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Technical Paper

360° vs. 270° vs. 180°: The Difference of Balancing a 2 Cylinder Inline Engine: Design, Simulation, Comparative Measurements

2012-10-23
2012-32-0106
Beside the automotive industry, where 2-cylinder inline engines are catching attention again, twin-cylinder configurations are quite usual in the small engine world. From stationary engines and range-extender use to small motorcycles up to big cruisers and K-Cars this engine architecture is used in many types of applications. Because of very good overall packaging, performance characteristics and not least the possibility of parts-commonality with 4-cylinder engines nearly every motorcycle manufacturer provides an inline twin in its model range. Especially for motorcycle applications where generally the engine is a rigid member of the frame and vibrations can be transferred directly to the rider an appropriate balancing system is required.
Journal Article

A Computational Approach to Assess Buffeting and Broadband Noise Generated by a Vehicle Sunroof

2015-04-14
2015-01-1532
Car manufacturers put large efforts into reducing wind noise to improve the comfort level of their cars. Each component of the vehicle is designed to meet its individual noise target to ensure the wind noise passenger comfort level inside the vehicle is met. Sunroof designs are tested to meet low-frequency buffeting (also known as boom) targets and broadband noise targets for the fully open sunroof with deflector and for the sunroof in vent position. Experimentally testing designs and making changes to meet these design targets typically involves high cost prototypes, expensive wind tunnel sessions, and potentially late design changes. To reduce the associated costs as well as development times, there is strong motivation for the use of a reliable numerical prediction capability early in the vehicle design process.
Technical Paper

A Pragmatic Model-Based Product Engineering Process

2014-04-01
2014-01-0308
Complexity of electronics and embedded software systems in automobiles has been increasing over the years. This necessitates the need for an effective and exhaustive development and validation process in order to deliver fault free vehicles at reduced time to market. Model-based Product Engineering (MBPE) is a new process for development and validation of embedded control software. The process is generic and defines the engineering activities to plan and assess the progress and quality of the software developed for automotive applications. The MBPE process is comprised of six levels (one design level and five verification and validation levels) ranging from the vehicle requirements phase to the start of production. The process describes the work products to be delivered during the course of product development and also aligns the delivery plan to overall vehicle development milestones.
Technical Paper

A Versatile Approach for an ISO26262 Compliant Hardware-Software Interface Definition with Model-Based Development

2015-04-14
2015-01-0148
Increasing demands for safety, security, and certifiability of embedded automotive systems require additional development effort to generate the required evidences that the developed system can be trusted for the application and environment it is intended for. Safety standards such as ISO 26262 for road vehicles have been established to provide guidance during the development of safety-critical systems. The challenge in this context is to provide evidence of consistency, correctness, and completeness of system specifications over different work-products. One of these required work-products is the hardware-software interface (HSI) definition. This work-product is especially important since it defines the interfaces between different technologies. Model-based development (MBD) is a promising approach to support the description of the system under development in a more structured way, thus improving resulting consistency.
Journal Article

Accelerated Fatigue and Modal Parameter Identification of Lightweight Structures

2014-06-30
2014-01-2095
Car components are exposed to the random/harmonic/impact excitation which can result in component failure due to vibration fatigue. The stress and strain loads do depend on local stress concentration effects and also on the global structural dynamics properties. Standardized fatigue testing is long-lasting, while the dynamic fatigue testing can be much faster; however, the dynamical changes due to fatigue are usually not taken into account and therefore the identified fatigue and structural parameters can be biased. In detail: damage accumulation results in structural changes (stiffness, damping) which are hard to measure in real time; further, structural changes change the dynamics of the loaded system and without taking this changes into account the fatigue load in the stress concentration zone can change significantly (even if the excitation remains the same). This research presents a new approach for accelerated vibration testing of real structures.
Technical Paper

Achieving Compliance to RDE - How Does This Development Target Impact the Development Process, Testing Methodologies and Tools

