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Technical Paper

Analysis of Spray Feature Injected by Tailpipe Injector for Aftertreatment of Diesel Engine Emissions

Diesel Particulate Filter (DPF) is a very effective aftertreatment device to limit particulate emissions from diesel engines. As the amount of soot collected in the DPF increases, the pressure loss increases. Therefore, DPF regeneration needs to be performed. Injected fuel into the exhaust line upstream of the Diesel Oxidation Catalyst (DOC), hydrocarbons are oxidized on the DOC, which increases the exhaust gas temperature at the DPF inlet. It is also necessary that the injected fuel is completely vaporized before entering the DOC, and uniformly mixed with the exhaust gases in order to make the DOC work efficiency. However, ensuring complete evaporation and an optimum mixture distribution in the exhaust line are challenging. Therefore, it is important that the fuel spray feature is grasped to perform DPF regeneration effectively. The purpose of this study is the constructing a simulation model.
Technical Paper

Combustion Improvement of a Premixed Charge Compression Ignition Methanol Engine using Flash Boiling Fuel Injection

A premixed charge compression ignition methanol engine targeting a drastic decrease in NOx emissions and a brake specific energy consumption equivalent to that of a DI diesel engine has been developed (1). The problems of this combustion system are that the brake thermal efficiency decreases, and CO and THC emissions increase due to a deterioration of high load combustion. The purpose of this study is to improve the high load combustion of a premixed charge compression ignition methanol engine using a flash boiling fuel injection technique. The results of this study have shown that the premixed charge compression ignition methanol combustion system using a flash boiling fuel injection technique increases the brake thermal efficiency, decreases CO and THC emissions, while maintaining low NOx emissions in the high load region.
Technical Paper

Influence of Density and Viscosity of Diesel Fuel on Exhaust Emissions

Fuels of wide range of density and viscosity were tested by using a DI diesel engine that conforms to present Japanese regulations. A total of 9 fuels was tested. Six test fuels were commercial automotive diesel fuel available in Japan. In order to expand the density range, test fuels of kerosene, high-density diesel fuel and automotive diesel fuel in Singapore were also included. The density range was 0.796 to 0.856 (g/cm3), and the viscosity range was 1.52 to 5.44 (mm2/s). The test mode was Japanese D13. Also, some fuels were tested by the Japanese transient test mode. Moreover, fuel spray was observed by an optical method to clarify the relationship between viscosity and Sauter mean diameter.
Technical Paper

Japanese Standards for Diesel Fuel Containing 5% FAME: Investigation of Acid Generation in FAME Blended Diesel Fuels and Its Impact on Corrosion

The Agency of Natural Resources and Energy, Ministry of Economy, Trade and Industry has conducted conformity tests of diesel fuel containing Fatty Acid Methyl Ester (FAME) to amend diesel fuel standards in Japan. The objective of the tests is to examine appropriate specifications of diesel fuel containing FAME for automotive use for existing vehicles in the Japanese market. The conformity testing includes verification of fuel system component compatibility, tail pipe emissions, and characterization of the reliability and durability of the engine system, including the fuel injection system. In designing the conformity tests, the maximum FAME concentration was 5%. Most of the new standards are essentially equivalent to EN14214, but the total acid number (TAN) of specific acids, and oxidation stability of the new standards for diesel fuel containing FAME, are different from EN14214.
Technical Paper

Parametric Study and Clarification of Determination Factors of Diesel Exhaust Emission Using a Single Cylinder Engine and Model Fuels - JCAP Combustion Analysis Working Group Report Part I

Single cylinder engine testing was carried out to clearly understand the test results of multi-cylinder engines reported by the Diesel WG in JCAP (Japan Clean Air Program) (1), (2), (3) and (4). In this tests, engine specifications such as fuel injection pressure, nozzle hole diameter, turbo-charging pressure, EGR rate, and fuel properties such as 1-, 2-, 3-ring aromatics content, n-,i-paraffins content, and T90 were parametrically changed and their influence on the emissions were studied. PM emission generally increased in each engine condition with increased aromatic contents and T90. In particular, multi ring aromatics brought about large increases in PM regardless of the engine conditions. The influence of fuel properties on NOx emission is smaller than the influence on PM emission. Some other fuels that have various side chain structures of 1-ring aromatics, normal paraffins only and various naphthene contents were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Safety Evaluation on Fuel Cell Stacks Fire and Toxicity Evaluation of Material Combustion Gas for FCV

Fuel cell vehicles represent a new system, and their safety has not yet been fully proved comparing with present automobile. Thorough safety evaluation is especially needed for the fuel system, which uses hydrogen as fuel, and the electric system, which uses a lot of electricity. The fuel cell stacks that are to be loaded on fuel cell vehicles generate electricity by reacting hydrogen and oxygen through electrolytic polymer membranes which is very thin. The safety of the fuel and electric systems should also be assessed for any abnormality that may be caused by electrolytic polymer membranes for any reasons. The purpose of our tests is to collect basic data to ultimately establish safety standards for fuel cell stacks. Methanol pool flame exposure tests were conducted on stationary use fuel cell stacks of two 200W to evaluate safety in the event of a fire.
Technical Paper

Summary report of Japan Clean Air Program diesel and diesel fuel activities

Diesel emissions are significant issue worldwide, and emissions requirements have become so tough that. the application of after-treatment systems is now indispensable in many countries To meet even more stringent future emissions requirements, it has become apparent that the improvement of market fuel quality is essential as well as the development in engine and exhaust after-treatment technology. Japan Clean Air Program II (JCAP II) is being conducted to assess the direction of future technologies through the evaluation of current automobile and fuel technologies and consequently to realize near zero emissions and carbon dioxide (CO2) emission reduction. In this program, effects of fuel properties on the performance of diesel engines and a vehicle equipped with two types of diesel NOx emission after-treatment devices, a Urea-SCR system and a NOx storage reduction (NSR) catalyst system, were examined.