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Technical Paper

360° vs. 270° vs. 180°: The Difference of Balancing a 2 Cylinder Inline Engine: Design, Simulation, Comparative Measurements

2012-10-23
2012-32-0106
Beside the automotive industry, where 2-cylinder inline engines are catching attention again, twin-cylinder configurations are quite usual in the small engine world. From stationary engines and range-extender use to small motorcycles up to big cruisers and K-Cars this engine architecture is used in many types of applications. Because of very good overall packaging, performance characteristics and not least the possibility of parts-commonality with 4-cylinder engines nearly every motorcycle manufacturer provides an inline twin in its model range. Especially for motorcycle applications where generally the engine is a rigid member of the frame and vibrations can be transferred directly to the rider an appropriate balancing system is required.
Journal Article

A Computational Approach to Assess Buffeting and Broadband Noise Generated by a Vehicle Sunroof

2015-04-14
2015-01-1532
Car manufacturers put large efforts into reducing wind noise to improve the comfort level of their cars. Each component of the vehicle is designed to meet its individual noise target to ensure the wind noise passenger comfort level inside the vehicle is met. Sunroof designs are tested to meet low-frequency buffeting (also known as boom) targets and broadband noise targets for the fully open sunroof with deflector and for the sunroof in vent position. Experimentally testing designs and making changes to meet these design targets typically involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the use of a reliable numerical prediction capability early in the vehicle design process.
Technical Paper

A Pragmatic Model-Based Product Engineering Process

2014-04-01
2014-01-0308
Complexity of electronics and embedded software systems in automobiles has been increasing over the years. This necessitates the need for an effective and exhaustive development and validation process in order to deliver fault free vehicles at reduced time to market. Model-based Product Engineering (MBPE) is a new process for development and validation of embedded control software. The process is generic and defines the engineering activities to plan and assess the progress and quality of the software developed for automotive applications. The MBPE process is comprised of six levels (one design level and five verification and validation levels) ranging from the vehicle requirements phase to the start of production. The process describes the work products to be delivered during the course of product development and also aligns the delivery plan to overall vehicle development milestones.
Journal Article

Accelerated Fatigue and Modal Parameter Identification of Lightweight Structures

2014-06-30
2014-01-2095
Car components are exposed to the random/harmonic/impact excitation which can result in component failure due to vibration fatigue. The stress and strain loads do depend on local stress concentration effects and also on the global structural dynamics properties. Standardized fatigue testing is long-lasting, while the dynamic fatigue testing can be much faster; however, the dynamical changes due to fatigue are usually not taken into account and therefore the identified fatigue and structural parameters can be biased. In detail: damage accumulation results in structural changes (stiffness, damping) which are hard to measure in real time; further, structural changes change the dynamics of the loaded system and without taking this changes into account the fatigue load in the stress concentration zone can change significantly (even if the excitation remains the same). This research presents a new approach for accelerated vibration testing of real structures.
Technical Paper

Adding Depth: Establishing 3D Display Fundamentals for Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0147
The advent of 3D displays offers Human-Machine Interface (HMI) designers and engineers new opportunities to shape the user's experience of information within the vehicle. However, the application of 3D displays to the in-vehicle environment introduces a number of new parameters that must be carefully considered in order to optimise the user experience. In addition, there is potential for 3D displays to increase driver inattention, either through diverting the driver's attention away from the road or by increasing the time taken to assimilate information. Manufacturers must therefore take great care in establishing the ‘do’s and ‘don’t's of 3D interface design for the automotive context, providing a sound basis upon which HMI designers can innovate. This paper describes the approach and findings of a three-part investigation into the use of 3D displays in the instrument cluster of a road car, the overall aim of which was to define the boundaries of the 3D HMI design space.
Technical Paper

An Initial Study to Develop Appropriate Warning Sound for a Luxury Vehicle Using an Exterior Sound Simulator

2011-05-17
2011-01-1727
Many electric (EV) and hybrid-electric (HEV) vehicles are designed to operate using only electric propulsion at low road speeds. This has resulted in significantly reduced vehicle noise levels in urban situations. Although this may be viewed by many as a benefit, a risk to safety exists for those who rely on the engine noise to help detect the presence, location and behaviour of a vehicle in their vicinity. In recognition of this, legislation is being introduced globally which will require automotive manufacturers to implement external warning sound systems. A key challenge for premium vehicle manufacturers is the development of a suitable warning sound signature which also conveys the appropriate brand aspirations for the product. A further major difficulty exists when trying to robustly evaluate potential exterior sounds by running large-scale trials in the real world.
Journal Article