2019-01-09
2019-26-0358
At first glance RDE seems to be a road testing topic only, mistakenly. While Type approval test must be performed at the Road and Chassis Dyno, development work beforehand delivers solutions fulfilling the demanded legislation limits. Making the right development steps and decisions will lead to a technical solution within economy of scales. Much of this work done happens on engine testbeds and Real Driving Emissions (RDE) per UN-ECE legislation or the new test cycle for the chassis dyno according WLTP (Worldwide Harmonized Light-Duty Test Procedure) will not change that. The question is, are engine test beds fit for this new challenge or are changes required? One characteristic element of RDE is the randomness of operating conditions generated by a road drive. There must be found a way, to achieve RDE relevant test conditions in a most reproducible manner.
Technical Paper

Adding Depth: Establishing 3D Display Fundamentals for Automotive Applications

2015-04-14
2015-01-0147
The advent of 3D displays offers Human-Machine Interface (HMI) designers and engineers new opportunities to shape the user's experience of information within the vehicle. However, the application of 3D displays to the in-vehicle environment introduces a number of new parameters that must be carefully considered in order to optimise the user experience. In addition, there is potential for 3D displays to increase driver inattention, either through diverting the driver's attention away from the road or by increasing the time taken to assimilate information. Manufacturers must therefore take great care in establishing the ‘do’s and ‘don’t's of 3D interface design for the automotive context, providing a sound basis upon which HMI designers can innovate. This paper describes the approach and findings of a three-part investigation into the use of 3D displays in the instrument cluster of a road car, the overall aim of which was to define the boundaries of the 3D HMI design space.
Technical Paper

An Initial Study to Develop Appropriate Warning Sound for a Luxury Vehicle Using an Exterior Sound Simulator

2011-05-17
2011-01-1727
Many electric (EV) and hybrid-electric (HEV) vehicles are designed to operate using only electric propulsion at low road speeds. This has resulted in significantly reduced vehicle noise levels in urban situations. Although this may be viewed by many as a benefit, a risk to safety exists for those who rely on the engine noise to help detect the presence, location and behaviour of a vehicle in their vicinity. In recognition of this, legislation is being introduced globally which will require automotive manufacturers to implement external warning sound systems. A key challenge for premium vehicle manufacturers is the development of a suitable warning sound signature which also conveys the appropriate brand aspirations for the product. A further major difficulty exists when trying to robustly evaluate potential exterior sounds by running large-scale trials in the real world.
Technical Paper

Assessment of a Vehicle's Transient Aerodynamic Response

2012-04-16
2012-01-0449
A vehicle on the road encounters an unsteady flow due to turbulence in the natural wind, due to the unsteady wakes of other vehicles and as a result of traversing through the stationary wakes of roadside obstacles. There is increasing concern about potential differences between the steady flow conditions used for development and the transient conditions that occur on the road. This paper seeks to determine if measurements made under steady state conditions can be used to predict the aerodynamic behaviour of a vehicle on road in a gusty environment. The project has included measurements in two full size wind tunnels, including using the Pininfarina TGS, steady-state and transient inlet simulations in Exa Powerflow, and a campaign of testing on-road and on-track. The particular focus of this paper is on steady wind tunnel measurements and on-road tests, representing the most established development environment and the environment experienced by the customer, respectively.
Journal Article

Comprehensive Array Measurements of In-Car Sound Field in Magnitude and Phase for Active Sound Generation and Noise Control

2014-06-30
2014-01-2046
When employing in-car active sound generation (ASG) and active noise cancellation (ANC), the accurate knowledge of the vehicle interior sound pressure distribution in magnitude as well as phase is paramount. Revisiting the ANC concept, relevant boundary conditions in spatial sound fields will be addressed. Moreover, within this study the controllability and observability requirements in case of ASG and ANC were examined in detail. This investigation focuses on sound pressure measurements using a 24 channel microphone array at different heights near the head of the driver. A shaker at the firewall and four loudspeakers of an ordinary in-car sound system have been investigated in order to compare their sound fields. Measurements have been done for different numbers of passengers, with and without a dummy head and real person on the driver seat. Transfer functions have been determined with a log-swept sine technique.
Journal Article

