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Technical Paper

A Maneuver-Based Threat Assessment Strategy for Collision Avoidance

Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are being developed for more and more complicated application scenarios, which often require more predictive strategies with better understanding of driving environment. Taking traffic vehicles’ maneuvers into account can greatly expand the beforehand time span for danger awareness. This paper presents a maneuver-based strategy to vehicle collision threat assessment. First, a maneuver-based trajectory prediction model (MTPM) is built, in which near-future trajectories of ego vehicle and traffic vehicles are estimated with the combination of vehicle’s maneuvers and kinematic models that correspond to every maneuver. The most probable maneuvers of ego vehicle and each traffic vehicles are modeled and inferred via Hidden Markov Models with mixture of Gaussians outputs (GMHMM). Based on the inferred maneuvers, trajectory sets consisting of vehicles’ position and motion states are predicted by kinematic models.
Journal Article

A Novel Method of Radar Modeling for Vehicle Intelligence

The conventional radar modeling methods for automotive applications were either function-based or physics-based. The former approach was mainly abstracted as a solution of the intersection between geometric representations of radar beam and targets, while the latter one took radar detection mechanism into consideration by means of “ray tracing”. Although they each has its unique advantages, they were often unrealistic or time-consuming to meet actual simulation requirements. This paper presents a combined geometric and physical modeling method on millimeter-wave radar systems for Frequency Modulated Continuous Wave (FMCW) modulation format under a 3D simulation environment. With the geometric approach, a link between the virtual radar and 3D environment is established. With the physical approach, on the other hand, the ideal target detection and measurement are contaminated with noise and clutters aimed to produce the signals as close to the real ones as possible.
Technical Paper

A Novel Vision-Based Framework for Real-Time Lane Detection and Tracking

Lane detection is one of the most important part in ADAS because various modules (i.e., LKAS, LDWS, etc.) need robust and precise lane position for ego vehicle and traffic participants localization to plan an optimal routine or make proper driving decisions. While most of the lane detection approaches heavily depend on tedious pre-processing and great amount of assumptions to get reasonable result, the robustness and efficiency are deteriorated. To address this problem, a novel framework is proposed in this paper to realize robust and real-time lane detection. This framework consists of two branches, where canny edge detection and Progressive Probabilistic Hough Transform (PPHT) are introduced in the first branch for efficient detection.
Technical Paper

A Path Planning and Model Predictive Control for Automatic Parking System

With the increasing number of urban cars, parking has become the primary problem that people face in daily life. Therefore, many scholars have studied the automatic parking system. In the existing research, most of the path planning methods use the combined path of arc and straight line. In this method, the path curvature is not continuous, which indirectly leads to the low accuracy of path tracking. The parking path designed using the fifth-order polynomial is continuous, but its curvature is too large to meet the steering constraints in some cases. In this paper, a continuous-curvature parking path is proposed. The parking path tracker based on Model Predictive Control (MPC) algorithm is designed under the constraints of the control accuracy and vehicle steering. Firstly, in order to make the curvature of the parking path continuous, this paper superimposes the fifth-order polynomial with the sigmoid function, and the curve obtained has the continuous and relatively small curvature.
Journal Article

An Indirect TPMS Algorithm Based on Tire Resonance Frequency Estimated by AR Model

Proper tire pressure is very important for multiple driving performance of a car, and it is necessary to monitor and warn the abnormal tire pressure online. Indirect Tire Pressure Monitoring System (TPMS) monitors the tire pressure based on the wheel speed signals of Anti-lock Braking System (ABS). In this paper, an indirect TPMS method is proposed to estimate the tire pressure according to its resonance frequency of circumferential vibration. Firstly, the errors of ABS wheel speed sensor system caused by the machining tolerance of the tooth ring are estimated based on the measured wheel speed using Recursive Least Squares (RLS) algorithm and the measuring errors are eliminated from the wheel speed signal. Then, the data segments with drive train torsional vibration are found out and eliminated by the methods of correlation analysis.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Design of Personalized Adaptive Cruise System

The global adaptive cruise control (ACC) market is expected to witness a compound annual growth rate of 18.3% during the forecast period to reach $15,290 million by 2023 [1]. The driver uses an ACC system to reduce the driving burden and improve safety. The ACC mode in a car is fixed, but different drivers have different driving habits. This paper will verify this through experiments and divide drivers into three categories according to the drivers’ driving habits. Therefore, we will design a personalized ACC, wherein an ACC system, under the same working conditions, can have different acceleration and deceleration to meet the needs of different types of drivers. Therefore, this paper collects driver data, analyzes model data and identifies its parameters, and finally verifies the different effects of personalized ACC through simulation.
Technical Paper