Comprehensive Array Measurements of In-Car Sound Field in Magnitude and Phase for Active Sound Generation and Noise Control

2014-06-30
2014-01-2046
When employing in-car active sound generation (ASG) and active noise cancellation (ANC), the accurate knowledge of the vehicle interior sound pressure distribution in magnitude as well as phase is paramount. Revisiting the ANC concept, relevant boundary conditions in spatial sound fields will be addressed. Moreover, within this study the controllability and observability requirements in case of ASG and ANC were examined in detail. This investigation focuses on sound pressure measurements using a 24 channel microphone array at different heights near the head of the driver. A shaker at the firewall and four loudspeakers of an ordinary in-car sound system have been investigated in order to compare their sound fields. Measurements have been done for different numbers of passengers, with and without a dummy head and real person on the driver seat. Transfer functions have been determined with a log-swept sine technique.
Journal Article

Cyclic Stress-Strain Behaviour of AM60B and AE44 Cast Magnesium Alloys and Its Impact on LCF Characterisation and Fatigue Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0969
Light weight alloys are widely used in the automotive industry in order to meet environmental requirements. Cast magnesium alloys are candidate materials due to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and excellent castability. However, some previously reported anomalous cyclic stress-strain behaviours of magnesium alloys have not been fully investigated especially in LCF characterisation. The main objective of this work was to investigate the cyclic loading-unloading behaviour of high pressure die cast (HPDC) AM60B and AE44 magnesium alloys under uniaxial tension or/and compression and its effect on LCF behaviour. It was found that classical linear stress-strain behaviour, for both AM60B and AE44 alloys, applied only to a very small range of stress beyond which significant pseudo-elastic behaviour was discovered. This affected LCF characterisation and subsequent fatigue analysis processes.
Technical Paper

Durability Test Suite Optimization Based on Physics of Failure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0792
Dynamometer (dyno) durability testing plays a significant role in reliability and durability assessment of commercial engines. Frequently, durability test procedures are based on warranty history and corresponding component failure modes. Evolution of engine designs, operating conditions, electronic control features, and diagnostic limits have created challenges to historical-based testing approaches. A physics-based methodology, known as Load Matrix, is described to counteract these challenges. The technique, developed by AVL, is based on damage factor models for subsystem and component failure modes (e.g. fatigue, wear, degradation, deposits) and knowledge of customer duty cycles. By correlating dyno test to field conditions in quantifiable terms, such as customer equivalent miles, more effective and efficient durability test suites and test procedures can be utilized. To this end, application of Load Matrix to a heavy-duty diesel engine is presented.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Strength Effect of Thread Forming Process in Cast Aluminum

2006-04-03
2006-01-0780
Two thread forming processes, rolling and cutting, were studied for their effects on fatigue in cast aluminum 319-T7. Material was excised from cylinder blocks and tested in rotating-bending fatigue in the form of unnotched and notched specimens. The notched specimens were prepared by either rolling or cutting to replicate threads in production-intent parts. Cut threads exhibited conventional notch behavior for notch sensitive materials. In contrast, plastic deformation induced by rolling created residual compressive stresses in the notch root and significantly improved fatigue strength to the point that most of the rolled specimens broke outside the notch. Fractographic and metallographic investigation showed that cracks at the root of rolled notches were deflected upon initiation. This lengthened their incubation period, which effectively increased fatigue resistance.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Engine Performance Optimization

2018-10-30
2018-32-0082
State-of-the-art motorcycle engines consist of numerous variable components and require a powerful motor management to meet the growing customer expectations and the legislative requirements (e.g. exhaust and noise emissions, fuel consumption) at the same time. These demands are often competing and raise the level of complexity in calibration. In the racing domain, the optimization requirements are usually higher and test efficiency is crucial. Whilst the number of variables to control is growing, the time to perform an engine optimization remains the same or is even shortened. Therefore, simulation is becoming an essential part of the engine calibration optimization. Considering the special circumstances in racing, involving valuable hardware, as well as extremely short development and calibration iteration loops, only transient testing is possible.
Journal Article

Robustness Testing of Real-Time Automotive Systems Using Sequence Covering Arrays

2013-04-08
2013-01-1228
Testing real-time vehicular systems challenges the tester to design test cases for concurrent and sequential input events, emulating unexpected user and usage profiles. The vehicle response should be robust to unexpected user actions. Sequence Covering Arrays (SCA) offer an approach which can emulate such unexpected user actions by generating an optimized set of test vectors which cover all possible t-way sequences of events. The objective of this research was to find an efficient nonfunctional sequence testing (NFST) strategy for testing the robustness of real-time automotive embedded systems measured by their ability to recover (prove-out test) after applying sequences of user and usage patterns generated by combinatorial test algorithms, considered as “noisy” inputs. The method was validated with a case study of an automotive embedded system tested at Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) level. The random sequences were able to alter the system functionality observed at the prove-out test.
Technical Paper

