Refine Your Search

Topic

Search Results

Technical Paper

360° vs. 270° vs. 180°: The Difference of Balancing a 2 Cylinder Inline Engine: Design, Simulation, Comparative Measurements

2012-10-23
2012-32-0106
Beside the automotive industry, where 2-cylinder inline engines are catching attention again, twin-cylinder configurations are quite usual in the small engine world. From stationary engines and range-extender use to small motorcycles up to big cruisers and K-Cars this engine architecture is used in many types of applications. Because of very good overall packaging, performance characteristics and not least the possibility of parts-commonality with 4-cylinder engines nearly every motorcycle manufacturer provides an inline twin in its model range. Especially for motorcycle applications where generally the engine is a rigid member of the frame and vibrations can be transferred directly to the rider an appropriate balancing system is required.
Journal Article

A Computational Approach to Assess Buffeting and Broadband Noise Generated by a Vehicle Sunroof

2015-04-14
2015-01-1532
Car manufacturers put large efforts into reducing wind noise to improve the comfort level of their cars. Each component of the vehicle is designed to meet its individual noise target to ensure the wind noise passenger comfort level inside the vehicle is met. Sunroof designs are tested to meet low-frequency buffeting (also known as boom) targets and broadband noise targets for the fully open sunroof with deflector and for the sunroof in vent position. Experimentally testing designs and making changes to meet these design targets typically involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the use of a reliable numerical prediction capability early in the vehicle design process.
Technical Paper

A Pragmatic Model-Based Product Engineering Process

2014-04-01
2014-01-0308
Complexity of electronics and embedded software systems in automobiles has been increasing over the years. This necessitates the need for an effective and exhaustive development and validation process in order to deliver fault free vehicles at reduced time to market. Model-based Product Engineering (MBPE) is a new process for development and validation of embedded control software. The process is generic and defines the engineering activities to plan and assess the progress and quality of the software developed for automotive applications. The MBPE process is comprised of six levels (one design level and five verification and validation levels) ranging from the vehicle requirements phase to the start of production. The process describes the work products to be delivered during the course of product development and also aligns the delivery plan to overall vehicle development milestones.
Technical Paper

Adding Depth: Establishing 3D Display Fundamentals for Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0147
The advent of 3D displays offers Human-Machine Interface (HMI) designers and engineers new opportunities to shape the user's experience of information within the vehicle. However, the application of 3D displays to the in-vehicle environment introduces a number of new parameters that must be carefully considered in order to optimise the user experience. In addition, there is potential for 3D displays to increase driver inattention, either through diverting the driver's attention away from the road or by increasing the time taken to assimilate information. Manufacturers must therefore take great care in establishing the ‘do’s and ‘don’t's of 3D interface design for the automotive context, providing a sound basis upon which HMI designers can innovate. This paper describes the approach and findings of a three-part investigation into the use of 3D displays in the instrument cluster of a road car, the overall aim of which was to define the boundaries of the 3D HMI design space.
Technical Paper

An Initial Study to Develop Appropriate Warning Sound for a Luxury Vehicle Using an Exterior Sound Simulator

2011-05-17
2011-01-1727
Many electric (EV) and hybrid-electric (HEV) vehicles are designed to operate using only electric propulsion at low road speeds. This has resulted in significantly reduced vehicle noise levels in urban situations. Although this may be viewed by many as a benefit, a risk to safety exists for those who rely on the engine noise to help detect the presence, location and behaviour of a vehicle in their vicinity. In recognition of this, legislation is being introduced globally which will require automotive manufacturers to implement external warning sound systems. A key challenge for premium vehicle manufacturers is the development of a suitable warning sound signature which also conveys the appropriate brand aspirations for the product. A further major difficulty exists when trying to robustly evaluate potential exterior sounds by running large-scale trials in the real world.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of Side Glass Surface Noise Spectra for a Bluff SUV

2006-04-03
2006-01-0137
Simulation of local flow structures in the A-pillar/side glass region of bluff SUV geometries, typical of Land Rover vehicles, presents a considerable challenge. Features such as relatively tight A-pillar radii and upright windscreens produce flows that are difficult to simulate. However, the usefulness of aerodynamics simulations in the early assessment of wind noise depends particularly on the local accuracy obtained in this region. This paper extends work previously published by the author(1) with additional data and analysis. An extended review of the relevant published literature is also provided. Then the degree to which a commercial Lattice-Boltzman solver (Exa PowerFLOW™) is currently able to capture both the local flow structure and surface pressure distribution (both time averaged and unsteady) is evaluated. Influential factors in the simulation are shown to be spatial resolution, turbulence and boundary layer modelling.
Journal Article

Comprehensive Array Measurements of In-Car Sound Field in Magnitude and Phase for Active Sound Generation and Noise Control