Design of Automatic Parallel Parking System Based on Multi-Point Preview Theory

As one of advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), automatic parking system has great market prospect and application value. In this paper, based on an intelligent vehicle platform, an automatic parking system is designed by using multi-point preview theory. The vehicle kinematics model was established, based on Ackermann steering principle. By analyzing working conditions of parallel parking, complex constraint condition of parking trajectory is established and reference trajectory based on sine wave is proposed. In addition, combined with multi-point preview theory, the design of trajectory following controller for automatic parking is completed. The cost function is designed, which consider the trajectory following effect and the degree of easy handling. The optimization of trajectory following control is completed by using the cost function.
Technical Paper

Driver Behavior Characteristics Identification Strategy for Adaptive Cruise Control System with Lane Change Assistance

Adaptive cruise control system with lane change assistance (LCACC) is a novel advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), which enables dual-target tracking, safe lane change, and longitudinal ride comfort. To design the personalized LCACC system, one of the most important prerequisites is to identify the driver’s individualities. This paper presents a real-time driver behavior characteristics identification strategy for LCACC system. Firstly, a driver behavior data acquisition system was established based on the driver-in-the-loop simulator, and the behavior data of different types of drivers were collected under the typical test condition. Then, the driver behavior characteristics factor Ks we proposed, which combined the longitudinal and lateral control behaviors, was used to identify the driver behavior characteristics. And an individual safe inter-vehicle distances field (ISIDF) was established according to the identification results.
Journal Article

GPS Modeling for Vehicle Intelligent Driving Simulation

In recent years, intelligent vehicles have become one of the major research topics in vehicle engineering and have created a new opportunity for the automotive industry. Simulation and real experiment are both essential to the development of intelligent vehicle technologies. Vehicle positioning systems, such as global positioning system (GPS), play an important role in intelligent vehicle development. The GPS model plays a major part in the development of intelligent vehicle simulation systems. Primarily focusing on application requirements of intelligent vehicle simulation platforms for GPS sensor modeling, considering the major factors affecting positioning accuracy in vehicle driving environments, this article establishes a new GPS model and algorithm based on the physical and functional characteristics of GPS. As the basis of this model system, a precise ephemeris model is established to obtain the coordinates of GPS satellites at any given time.
Technical Paper

Hierarchical Framework for Adaptive Cruise Control with Model Predictive Control Method

Adaptive cruise control (ACC), as one of the advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS), has become increasingly popular in improving both driving safety and comfort. Since the objectives of ACC can be multi-dimensional, and often conflict with each other, it is a challenging task in its control design. The research presented in this paper takes ACC control design as a constrained optimization problem with multiple objectives. A hierarchical framework for ACC control is introduced, aimed to achieve optimal performance on driving safety and comfort, speed and/or distance tracking, and fuel economy whenever possible. Under the hierarchical framework, the operational mode is determined in the upper layer, in which a model predictive control (MPC) based spacing controller is employed to deal with the multiple control objectives. On the other hand, the lower layer is for actuator control, such as braking and driving control for vehicle longitudinal dynamics.
Technical Paper

Intention-aware Lane Changing Assistance Strategy Basing on Traffic Situation Assessment

Traffic accidents avoidance is one of the main advantages for automated vehicles. As one of the main causes of vehicle collision accidents, lane changing of the ego vehicle in case that the obstacle vehicles appear in the blind spot with uncertain motion intentions is one of the main goals for the automated vehicle. An intention-aware lane changing collision assistance strategy basing on traffic situation assessment in the complex traffic scenarios is proposed in this paper. Typical Regions of Interest (ROI) within the detection range of the blind spots are selected basing on the road topology structures and state space consisting of the ego vehicle and the obstacle vehicles. Then the motion intentions of the obstacle vehicles in ROI are identified basing on Gaussian Mixture Models (GMM) and the corresponding motion trajectories are predicted basing on the state equation.
Technical Paper

Overtaking or Merging? Eco-Routing Decision and Speed Trajectory with Full Terrain Information

With vehicle platooning becoming an important research field in recent years, it is now imperative to introduce platoons as part of the dynamic environment, considering overtaking and merging possibilities. This article studies optimal speed trajectories and longitudinal control with optimized energy efficiency for an autonomous vehicle with several preceding platoons and full terrain information. It aims at improving the energy efficiency of vehicles with Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS). A forward discrete dynamic programming (DDP) algorithm with distance as the discretization basis is used to derive speed trajectories in the trade-off between air drag reduction and energy saved by utilizing the road slope information. The problem is decomposed into decisions whether to overtake or to merge into the nearest platoon with the assumption of sufficient distance among platoons.
Technical Paper

