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Technical Paper

A Study of LPG Lean Burn for a Small SI Engine

This paper presents a study of LPG lean burn in a motorcycle SI engine. The lean burn limits are compared by several ways. The relations of lean burn limit with the parameters, such as engine speed, compression ratio and advanced spark ignition etc. are tested. The experimental results show that larger throttle opening, lower engine speed, earlier spark ignition timing, larger electrode gap and higher compression ratio will extend the lean burn limit of LPG. The emission of a LPG engine, especially on NOx emission, can be significantly reduced by means of the lean burn technology.
Technical Paper

An Experimental Investigation of the Combustion Characteristics of Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol-Diesel Blends with Different ABE Component Ratios in a Constant Volume Chamber

Acetone-Butanol-Ethanol (ABE), an intermediate product in the ABE fermentation process for producing bio-butanol, is considered a promising alternative fuel because it not only preserves the advantages of oxygenated fuel which typically emit less pollutants compared to conventional diesel, but also lowers the cost of fuel recovery for each individual component during the fermentation. With the development of advanced ABE fermentation technology, the volumetric percentage of acetone, butanol and ethanol in the bio-solvents can be precisely controlled. In this respect, it is desirable to estimate the performance of different ABE blends to determine the best blend and optimize the production process accordingly. ABE fuels with different component ratio, (A: B: E: 6:3:1; 3:6:1; 0:10:0, vol. %), were blended with diesel and tested in a constant volume chamber.
Technical Paper

Application of Slope Sensor in Hill-Start to AMT (Automated Manual Transmission) Vehicles

In order to improve the drivability and reduce the clutch friction loss, low-cost slope sensor is used in hill-start control of AMT vehicles. After the power spectrum analysis of the original signal and the design of the digital filter, the angle of the slope is obtained with short enough delay and small enough noise. By using this slope angle information, slope resistance force can be calculated online so that the vehicle can be prevented from sliding backward and optimal launch control can be realized. The digital filter of slope angle signal and the optimal controller of dry clutch engagement are embedded in the TCU (Transmission Control Unit) of a micro-car Geely Panda. Real-vehicle experiments are carried out with optimal clutch controller, which shows that the hill-start with low-cost slope sensor and optimal clutch controller can provide successful vehicle launch with little driveline shock. In addition, it can also avoid backward sliding and engine over-speed effectively.
Technical Paper

Automobile Interior Noise Prediction Based on Energy Finite Element Method

For the purpose of predicting the interior noise of a passenger automobile at middle and high frequency, an energy finite element analysis (EFEA) model of the automobile was created using EFEA method. The excitations including engine mount excitation and road excitation were measured by road experiment at a speed of 120 km/h. The sound excitation was measured in a semi-anechoic chamber. And the wind excitation was calculated utilizing numeric computation method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The sound pressure level (SPL) and energy density contours of the interior acoustic cavity of the automobile were presented at 2000 Hz. Meanwhile, the flexural energy density and flexural velocity of body plates were calculated. The SPL of interior noise was predicted and compared with the corresponding value of experiment.
Technical Paper

Auxiliary Drive Control Strategy of Hydraulic Hub-Motor Auxiliary System for Heavy Truck

To improve traditional heavy commercial vehicles performance, this paper introduces a novel hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, which could achieve auxiliary driving and auxiliary braking function. Firstly, the system configuration and operation modes are described. In order to achieve coordinating control and distribution of the engine power between mechanical and hydraulic paths, the paper proposes an optimal algorithm based on enhance of vehicle slip efficiency and the results show that displacement of hydraulic variable pump relates with the transmission gear ratio. And then the hydraulic pump displacement controller is designed, in which the feedforward and feedback strategy is adopted. Considering the characteristics of hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system, a layered auxiliary drive control strategy is proposed in the paper, which includes signal layers, core control layers and executive layers.
Technical Paper

Characteristics of Particulate Emissions Fueled with LPG and Gasoline in a Small SI Engine

This paper presents experimental studies of particulate emissions in a small SI engine fueled with LPG and gasoline fuels. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc EFI engine with gasoline fuel is used as the baseline engine. Characteristics of the particulate emissions of the two fuels are compared. Test results show that: there are great quantities of particulate emissions for both fuels, but the total numbers of particulate emissions for the two fuels are generally in the same level. The distribution of the particulate sizes is in bimodal type for the gasoline, but for the LPG its first peak is not markedly in some conditions. The particulate sizes of the second peak for the two fuels appear at about the same size. At middle loads and 3000r/min, the particulate emissions for both of the two fuels are the greatest.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions Characteristics of a Small Spark-Ignited LPG Engine

This paper presents an experimental study of the emission characteristics of a small Spark-Ignited, LPG engine. A single cylinder, four-stroke, water-cooled, 125cc SI engine for motorcycle is modified for using LPG fuel. The power output of LPG is above 95% power output of gasoline. The emission characteristics of LPG are compared with the gasoline. The test result shows that LPG for small SI engine will help to reduce the emission level of motorcycles. The HC and CO emission level can be reduced greatly, but NOx emissions are increased. The emission of motorcycle using LPG shows the potential to meet the more strict regulation.
Technical Paper