SOURCE - A Stereophonic System for Engine and Vehicle Sound Recordings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1685
The subjectively perceived playback quality of conventional artificial head recordings does not fully comply with the original perception of engine and vehicle interior sound. There exist differences in subjective perception between different artificial heads and even between models of one supplier. Additionally, the listening situations are often judged unnatural. One important reason for these problems is the fact that the transfer function of an artificial head system is always different from the torso and the outer ear transfer function of a specific person. The neurological processing of a specific test person is not trained to the significantly different head related transfer functions of the conventional artificial heads. Especially the significant differences of the outer ear transfer functions between an artificial head and a specific test person are considered as a main reason for an unnatural playback quality.
Journal Article

The Damage Operator Approach: Fatigue, Creep and Viscoplasticity Modeling in Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue

2011-04-12
2011-01-0485
In the last decades the development time of vehicles has been drastically reduced due to the application of advanced numerical and experimental methods. Specifications concerning durability and other functional attributes for every new model improve for every vehicle. In particular, for machines and components under variable multiaxial loading, fatigue evaluation is one of the most important steps in the design process. Appropriate material testing and simulation is the key to efficient life prediction. However, the life of automotive components, power plants and other high-temperature facilities depends mostly on thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). This is due to the normally variable service conditions, which contain the phases of startup, full load, partial load and shut-down.
Technical Paper

The Influences on Real Driving Emissions in India Outlook RDE Legislation BHARAT VI

2017-01-10
2017-26-0137
With the official publication of the “RDE package 1” on 31st March 2016 the long awaited start of RDE testing is now fixed. This event marks a milestone in the emission legislation for passenger cars and is the first of a series of four RDE packages to fade-in real world testing of passenger cars in Europe. During the same time India announced in the Gazette of India on 19th February, 2016 - G.S.R. 187(E). - the draft of introduction of Bharat VI by April 1st 2020 [5] which also should include the Real Driving Emissions (RDE) on-road certification as per procedure laid down in AIS137 and as amended from time to time. As European RDE legislation will be the baseline for Indian RDE legislation rules this paper will highlight the differences and challenges expected between the requirements in Europe compared to India during the first tests done by AVL Technical Center Private Limited located in Gurgaon.
Technical Paper

The OBD System Development Database - a Solution for Knowledge Management and Tool Supported Control System Design and Calibration

2014-04-01
2014-01-1171
The correct information about legal demands of the On-Board-Diagnostic (OBD) system in a vehicle project is required throughout the entire development process. Usually, the main obstacle in succeeding is to provide the company's expertise of some few experts for all employees who work in OBD related projects. The paper describes the AVL solution for knowledge management and tool supported control system design and calibration: OBD System Development Database. The software enables the user to access the regulatory requirements for a specific application and legislation from past, present and future (proposed rule-making) point of view. Information concerning already available and stored monitoring concepts is linked to the requirements in order to re-use potentially suitable concepts and to enable an efficient knowledge exchange within the company.
Technical Paper

The Use of Intumescent Coatings with Polymer Composites for High Temperature Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0713
To meet corporate CO2 emission targets polymer composites are being explored for light-weighting vehicle applications. Operational requirements may demand that such materials function above glass transition temperatures or heat deflection points. Intumescent coatings are traditionally used in construction to protect steelwork during fire. This paper presents a novel experimental investigation of two intumescent technologies to thermally protect a reinforced polyamide, for use as a semi-structural vehicle component. Coatings were assessed against the thermal requirement to withstand 500°C for 10 minutes. The differences in performance observed between water and epoxy based coatings as well as when an insulation layer was introduced are reported. Ultimate Tensile Stress (UTS) and modulus values were obtained at −40°C, ambient, and 85°C for uncoated specimens before and after thermal cycling.
Technical Paper

Vehicle Sound Engineering by Modifying Intake / Exhaust Orifice Noise Using Simulation Software

2003-05-05
2003-01-1686
Apart of other aspects, the interior sound of a passenger car brand has to meet customer expectations. For optimizing the sound of a passenger car, target sounds have first to be established via the operating range of the vehicle. For an effective sound engineering approach an objective description and evaluation of vehicle interior sound is beneficial. Such an objective description guarantees the effective and reproducible implementation of the required brand sound in the vehicle development process. In such a process it is necessary to reduce on the one hand annoying undesired noise aspects and to create on the other hand the relevant and necessary noise parameters to meet the target sounds head on.
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