Personalized Adaptive Cruise Control Considering Drivers’ Characteristics

In order to improve drivers’ acceptance to advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) with better adaptation, drivers’ driving behavior should play key role in the design of control strategy. Adaptive cruise control systems (ACC) have many factors that can be influenced by different driving behavior. It is important to recognize drivers’ driving behavior and take human-like parameters to the adaptive cruise control systems to assist different drivers effectively via their driving characteristics. The paper proposed a method to recognize drivers’ behavior and intention based on Gaussian Mixture Model. By means of a fuzzy PID control method, a personalized ACC control strategy was designed for different kinds of drivers to improve the adaptabilities of the systems. Several typical testing scenarios of longitudinal case were created with a host vehicle and a traffic vehicle.
Technical Paper

Personalized Eco-Driving for Intelligent Electric Vehicles

Minimum energy consumption with maximum comfort driving experience define the ideal human mobility. Recent technological advances in most Advanced Driver Assistance Systems (ADAS) on electric vehicles not only present a significant opportunity for automated eco-driving but also enhance the safety and comfort level. Understanding driving styles that make the systems more human-like or personalized for ADAS is the key to improve the system comfort. This research focuses on the personalized and green adaptive cruise control for intelligent electric vehicle, which is also known to be MyEco-ACC. MyEco-ACC is based on the optimization of regenerative braking and typical driving styles. Firstly, a driving style model is abstracted as a Hammerstein model and its key parameters vary with different driving styles. Secondly, the regenerative braking system characteristics for the electric vehicle equipped with 4-wheel hub motors are analyzed and braking force distribution strategy is designed.
Technical Paper

Research on Steering Performance of Steer-By- Wire Vehicle

With the popularity of electrification and driver assistance systems on vehicle dynamics and controls, the steering performance of the vehicle put forward higher requirements. Thus, the steer-by-wire technology is becoming particularly important. Through specific control algorithm, the steer-by-wire system electronic control unit can receive signals from other sensors on the vehicle, realize the personalized vehicle dynamics control on the basis of understanding the driver’s intention, and grasp the vehicle movement state. At the same time, to make these driver assistance systems better cooperate with human drivers, reduce system frequent false warning, full consideration of mutual adaptation for the systems and the driver’s characteristics is critical. This paper focuses on the steering performance of steer-by-wire vehicle. Feature parameters are obtained from the virtual turning experiment designed on the driving simulator experimental platform.
Technical Paper

Research on the Classification and Identification for Personalized Driving Styles

Most of the Advanced Driver Assistance System (ADAS) applications are aiming at improving both driving safety and comfort. Understanding human drivers' driving styles that make the systems more human-like or personalized for ADAS is the key to improve the system performance, in particular, the acceptance and adaption of ADAS to human drivers. The research presented in this paper focuses on the classification and identification for personalized driving styles. To motivate and reflect the information of different driving styles at the most extent, two sets, which consist of six kinds of stimuli with stochastic disturbance for the leading vehicles are created on a real-time Driver-In-the-Loop Intelligent Simulation Platform (DILISP) with PanoSim-RT®, dSPACE® and DEWETRON® and field test with both RT3000 family and RT-Range respectively.
Technical Paper

Studies on Drivers’ Driving Styles Based on Inverse Reinforcement Learning

Although advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) have been widely introduced in automotive industry to enhance driving safety and comfort, and to reduce drivers’ driving burden, they do not in general reflect different drivers’ driving styles or customized with individual personalities. This can be important to comfort and enjoyable driving experience, and to improved market acceptance. However, it is challenging to understand and further identify drivers’ driving styles due to large number and great variations of driving population. Previous research has mainly adopted physical approaches in modeling drivers’ driving behavior, which however are often very much limited, if not impossible, in capturing human drivers’ driving characteristics. This paper proposes a reinforcement learning based approach, in which the driving styles are formulated through drivers’ learning processes from interaction with surrounding environment.
Technical Paper

Study on Objective Evaluation Index System of On-Center Handling for Passenger Car

On-center handling has drawn lots of attention from consumers and car manufactures for its extraordinarily large effect on vehicle security at high speed. So far, there are a large number of objective evaluation indices for on-center handling, but it is not clear which ones are the key points on evaluation indices. In this paper, the authors propose a simplified on-center handling objective evaluation index system. Firstly, a basic on-center handling objective evaluation index system is summarized based on the ones of ISO, GM, MIRA, TRC and Hyundai, and then dynamics analysis on each index is conducted so as to primarily eliminate the redundant indices. Secondly, the repetitive indices are cut out again by the correlation analysis among indices in objective tests for eight types of vehicles. Thirdly, the importance factor of each subjective evaluation index is gained on the basis of subjective evaluation tests for eight types of vehicles by the weighed principal component analysis.