Combustion and Emissions of Ethanol Fuel (E100) in a Small SI Engine

An air-cooled, four-stroke, 125 cc electronic gasoline fuel injection SI engine for motorcycles is altered to burn ethanol fuel. The effects of nozzle orifice size, fuel injection duration, spark timing and the excess air/ fuel ratio on engine power output, fuel and energy consumptions and engine exhaust emission levels are studied on an engine test bed. The results show that the maximum engine power output is increased by 5.4% and the maximum torque output is increased by 1.9% with the ethanol fuel in comparison with the baseline. At full load and 7000 r/min, HC emission is decreased by 38% and CO emission is decreased 46% on average over the whole engine speed range. However, NOx levels are increased to meet the maximum power output. The experiments of the spark timing show that the levels of HC and NOx emission are decreased markedly by the delay of spark timing.
Technical Paper

Design and Control of Torque Feedback Device for Driving Simulator Based on MR Fluid and Coil Spring Structure

Since steering wheel torque feedback is one of the crucial factors for drivers to gain road feel and ensure driving safety, it is especially important to simulate the steering torque feedback for a driving simulator. At present, steering wheel feedback torque is mainly simulated by an electric motor with gear transmission. The torque response is typically slow, which can result in drivers’ discomfort and poor driving maneuverability. This paper presents a novel torque feedback device with magnetorheological (MR) fluid and coil spring. A phase separation control method is also proposed to control its feedback torque, including spring and damping torques respectively. The spring torque is generated by coil spring, the angle of coil spring can be adjusted by controlling a brushless DC motor. The damping torque is generated by MR fluid, the damping coefficient of MR fluid can be adjusted by controlling the current of excitation coil.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of New Control Algorithm for Parallel Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

The new control algorithm for parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented systematically, in which engine operation points are limited within higher efficient area by the control algorithm and the state of charge (SOC) is limited in a range in order to enhance the batteries' charging and discharging efficiency. In order to determine the ideal operating point of the vehicle's engine, the control strategy uses a lookup table to determine the torque output of the engine. The off-line simulation model of parallel HEV power train is developed which includes the control system and controlled objective (such as engine, electric motor, battery pack and so on). The results show that the control algorithm can effectively limite engine and battery operation points and much more fuel economy can be achieved than that of conventional one.
Technical Paper

Development of a Gas-Phase LPG Injection System for a Small SI Engine

This paper presents the development of an electronic control LPG gas injection system and its application in a small SI engine. The tests results show that the developed LPG gas injection system can meet the needs for the goal of high engine power output and low exhaust emissions based on the engine bench tests. With the LPG electronic gas injection system, the air-fuel ratio can be optimized based on the requirements and CO and NOx emission levels are decreased significantly compared with the LPG mechanical mixer fuel supply system, based on the same HC emission levels. With the new gas phase LPG electronic control injection system, the HC emission level is controlled below the 300 ppm under most engine conditions and under 200 ppm when the engine speed is over 3000 r/min. The NOx emission level is under 2600 ppm in the whole range of engine operation conditions and is decreased by 2000 ppm compared with the LPG mechanical mixer system.
Technical Paper

EGR Response in a Turbo-charged and After-cooled DI Diesel Engine and Its Effects on Smoke Opacity

Three thermo-wires with amplifying circuits have been developed to measure the time-resolved concentration of the exhaust gas recirculated into the intake manifold by a rotary valve-based exhaust gas recirculation (EGR) system of a diesel engine. Good agreement was found between the EGR rates measured by the temperature based system and a conventional CO2 tracing system. The developed EGR measuring system was used to investigate the EGR transient response in a turbo-charged and after-cooled diesel engine with a real-time measure and control system. The EGR response under EGR valve step change and engine transient operating conditions are discussed. At first, the engine was running under a certain steady condition with zero recirculated exhaust gas, then the rotary valve opened to maximum within 0.1s to demonstrate the EGR step change behavior. EGR rate and air intake stabilized in 0.5s.
Technical Paper

Effects of Fuel Injection Characteristics on Heat Release and Emissions in a DI Diesel Engine Operated on DME

In this study, an experimental investigation was conducted using a direct injection single-cylinder diesel engine equipped with a test common rail fuel injection system to clarify how dimethyl ether (DME) injection characteristics affect the heat release and exhaust emissions. For that purpose the common rail fuel injection system (injection pressure: 15 MPa) and injection nozzle (0.55 × 5-holes, 0.70 × 3-holes, same total holes area) have been used for the test. First, to characterize the effect of DME physical properties on the macroscopic spray behavior: injection quantity, injection rate, penetration, cone angle, volume were measured using high-pressure injection chamber (pressure: 4MPa). In order to clarify effects of the injection process on HC, CO, and NOx emissions, as well as the rate of heat release were investigated by single-cylinder engine test. The effects of the injection rate and swirl ratio on exhaust emissions and heat release were also investigated.
Technical Paper

