of shift functions to achieve outstanding shift quality and to meet demanding durability goals. It uses no shift valves; all friction element applications are effected with high-flow electro-hydraulic solenoid valves. A unique gear train arrangement of three planetary carriers allows all sun gears and annulus gears to have the same number of teeth respectively and use a common pinion gear in all carriers, resulting in significant manufacturing simplification. The three-planetary system is designed for four forward ratios of 3.00, 1.67, 1.00 and 0.75 and one reverse gear ratio equal to the low gear ratio. A fifth ratio of 1.50 is used only in certain kick-down shift sequences for highway passing. A sixth forward ratio, an additional overdrive ratio of 0.67, is available in the hardware.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 45RFE: A New Generation Real-Time Electronic Control RWD Automatic Transmission

The 45RFE is a new generation electronically controlled rear wheel drive transmission. It employs real-time feedback, closed-loop modulation of shift functions to achieve excellence in shift quality and to meet severe durability goals. The 45RFE uses no shift valves; all friction element applications are effected with high-flow electro-hydraulic solenoid valves. A unique gear train arrangement of three planetary carriers allows all sun and annulus gears to have identical numbers of teeth and to use common pinion gears in all carriers. This results in substantial manufacturing simplification. The three-planetary system is designed for four forward ratios of 3.00, 1.67, 1.00 and 0.75 and one reverse gear ratio equal to the low gear ratio. A fifth ratio of 1.50 is used mainly in certain kick-down shift sequences for highway passing. A sixth forward ratio, an additional overdrive ratio of 0.67, is available in the hardware.
Technical Paper

Comparison of Parametric and Non-Parametric Methods for Determining Injury Risk

This paper contains a review of methods for deriving risk curves from biomechanical data obtained from impact experiments on human surrogates. It covers many of the problems and pitfalls of obtaining realistic human risk curves from impact experiments. The strength and weakness of both parametric and non-parametric methods are evaluated. The limitations of standard analysis of censored impact test data are presented. Methods are given for determining risk curves from both doubly censored data and data obtained from impacts to body regions in which there are more than one mechanism of injury. A detailed set of examples is presented in which different experimental data are analyzed using the Consistent Threshold method and the logistic approach. Finally risk curves for published data are presented for the femur, head, thorax, and neck.
Technical Paper

Development of an Engine Test Cell for Rapid Evaluation of Advanced Powertrain Technologies using Model-Controlled Dynamometers

Current engine development processes typically involve extensive steady-state and simple transient testing in order to characterize the engine's fuel consumption, emissions, and performance based on several controllable inputs such as throttle, spark advance, and EGR. Steady-state and simple transient testing using idealistic load conditions alone, however, is no longer sufficient to meet powertrain development schedule requirements. Mapping and calibration of an engine under transient operation has become critically important. And, independent engine development utilizing accelerated techniques is becoming more attractive. In order to thoroughly calibrate new engines in accelerated fashion and under realistic transient conditions, more advanced testing is necessary.
Technical Paper

Emergency Oxygen System Evaluation for Exploration PLSS Applications

The Portable Life Support System (PLSS) emergency oxygen system is being reexamined for the next generation of suits. These suits will be used for transit to Low Earth Orbit, the Moon and to Mars as well as on the surface of the Moon and Mars. Currently, the plan is that there will be two different sets of suits, but there is a strong desire for commonality between them for construction purposes. The main purpose of this paper is to evaluate what the emergency PLSS requirements are and how they might best be implemented. Options under consideration are enlarging the tanks on the PLSS, finding an alternate method of storage/delivery, or providing additional O2 from an external source. The system that shows the most promise is the cryogenic oxygen system with a composite dewar which uses a buddy system to split the necessary oxygen between two astronauts.
Technical Paper

Engine Mount Tuning for Optimal Idle and Road Shake Response of Rear-Wheel-Drive Vehicles

Engine mount tuning is a multi-disciplinary exercise since it affects Idle-shake, Road-shake and powertrain noise response. Engine inertia is often used as a tuned absorber for controlling suspension resonance related road-shake issues. Last but not least, vehicle ride and handling may also be affected by mount tuning. In this work, Torque-Roll-Axis (TRA) decoupling of the rigid powertrain was used as a starting point for mount tuning. Nodal point of flexible powertrain bending was used to define the envelop for transmission mount locations. The frequency corresponding to the decoupled roll mode of the rigid powertrain was then adjusted for idle-shake and road-shake response management. The TRA decoupling procedure, cast as a multi-objective optimization problem, was applied to a body-on-frame sport-utility vehicle powertrain system. The process outlined in this work was verified by exercising a fullvehicle finite element model.
Technical Paper

Front Impact Pulse Severity Assessment Methodology

The pulse severities from various vehicle impact tests need to be assessed during the impact structure development and targeting stage to assure that the occupants can meet the injury criteria as required. The conventional method using TTZV (time to zero velocity), TDC (total dynamic crush), and G1/G2 (two stage averaged pulse) is often unable to give a quick and clear answer to the question being raised. A simple numerical tool is developed here to assess the pulse severity with a single parameter in which the severity is expressed as the amount of chest travel under a certain target restraint curve or chest A-D curve. The tool is applied to several front impact vehicle pulses to show the effectiveness. The new method developed here can be used to assess the pulse severity in an easy and objective way along with conventional parameters.
Technical Paper

Heat Transfer Enhancement through Impingement of Flows and its Application in Lock-up Clutches