2014-06-30
2014-01-2046
When employing in-car active sound generation (ASG) and active noise cancellation (ANC), the accurate knowledge of the vehicle interior sound pressure distribution in magnitude as well as phase is paramount. Revisiting the ANC concept, relevant boundary conditions in spatial sound fields will be addressed. Moreover, within this study the controllability and observability requirements in case of ASG and ANC were examined in detail. This investigation focuses on sound pressure measurements using a 24 channel microphone array at different heights near the head of the driver. A shaker at the firewall and four loudspeakers of an ordinary in-car sound system have been investigated in order to compare their sound fields. Measurements have been done for different numbers of passengers, with and without a dummy head and real person on the driver seat. Transfer functions have been determined with a log-swept sine technique.
Technical Paper

Diffusion Supporting Passive Filter Regeneration- A Modeling Contribution on Coated Filters

2018-04-03
2018-01-0957
Wall flow particulate filters have been used as a standard exhaust aftertreatment device for many years. The interaction of particulate matter (PM) regeneration and catalytically supported reactions strongly depends on the given operating conditions. Temperature, species concentration and mass flow cause a change from advective to diffusive-controlled flow conditions and influence the rate controlling dominance of individual reactions. A transient 1D+1D model is presented considering advective and diffusive transport phenomena. The reaction scheme focuses on passive PM conversion and catalytic oxidation of NO. The model is validated with analytical references. The impact of back-diffusion is explored simulating pure advective and combined advective diffusive species transport. Rate approaches from literature are applied to investigate PM conversion at various operating conditions.
Technical Paper

Durability Test Suite Optimization Based on Physics of Failure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0792
Dynamometer (dyno) durability testing plays a significant role in reliability and durability assessment of commercial engines. Frequently, durability test procedures are based on warranty history and corresponding component failure modes. Evolution of engine designs, operating conditions, electronic control features, and diagnostic limits have created challenges to historical-based testing approaches. A physics-based methodology, known as Load Matrix, is described to counteract these challenges. The technique, developed by AVL, is based on damage factor models for subsystem and component failure modes (e.g. fatigue, wear, degradation, deposits) and knowledge of customer duty cycles. By correlating dyno test to field conditions in quantifiable terms, such as customer equivalent miles, more effective and efficient durability test suites and test procedures can be utilized. To this end, application of Load Matrix to a heavy-duty diesel engine is presented.
Technical Paper

Measurement of Soot Concentration in a Prototype Multi-Hole Diesel Injector by High-Speed Color Diffused Back Illumination Technique

2017-10-08
2017-01-2255
A prototype multi-hole diesel injector operating with n-heptane fuel from a high-pressure common rail system is used in a high-pressure and high-temperature test rig capable of reaching 1100 Kelvin and 150 bar under different oxygen concentrations. A novel optical set-up capable of visualizing the soot cloud evolution in the fuel jet from 30 to 85 millimeters from the nozzle exit with the high-speed color diffused back illumination technique is used as a result of the insertion of a high-pressure window in the injector holder opposite to the frontal window of the vessel. The experiments performed in this work used one wavelength provide information about physical of the soot properties, experimental results variating the operational conditions show the reduction of soot formation with an increase in injection pressure, a reduction in ambient temperature, a reduction in oxygen concentration or a reduction in ambient density.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Engine Performance Optimization

2018-10-30
2018-32-0082
State-of-the-art motorcycle engines consist of numerous variable components and require a powerful motor management to meet the growing customer expectations and the legislative requirements (e.g. exhaust and noise emissions, fuel consumption) at the same time. These demands are often competing and raise the level of complexity in calibration. In the racing domain, the optimization requirements are usually higher and test efficiency is crucial. Whilst the number of variables to control is growing, the time to perform an engine optimization remains the same or is even shortened. Therefore, simulation is becoming an essential part of the engine calibration optimization. Considering the special circumstances in racing, involving valuable hardware, as well as extremely short development and calibration iteration loops, only transient testing is possible.
Technical Paper

Multi-Physics Simulation Model for Noise and Vibration Effects in Hybrid Vehicle Powertrain

2014-06-30
2014-01-2093
Over the past 30 years, simulation of the N&V (Noise and Vibration) behaviour of automotive drivelines became an integral part of the powertrain development process. With current and future HEVs (Hybrid-Electrical Vehicles), additional phenomena and effects have entered the scene and need to be taken into account during layout/design as well as optimization phase. Beside effects directly associated with the e-components (namely electric whistle and whine), torque changes caused by activation/deactivation of the e-machine give rise to vibration issues (e.g. driveline shuffle or clonk) as well. This is in particular true for transient operation conditions like boosting and recuperation. Moreover, aspects of starting the Internal Combustion Engine (ICE) using the built-in e-machine in conjunction with the dynamic behaviour of torsional decoupling devices become increasingly important. In order to cope with above-mentioned effects a multi-physics simulation approach is required.
Technical Paper

New Fuel Mass Flow Meter - A Modern and Reliable Approach to Continuous and Accurate Fuel Consumption Measurement