Cyclic Stress-Strain Behaviour of AM60B and AE44 Cast Magnesium Alloys and Its Impact on LCF Characterisation and Fatigue Analysis

2014-04-01
2014-01-0969
Light weight alloys are widely used in the automotive industry in order to meet environmental requirements. Cast magnesium alloys are candidate materials due to their high strength to weight ratio, high stiffness and excellent castability. However, some previously reported anomalous cyclic stress-strain behaviours of magnesium alloys have not been fully investigated especially in LCF characterisation. The main objective of this work was to investigate the cyclic loading-unloading behaviour of high pressure die cast (HPDC) AM60B and AE44 magnesium alloys under uniaxial tension or/and compression and its effect on LCF behaviour. It was found that classical linear stress-strain behaviour, for both AM60B and AE44 alloys, applied only to a very small range of stress beyond which significant pseudo-elastic behaviour was discovered. This affected LCF characterisation and subsequent fatigue analysis processes.
Technical Paper

Durability Test Suite Optimization Based on Physics of Failure

2018-04-03
2018-01-0792
Dynamometer (dyno) durability testing plays a significant role in reliability and durability assessment of commercial engines. Frequently, durability test procedures are based on warranty history and corresponding component failure modes. Evolution of engine designs, operating conditions, electronic control features, and diagnostic limits have created challenges to historical-based testing approaches. A physics-based methodology, known as Load Matrix, is described to counteract these challenges. The technique, developed by AVL, is based on damage factor models for subsystem and component failure modes (e.g. fatigue, wear, degradation, deposits) and knowledge of customer duty cycles. By correlating dyno test to field conditions in quantifiable terms, such as customer equivalent miles, more effective and efficient durability test suites and test procedures can be utilized. To this end, application of Load Matrix to a heavy-duty diesel engine is presented.
Technical Paper

Fatigue Strength Effect of Thread Forming Process in Cast Aluminum

2006-04-03
2006-01-0780
Two thread forming processes, rolling and cutting, were studied for their effects on fatigue in cast aluminum 319-T7. Material was excised from cylinder blocks and tested in rotating-bending fatigue in the form of unnotched and notched specimens. The notched specimens were prepared by either rolling or cutting to replicate threads in production-intent parts. Cut threads exhibited conventional notch behavior for notch sensitive materials. In contrast, plastic deformation induced by rolling created residual compressive stresses in the notch root and significantly improved fatigue strength to the point that most of the rolled specimens broke outside the notch. Fractographic and metallographic investigation showed that cracks at the root of rolled notches were deflected upon initiation. This lengthened their incubation period, which effectively increased fatigue resistance.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Approach for Engine Performance Optimization

2018-10-30
2018-32-0082
State-of-the-art motorcycle engines consist of numerous variable components and require a powerful motor management to meet the growing customer expectations and the legislative requirements (e.g. exhaust and noise emissions, fuel consumption) at the same time. These demands are often competing and raise the level of complexity in calibration. In the racing domain, the optimization requirements are usually higher and test efficiency is crucial. Whilst the number of variables to control is growing, the time to perform an engine optimization remains the same or is even shortened. Therefore, simulation is becoming an essential part of the engine calibration optimization. Considering the special circumstances in racing, involving valuable hardware, as well as extremely short development and calibration iteration loops, only transient testing is possible.
Journal Article

Off-Road Tire-Terrain Interaction: An Analytical Solution

2016-09-27
2016-01-8029
A novel semi-analytical solution has been developed for the calculation of the static and dynamic response of an off road tire interacting with a deformable terrain, which utilizes soil parameters independent of the size of the contact patch (size-independent). The models involved in the solution presented, can be categorized in rigid and/or pneumatic tires, with or without tread pattern. After a concise literature review of related methods, a detailed presentation of the semi-analytical solution is presented, along with assumptions and limitations. A flowchart is provided, showing the main steps of the numerical implementation, and various test cases have been examined, characterized in terms of vertical load, tire dimensions, soil properties, deformability of the tire, and tread pattern. It has been found that the proposed model can qualitatively capture the response of a rolling wheel on deformable terrain.
Journal Article