An impinging-flow based methodology of enhancing the heat transfer in the grooves of a lockup clutch is proposed and studied. In order to evaluate its efficacy and reveal the mechanism, the three-dimensional flow within the groove was solved as a conjugate heat transfer problem in a rotating reference frame using the commercial CFD code FLUENT. The turbulence characteristics were predicted using k-ε model. The comparison of cooling effect was made between a simple baseline groove pattern and a typical flow-impingement based groove pattern of the same groove-to-total area ratio in terms of heat rejection ratio, maximum surface temperature, and heat transfer coefficient. It is found that more heat can be rejected with the impinging-flow based groove from the friction surface than with the baseline while the maximum surface temperature is lower in the former case.
Technical Paper

Improving Low Frequency Torsional Vibrations NVH Performance through Analysis and Test

Low frequency torsional vibrations can be a significant source of objectionable vehicle vibrations and in-vehicle boom, especially with changes in engine operation required for improved fuel economy. These changes include lower torque converter lock-up speeds and cylinder deactivation. This paper has two objectives: 1) Examine the effect of increased torsional vibrations on vehicle NVH performance and ways to improve this performance early in the program using test and simulation techniques. The important design parameters affecting vehicle NVH performance will be identified, and the trade-offs required to produce an optimized design will be examined. Also, the relationship between torsional vibrations and mount excursions, will be examined. 2) Investigate the ability of simulation techniques to predict and improve torsional vibration NVH performance. Evaluate the accuracy of the analytical models by comparison to test results.
Technical Paper

Inline Monitoring and Evaluation of Inorganic Gases from a Nitrification Membrane Bioreactor

Integration of the water and air treatment systems in confined habitats for extended duration space missions will require characterization of the constituents in the gases produced by biological water processors. A membrane bioreactor was constructed to accomplish nitrification as part of a denitrification-nitrification biological water processor to treat a simulated early planetary base wastewater. A gas chromatograph was installed inline to the influent and effluent gas lines of the membrane bioreactor to monitor nitrogen, oxygen, carbon dioxide and nitrous oxide. The inline monitoring system enabled sampling of gas effluent from the lumen of the membranes and from a gas-liquid separator. Mass flow of the gas streams was also measured to enable calculation of the mass flow rates of the four inorganic gases.
Technical Paper

New Technology in Passive Adaptive Traction Control for Four Wheel Drive Vehicles

An advancement in traction control has entered the marketplace this year with the debut of the 1999 Jeep® Grand Cherokee equipped with the Quadra-TracII or Quadra-Drive four wheel drive systems. The new technology that is at the heart of these systems is the progressive coupling. A new passive adaptive traction control device that utilizes much of the hardware normally associated with automatic transmissions but applied to enhance traction. In the following report the function of progressive coupling will be described along with design characteristics and parameter recommendations.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Head Impact Waveform to Minimize HIC

To mitigate head impact injuries of vehicle occupants in impact accidents, the FMVSS 201 requires padding of vehicle interior so that under the free-moving-head-form impact, the head injury criterion (HIC) is below the limit. More recently, pedestrian head impact on the vehicle bonnet has been a subject being studied and regulated as requirements to the automobile manufacturers. Over the years, the square wave has been considered as the best waveform for head impacts, although it is impractical to achieve. This paper revisits the head impact topic and challenges the optimality of aiming at the square waveform. It studies several different simple waveforms, with the objective to achieve minimal HIC or minimal crush space required in head-form impacts. With that it is found that many other waveforms can be more efficient and more practical than the square wave, especially for the pedestrian impact.
Technical Paper

Oxidation Stability of Automatic Transmission Fluids -A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

The International Lubricant Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF subcommittee members have compared the two oxidation bench test methods, Aluminum Beaker Oxidation Test (ABOT) and Indiana Stirring Oxidation Stability Test (ISOT), using a number of factory-fill and service-fill ATFs obtained in Japan and in the US. In many cases, the ATFs were more severely oxidized after the ABOT procedure than after the same duration of the ISOT procedure. The relative severity of these two tests was influenced by the composition of the ATFs. The bench test oxidation data were compared with the transmission and the vehicle oxidation test data.
Technical Paper

Practical Application of DFSS with a Focus on Axiomatic Design - A Transmission Planetary Case Study

The objective of this paper is to present a simple and comprehensive integrated Design for Six Sigma (DFSS) approach to design robustness. The approach is hinged on conceptual components for axiomatic design, robust design and Six Sigma. An automatic transmission planetary case study is provided as an illustration vehicle. Specifically, this paper will explore the cascading process of functional requirements to design parameters and features while providing an initial robustness assessment against the common sources of variation. A Six Sigma design quality level is pursued as an objective. The approach presented in this paper represents a stream of development to achieve excellence by improving customer satisfaction through quality enhancement efforts. It can be viewed as a process with detailed steps needed to cast a complete understanding of how to achieve desired breakthrough design improvement.
Technical Paper

Sensitivities of Suspension Bushings on Vehicle Impact Harshness Performances

In this paper, we study the sensitivity of a vehicle impact harshness (IH) performance to the suspension bushing rates. A mid-sized uni-body SUV is selected for this study, with the acceleration responses at the driver seat track and the steering wheel as objective functions. A sensitivity study is conducted using an ADAMS full vehicle model including a tire model and flexible body structure representation over an IH event. The study resulted in the identification of key bushings that affect the IH performance and its sensitivity to the bushing rates. Based on the results, we came-up with an “optimal” bushing set that minimizes impact harshness, which was subjectively verified to result in significant improvement in IH.