2000-03-06
2000-01-1330
Over the past few years, the fuel mass measurement gained in importance to record the consumed fuel mass and the specific fuel consumption [g/kWh] with high accuracy. Measuring instruments, such as positive displacement meters, methods based on the burette or the Wheatstone bridge mass flow meter measure either the volumetric flow and a temperature-dependant fuel density correction is necessary or they have old technology and therefore poor accuracy and repeatability. A new-generation Coriolis sensor featuring an ideal measurement range for engine test beds but still with flow depending pressure drop has been integrated in a fuel meter to ensure that no influence is given to the engine behaviour for example after engine load change. The new Coriolis meter offers better accuracy and repeatability, gas bubble venting and easy test bed integration. For returnless fuel injection systems the fuel system supplies the fuel pressure.
Journal Article

Off-Road Tire-Terrain Interaction: An Analytical Solution

2016-09-27
2016-01-8029
A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
Technical Paper

Recent Advances in Powertrain Sound Quality Hardware Tuning Devices and Perspectives on Future Advances

2009-05-19
2009-01-2192
Over the past decade there have been significant advances made in the technology used to engineer Powertrain Sound Quality into automobiles. These have included exhaust system technologies incorporating active and semi-active valves, intake system technologies involving passive and direct feedback devices, and technologies aimed at tuning the structure-borne content of vehicle interior sound. All of these technologies have been deployed to complement the traditional control of NVH issues through the enhancement of Powertrain Sound Quality. The aim of this paper is to provide an historical review of the recent industry-wide advances made in these technologies and to provide the author's perspective on what issues have been addressed and what opportunities have been delivered.
Journal Article

Robustness Testing of Real-Time Automotive Systems Using Sequence Covering Arrays

2013-04-08
2013-01-1228
Testing real-time vehicular systems challenges the tester to design test cases for concurrent and sequential input events, emulating unexpected user and usage profiles. The vehicle response should be robust to unexpected user actions. Sequence Covering Arrays (SCA) offer an approach which can emulate such unexpected user actions by generating an optimized set of test vectors which cover all possible t-way sequences of events. The objective of this research was to find an efficient nonfunctional sequence testing (NFST) strategy for testing the robustness of real-time automotive embedded systems measured by their ability to recover (prove-out test) after applying sequences of user and usage patterns generated by combinatorial test algorithms, considered as “noisy” inputs. The method was validated with a case study of an automotive embedded system tested at Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) level. The random sequences were able to alter the system functionality observed at the prove-out test.
Technical Paper

SOURCE - A Stereophonic System for Engine and Vehicle Sound Recordings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1685
The subjectively perceived playback quality of conventional artificial head recordings does not fully comply with the original perception of engine and vehicle interior sound. There exist differences in subjective perception between different artificial heads and even between models of one supplier. Additionally, the listening situations are often judged unnatural. One important reason for these problems is the fact that the transfer function of an artificial head system is always different from the torso and the outer ear transfer function of a specific person. The neurological processing of a specific test person is not trained to the significantly different head related transfer functions of the conventional artificial heads. Especially the significant differences of the outer ear transfer functions between an artificial head and a specific test person are considered as a main reason for an unnatural playback quality.
Technical Paper

The Influences on Real Driving Emissions in India Outlook RDE Legislation BHARAT VI

2017-01-10
2017-26-0137
With the official publication of the “RDE package 1” on 31st March 2016 the long awaited start of RDE testing is now fixed. This event marks a milestone in the emission legislation for passenger cars and is the first of a series of four RDE packages to fade-in real world testing of passenger cars in Europe. During the same time India announced in the Gazette of India on 19th February, 2016 - G.S.R. 187(E). - the draft of introduction of Bharat VI by April 1st 2020 [5] which also should include the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) on-road certification as per procedure laid down in AIS137 and as amended from time to time. As European RDE legislation will be the baseline for Indian RDE legislation rules this paper will highlight the differences and challenges expected between the requirements in Europe compared to India during the first tests done by AVL Technical Center Private Limited located in Gurgaon.
Technical Paper

The OBD System Development Database - a Solution for Knowledge Management and Tool Supported Control System Design and Calibration

2014-04-01
2014-01-1171
The correct information about legal demands of the On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) system in a vehicle project is required throughout the entire development process. Usually, the main obstacle in succeeding is to provide the company's expertise of some few experts for all employees who work in OBD related projects. The paper describes the AVL solution for knowledge management and tool supported control system design and calibration: OBD System Development Database. The software enables the user to access the regulatory requirements for a specific application and legislation from past, present and future (proposed rule-making) point of view. Information concerning already available and stored monitoring concepts is linked to the requirements in order to re-use potentially suitable concepts and to enable an efficient knowledge exchange within the company.
Technical Paper

Tool Based Calibration with the OBDmanager

2010-04-12
2010-01-0249
At the moment the documentation of failure inhibition matrices and the fault path management for different controller types and different vehicle projects are mainly maintained manually in individual Excel tables. This is not only time consuming but also gives a high potential for fault liability. In addition there is also no guarantee that the calibration of these failure inhibition matrices and its fault path really works. Conflicting aims between costs, time and fault liability require a new approach for the calibration, documentation and testing of failure inhibition matrices and the complete Diagnostic System Management (DSM) calibration. The standardization and harmonization of the Diagnostic System Management calibration for different calibration projects and derivates is the first step to reduce time and costs. Creating a master calibration for the conjoint fault paths and labels provides a significant reduction of efforts.
X