Robustness Testing of Real-Time Automotive Systems Using Sequence Covering Arrays

2013-04-08
2013-01-1228
Testing real-time vehicular systems challenges the tester to design test cases for concurrent and sequential input events, emulating unexpected user and usage profiles. The vehicle response should be robust to unexpected user actions. Sequence Covering Arrays (SCA) offer an approach which can emulate such unexpected user actions by generating an optimized set of test vectors which cover all possible t-way sequences of events. The objective of this research was to find an efficient nonfunctional sequence testing (NFST) strategy for testing the robustness of real-time automotive embedded systems measured by their ability to recover (prove-out test) after applying sequences of user and usage patterns generated by combinatorial test algorithms, considered as “noisy” inputs. The method was validated with a case study of an automotive embedded system tested at Hardware-In-the-Loop (HIL) level. The random sequences were able to alter the system functionality observed at the prove-out test.
Technical Paper

SOURCE - A Stereophonic System for Engine and Vehicle Sound Recordings

2003-05-05
2003-01-1685
The subjectively perceived playback quality of conventional artificial head recordings does not fully comply with the original perception of engine and vehicle interior sound. There exist differences in subjective perception between different artificial heads and even between models of one supplier. Additionally, the listening situations are often judged unnatural. One important reason for these problems is the fact that the transfer function of an artificial head system is always different from the torso and the outer ear transfer function of a specific person. The neurological processing of a specific test person is not trained to the significantly different head related transfer functions of the conventional artificial heads. Especially the significant differences of the outer ear transfer functions between an artificial head and a specific test person are considered as a main reason for an unnatural playback quality.
Journal Article

The Damage Operator Approach: Fatigue, Creep and Viscoplasticity Modeling in Thermo-Mechanical Fatigue

2011-04-12
2011-01-0485
In the last decades the development time of vehicles has been drastically reduced due to the application of advanced numerical and experimental methods. Specifications concerning durability and other functional attributes for every new model improve for every vehicle. In particular, for machines and components under variable multiaxial loading, fatigue evaluation is one of the most important steps in the design process. Appropriate material testing and simulation is the key to efficient life prediction. However, the life of automotive components, power plants and other high-temperature facilities depends mostly on thermo-mechanical fatigue (TMF). This is due to the normally variable service conditions, which contain the phases of startup, full load, partial load and shut-down.
Technical Paper

The Effects of Unsteady On-Road Flow Conditions on Cabin Noise

2010-04-12
2010-01-0289
At higher speeds aerodynamic noise tends to dominate the overall noise inside the passenger compartment. Large-scale turbulent conditions experienced on the road can generate different noise characteristics from those under steady-state conditions experienced in an acoustic wind tunnel. The objective of this research is to assess the relationship between on-road flow conditions and the sound pressure level in the cabin. This research, covering links between the unsteady airflow around the vehicle and aeroacoustic effects, is a natural progression from previous aerodynamic studies. On-road testing was undertaken using a current production vehicle equipped with a mobile data logging system. Testing was carried out on major roads at typical highway speeds, where wind noise is very significant. Of particular interest are high-yaw conditions, which can lead to a blustering phenomenon.
Journal Article

The Effects of Unsteady On-Road Flow Conditions on Cabin Noise: Spectral and Geometric Dependence

2011-04-12
2011-01-0159
The in-cabin sound pressure level response of a vehicle in yawed wind conditions can differ significantly between the smooth flow conditions of the aeroacoustic wind tunnel and the higher turbulence, transient flow conditions experienced on the road. Previous research has shown that under low turbulence conditions there is close agreement between the variation with yaw of in-cabin sound pressure level on the road and in the wind tunnel. However, under transient conditions, sound pressure levels on the road were found to show a smaller increase due to yaw than predicted by the wind tunnel, specifically near the leeward sideglass region. The research presented here investigates the links between transient flow and aeroacoustics. The effect of small geometry changes upon the aeroacoustic response of the vehicle has been investigated.
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