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Technical Paper

Accurate Pressure Control Strategy of Electronic Stability Program Based on the Building Characteristics of High-Speed Switching Valve

The Electronic Stability Program (ESP), as a key actuator of traditional automobile braking system, plays an important role in the development of intelligent vehicles by accurately controlling the pressure of wheels. However, the ESP is a highly nonlinear controlled object due to the changing of the working temperature, humidity, and hydraulic load. In this paper, an accurate pressure control strategy of single wheel during active braking of ESP is proposed, which doesn’t rely on the specific parameters of the hydraulic system and ESP. First, the structure and working principle of ESP have been introduced. Then, we discuss the possibility of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control based on the mathematical model of the high-speed switching valve. Subsequently, the pressure building characteristics of the inlet and outlet valves are analyzed by the hardware in the Loop (HiL) experimental platform.
Journal Article

Design and Power-Assisted Braking Control of a Novel Electromechanical Brake Booster

As a novel assist actuator of brake system, the electromechanical brake (EMB) booster has played a significant role in the battery electric vehicles and automatic driving vehicles. It has advantages of independent to vacuum source, active braking, and tuning pedal feeling compared with conventional vacuum brake booster. In this article, a novel EMB booster system is proposed, which is consisted of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction by gears and ball screw, a servo body, and a reaction disk. Together with the hydraulic control unit, it has two working modes: active braking for automatic drive and passive braking for driver intervention. The structure and work principle of the electric brake booster system is first introduced. The precise control from pedal force to hydraulic pressure is the key for such a power-assisted brake actuator. We translate the control problem of force feedback control to position tracking control.
Technical Paper

Development and Verification of Control Algorithm for Permanent Magnet Synchronous Motor of the Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

To meet the new requirements of braking system for modern electrified and intelligent vehicles, various novel electro-mechanical brake boosters (Eboosters) are emerging. This paper is aimed at a new type of the Ebooster, which is mainly consisted of a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a two-stage reduction transmission and a servo mechanism. Among them, the PMSM is a vital actuator to realize the functions of the Ebooster. To get fast response of the Ebooster system, a novel control strategy employing a maximum torque per ampere (MTPA) control with current compensation decoupling and current-adjusting adaptive flux-weakening control is proposed, which requires the PMSM can operate in a large speed range and maintain a certain anti-load interference capability. Firstly, the wide speed control strategy for the Ebooster’s PMSM is designed in MATLAB/Simulink.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Pressure Control and Parameter Optimization of Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

A general principle scheme of IEHB (Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Brake system) is proposed, and the working principle of the system is simply introduced in this paper. Considering the structure characteristics of the hydraulic control unit of the system, a kind of time-sharing control strategy is adopted to realize the purpose of independent and precise hydraulic pressure regulation of each wheel brake cylinder in various brake conditions of a vehicle. Because of the strong nonlinear and time varying characteristics of the dynamic brake pressure regulation processes of IEHB, its comprehensive brake performance is mainly affected by temperature, humidity, load change, the structure and control parameters of IEHB, and so on.
Technical Paper

Pressure Optimization Control of Electro-Mechanical Brake System in the Process of ABS Working

The electro-mechanical brake booster (EMBB) and hydraulic control unit (HCU) constitute the electro-mechanical brake system, which can meet the requirements of brake system for intelligent vehicles. It does not need vacuum source, provides active braking function, have high control accuracy and fast response. But it has two electronic control units (ECU), which need coordinated control. When ABS is triggered, the pressure of the master cylinder keeps rising and falling, and the pressure fluctuates greatly. This will lead to noise and reduce the durability of the system. In this paper, a pressure optimization control strategy under ABS condition is proposed. Firstly, the structure and control strategy of EMBB are introduced. Secondly, the braking characteristics without pressure optimization control are analyzed. Thirdly, based on the demand of maximum cylinder pressure, a three-closed-loop pressure optimization control strategy is established.
Technical Paper

Pressure Tracking Control of Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster System

The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster system (EMBB) is a kind of novel braking booster system, which integrates active braking, regenerative braking, and other functions. It usually composes of a servo motor and the transmission mechanism. EMBB can greatly meet the development needs of vehicle intelligentization and electrification. During active braking, EMBB is required to respond quickly to the braking request and track the target pressure accurately. However, due to the highly nonlinearity of the hydraulic system and EMBB, traditional control algorithms especially for PID algorithm do not work well for pressure control. And a large amount of calibration work is required when applying PID algorithms to pressure control in engineering.
Technical Paper

Research on Compensation Redundancy Control for Basic Force Boosting Failure of Electro-Booster Brake System