Electric Vehicle Interior Noise Contribution Analysis

Noise excitation sources are different between electric vehicles and conventional vehicles due to their distinct propulsion system architecture. This work focuses on an interior noise contribution analysis by experimental measurements and synthesis approach using a methodology established based on the principle of noise path analysis. The obtained results show that the structure-borne noise from the tire-road excitation acts as a major contributor to the overall interior noise level, and the structure-borne noise from the power plant system contributes noticeably as well, whereas contributions from the electric motor and tire are relatively insignificant.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Source Identification of Bus Floor's Vibration

To find out the main excitation sources of a bus floor's vibration, modal analysis and spectral analysis were respectively performed in the paper. First we tested the vibration modal of the bus's floor under the full-load condition, and the first ten natural frequencies and vibration modes were obtained for the source identification of the bus floor's vibration. Second the vibration characteristic of the bus floor was measured in an on-road experiment. The acceleration sensors were arranged on the bus's floor and the possible excitation sources of the bus, which includes engine mounting system, driveline system, exhaust system, and wheels. Then the on-road experiment was carefully conducted on a highway under the four kinds of test condition: in-situ acceleration, uniform velocity (90km/h, 100km/h, 110km/h, 120km/h), uniform acceleration with top gear, and stall sliding condition with neutral gear.
Technical Paper

Experimental and Analytical Property Characterization of a Self-Damped Pneumatic Suspension System

This study investigates the fundamental stiffness and damping properties of a self-damped pneumatic suspension system, based on both the experimental and analytical analyses. The pneumatic suspension system consists of a pneumatic cylinder and an accumulator that are connected by an orifice, where damping is realized by the gas flow resistance through the orifice. The nonlinear suspension system model is derived and also linearized for facilitating the properties characterization. An experimental setup is also developed for validating both the formulated nonlinear and linearized models. The comparisons between the measured data and simulation results demonstrate the validity of the models under the operating conditions considered. Two suspension property measures, namely equivalent stiffness coefficient and loss factor, are further formulated.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy PID Based Optimization of Starting Control for AMT Clutch of Heavy-duty Trucks

Starting control has become a troublesome issue in the developing field of the control system for heavy-duty trucks, due to the complexity of vehicle driving and the variability of driver's intention. The too fast clutch engagement may result in serious impact, influence on the comfort and fatigue life, and even the engine flameout, while the too slow clutch engagement may lead to long time of friction, the increased temperature, and accelerated wear of friction pair, as well as influence on the power performance and fatigue life[1]. Therefore, the key technique of starting control is clutch engagement control, for which the fuzzy PID based optimization of starting control for AMT clutch is proposed, with the pneumatic AMT clutch of heavy-duty trucks as the research object.
Technical Paper

Identification of Powertrain Rigid-Body Properties Based on Operation Modal Method

Based on the existing methodology, the operation modal method by polyreference least-squares frequency domain method is applied. A methodology of rigid-body properties identification of the non-linear stiffness and damping mounting system (the mounting system of powertrain) is introduced and validated. Then the mode parameters and inertia properties of a powertrain rigid-body have been identified by operation modal method. Finally, by the comparison between the results of experiment properties and the result of theoretical calculation, it shows that the mode parameters and inertia properties of powertrain can be identified accurately by operation modal method.
Technical Paper

Impact Theory Based Total Cylinder Sampling System and its Application

A novel non-destroy repeatable-use impact theory based total cylinder sampling system has been established. This system is mainly composed of a knocking body and a sampling valve. The knocking body impacts the sampling valve with certain velocity resulting in huge force to open the sampling valve and most of the in-cylinder gas has been dumped to one sampling bag for after-treatment. The feasibility and sampling response characteristics of this impact theory based total cylinder sampling system were investigated by engine bench testing. Within 0 to 35°CA ATDC (Crank Angle After Top Dead Center) sample timing 50 percent to 80 percent of in-cylinder mass would be sampled, which was a little less compared with the traditional system. The half decay period of pressure drop was 10 to 20 degrees crank angle within 0 to 60°CA ATDC sample timing, which was about 2-3 times of the traditional system.
Technical Paper

Improvements on the Start Performance of Diesel Engine by Fuel Control Strategy Optimization and Heating Measures

The incomplete combustion and misfire of diesel engine during starting result in unwanted white smoke. The histories of combustion and emission in different phases under different start conditions were studied in this paper. The optimization of the fuel injection control strategy under start conditions was performed. When the diesel engine is started under low temperature, the control strategy adapted to start the engine with a certain constant fuel mass injected per cycle, there may be misfire cycles in the initial period or in the transitional process, which is mainly caused by the mismatch between the fuel mass injected per cycle and the instantaneous engine speed. Therefore, an optimized control strategy was put forward, namely, the engine starts with high fuel mass injection in the first several cycles and then decreases step by step during the transitional period until it operates at idle condition. This strategy was validated to decrease significantly the misfire cycles.