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Technical Paper

Control Optimization of a Charge Sustaining Hybrid Powertrain for Motorsports

The automotive industry is aggressively pursuing fuel efficiency improvements through hybridization of production vehicles, and there are an increasing number of racing series adopting similar architectures to maintain relevance with current passenger car trends. Hybrid powertrains offer both performance and fuel economy benefits in a motorsport setting, but they greatly increase control complexity and add additional degrees of freedom to the design optimization process. The increased complexity creates opportunity for performance gains, but simulation based tools are necessary since hybrid powertrain design and control strategies are closely coupled and their optimal interactions are not straightforward to predict. One optimization-related advantage that motorsports applications have over production vehicles is that the power demand of circuit racing has strong repeatability due to the nature of the track and the professional skill-level of the driver.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of New Control Algorithm for Parallel Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

The new control algorithm for parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented systematically, in which engine operation points are limited within higher efficient area by the control algorithm and the state of charge (SOC) is limited in a range in order to enhance the batteries' charging and discharging efficiency. In order to determine the ideal operating point of the vehicle's engine, the control strategy uses a lookup table to determine the torque output of the engine. The off-line simulation model of parallel HEV power train is developed which includes the control system and controlled objective (such as engine, electric motor, battery pack and so on). The results show that the control algorithm can effectively limite engine and battery operation points and much more fuel economy can be achieved than that of conventional one.
Technical Paper

Development of Battery/Supercapacitor Hybrid Energy Management System for Electric Vehicles Based on a Power Sharing Strategy Using Terrain Information

Since road electric vehicles typically require a significantly variable and random load power demand in response to traffic conditions, such as frequent sequences of acceleration and deceleration and uphill followed by downhill runs. In this context, the energy management system of electric vehicle must ensure an effective power distribution between battery and supercapacitor to satisfy load demand. In this paper, the power management control strategy of hybrid energy storage system is developed by introducing terrain information to optimize system efficiency and battery lifetime. In this presented research, we aim at developing a power management control strategy considering the influence of the terrain information on system efficiency and battery lifetime.
Technical Paper

Electrochemical Characteristics of Cubic ZnFe2O4 Anode for Li-Ion Batteries at Low Temperature

The poor low-temperature behavior of Li-ion batteries has limited its application in the field of electric vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles. Many previous studies concentrate on developing new type of electrolyte to solve this problem. However, according to recent research, the key limitation at low temperature is the low diffusivity of lithium ion in the anode electrodes. Hence, it is potential to study anode materials to improve low-temperature behavior of LIBs. ZnFe2O4 with higher theoretical capacity is low toxicity and abundance, contributing to its commercial application. Different ZnFe2O4 crystalline shapes have different particle sizes. Among them, the cubic ZnFe2O4 with smaller particle size will increase its own electronic and ionic conductance at lower temperature. In this regard, we evaluated low-temperature performance of LIBs with ZnFe2O4 cubes as anode materials at -25°C.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy Supervisory Based Variable Frequency Control Strategy for Active Battery/Supercapacitor Combination in Electric Vehicles

This paper describes a novel power management control strategy of battery and supercapacitor hybrid energy storage system to improve system efficiency and battery lifetime. In the presented research, the high and low frequency power demand in the load is separated by a Haar wavelet transform algorithm to overcome the problem of battery overload work and associated degeneration in battery lifetime resulting from an ineffective distribution between battery and supercapacitor. The purpose of frequency distribution is that the supercapacitor is used to share high frequency power components of load power demand to smooth the power demand applied to battery. However, the sole frequency control often fails to realize the optimal utilization of supercapacitor because of the uncertain variation in the driving cycle.
Technical Paper

The Algorithmic Research of Multi-operating Mode Energy Management System

The traditional energy management algorithm is mainly based on a single driving cycle, it is obvious that many factors might be often neglected by designer, such as different driving cycles would suit for different control strategies. But they tend to make decisions on the balance of torque distribution and battery power that based on a single driving cycle. Therefore, it is very difficult to achieve the optimal control in each case. In this paper we introduce a new design concept of Multi-operating mode energy management, a mathematical model of the energy management applied to a hybrid vehicle system is presented. Results of simulations using the model with the Multi-operating mode energy management were compared with results of simulations using a model with the single mode energy management, allowing the energy efficiency evaluation of the proposed energy management system.
Technical Paper

The Research on Fuzzy Logic Control Strategy of Synergic Electric System of Hybrid Electric Vehicle

Supercapacitor has the merits of low resistance and long lifecycle ability. When combined with battery, they can alleviate the burthen of battery, increase the battery's working efficiency and prolong its lifecycle. This paper introduces a control architecture based on balancing of SOC and algorithm based on fuzzy logic, Aiming at the two different cycles that have sufficient and insufficient energy that can be recovered from braking unlikely, this paper puts forward the methods of on-line adjusting fuzzy control parameters. Consequently, simulation was performed,and the results validate the effective adapting capacity of the control logic under different driving cycles.