As a new brake-by-wire solution, the electro-booster (Ebooster) brake system can work with the electronic stability program (ESP) equipped in the real vehicle to realize various excellent functions such as basic force boosting (BFB), active braking and energy recovery, which is promoting the development of smart vehicles. Among them, the BFB is the function of Ebooster's servo force to assist the driver's brake pedal force establishing high-intensity braking pressure. After the BFB function failure of the Ebooster, it was not possible to provide sufficient brake pressure for the driver's normal braking, and eventually led to traffic accidents. In this paper, a compensation redundancy control strategy based on ESP is proposed for the BFB failure of the self-designed Ebooster.
Technical Paper

Research on Vehicle Stability Control Strategy Based on Integrated-Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

A vehicle dynamics stability control system based on integrated-electro-hydraulic brake (I-EHB) system with hierarchical control architecture and nonlinear control method is designed to improve the vehicle dynamics stability under extreme conditions in this paper. The I-EHB system is a novel brake-by-wire system, and is suitable to the development demands of intelligent vehicle technology and new energy vehicle technology. Four inlet valves and four outlet valves are added to the layout of a conventional four-channel hydraulic control unit. A permanent-magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) provides a stabilized high-pressure source in the master cylinder, and the four-channel hydraulic control unit ensures that the pressures in each wheel cylinder can be modulated separately at a high precision. Besides, the functions of Anti-lock Braking System, Traction Control System and Regenerative Braking System, Autonomous Emergency Braking can be integrated in this brake-by-wire system.
Technical Paper

Research on Yaw Stability Control of Unmanned Vehicle Based on Integrated Electromechanical Brake Booster

The Electromechanical Brake Booster system (EMBB) integrates active braking and energy recovery and becomes a novel brake-by-wire solution that substitutes the vacuum booster. While the intelligent unmanned vehicle is in unstable state, the EMBB can improve the vehicle yaw stability more quickly and safely. In this paper, a new type of integrated EMBB has been designed, which mainly includes two parts: servo motor unit and hydraulic control unit. Aiming at the dynamic instability problem of intelligent unmanned vehicle, a three-layer vehicle yaw stability control structure including decision layer, distribution layer and execution layer is proposed based on integrated EMBB. Firstly, the decision layer calculates the ideal yaw rate and the side slip angle of the vehicle with the classic 2DOF vehicle dynamics model. The boundary of the stable region is determined by the phase plane method and the additional yaw moment is determined by the feedback PI control algorithm.
Technical Paper

Study on the Algorithm of Active Pressurization Control of Regenerative Braking System in Pure Electric Vehicle

During the vehicle braking, the Regenerative braking system (RBS) transforms the kinetic energy into electric power, storing it in the power sources. To secure the baking process, it is required to use hydraulic braking pressure to coordinately compensate the regenerative braking pressure. The traditional hydraulic pressure control algorithm which is used in regenerative braking system coordinated control has obvious laddering effect in braking. Unit control cycle pressure deviations seriously affect the comfort and the braking feeling on the vehicle.
Technical Paper

Temperature Compensation Control Strategy of Assist Mode for Hydraulic Hub-Motor Drive Vehicle

Based on the traditional heavy commercial vehicle, hydraulic hub-motor drive vehicle (HHMDV) is equipped with a hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary drive system, which makes the vehicle change from the rear-wheel drive to the four-wheel drive to improve the traction performance on low-adhesion road. In the typical operating mode of the vehicle, the leakage of the hydraulic system increases because of the oil temperature rising, this makes the control precision of the hydraulic system drop. Therefore, a temperature compensation control strategy for the assist mode is proposed in this paper. According to the principle of flow continuity, considering the loss of the system and the expected wheel speed, the control strategy of multifactor target pump displacement based on temperature compensation is derived. The control strategy is verified by the co-simulation platform of MATLAB/Simulink and AMESim.
Technical Paper

Temperature Compensation Control Strategy of Creep Mode for Hydraulic Hub-Motor Drive Vehicle

Based on traditional heavy commercial vehicles, a hydraulic hub-motor drive vehicle (HHMDV) is equipped with a set of hydraulic hub-motor auxiliary system (HHMAS) to improve the traction performance and adaptability under complex conditions. In the case of low-speed operation or mechanical transmission failure, the creep mode (CM) can be used to drive the vehicle. Aiming at a common hydraulic system problem that flow loss increases due to temperature variation, a temperature compensation control strategy of the CM is proposed in this paper. By analyzing the speed regulation characteristics of the closed loop of the system in the CM, combined with the efficiency of the hydraulic variable pump (HP) and the hydraulic quantitative motor (HM), and aiming at adjusting the engine work in the optimal curve of the engine, the temperature compensation factor is introduced to control the HP displacement with hydraulic stepless speed regulation.