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Technical Paper

A Maneuver-Based Threat Assessment Strategy for Collision Avoidance

Advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS) are being developed for more and more complicated application scenarios, which often require more predictive strategies with better understanding of driving environment. Taking traffic vehicles’ maneuvers into account can greatly expand the beforehand time span for danger awareness. This paper presents a maneuver-based strategy to vehicle collision threat assessment. First, a maneuver-based trajectory prediction model (MTPM) is built, in which near-future trajectories of ego vehicle and traffic vehicles are estimated with the combination of vehicle’s maneuvers and kinematic models that correspond to every maneuver. The most probable maneuvers of ego vehicle and each traffic vehicles are modeled and inferred via Hidden Markov Models with mixture of Gaussians outputs (GMHMM). Based on the inferred maneuvers, trajectory sets consisting of vehicles’ position and motion states are predicted by kinematic models.
Technical Paper

A Novel Vision-Based Framework for Real-Time Lane Detection and Tracking

Lane detection is one of the most important part in ADAS because various modules (i.e., LKAS, LDWS, etc.) need robust and precise lane position for ego vehicle and traffic participants localization to plan an optimal routine or make proper driving decisions. While most of the lane detection approaches heavily depend on tedious pre-processing and great amount of assumptions to get reasonable result, the robustness and efficiency are deteriorated. To address this problem, a novel framework is proposed in this paper to realize robust and real-time lane detection. This framework consists of two branches, where canny edge detection and Progressive Probabilistic Hough Transform (PPHT) are introduced in the first branch for efficient detection.
Technical Paper

A Study of Calculation Method of Wheel Speed and Wheel Angular Acceleration Based on dSPACE Rapid Control Prototyping in Modern Automotive Control Systems

One of the key technologies of automotive active safety systems is to calculate the wheel speed and wheel angular acceleration or deceleration. Obtaining an accurate control quantity is the prerequisite for active safety systems no matter what control logics are used to realize the control function. This paper puts forward a new wheel speed processing algorithm. This method was simulated in MATLAB \ Simulink. Then it was tested in a certain type of vehicle of FAW by applying dSPACE RCP. It proves that this algorithm assures the precision at high and low speed and the real-time performance at low speed.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Illumination Condition Effect on Vehicle Detection in Photo-Realistic Virtual World

Intelligent driving, aimed for collision avoidance and self-navigation, is mainly based on environmental sensing via radar, lidar and/or camera. While each of the sensors has its own unique pros and cons, camera is especially good at object detection, recognition and tracking. However, unpredictable environmental illumination can potentially cause misdetection or false detection. To investigate the influence of illumination conditions on detection algorithms, we reproduced various illumination intensities in a photo-realistic virtual world, which leverages recent progress in computer graphics, and verified vehicle detection effect there. In the virtual world, the environmental illumination is controlled precisely from low to high to simulate different illumination conditions in the driving scenarios (with relative luminous intensity from 0.01 to 400). Sedan cars with different colors are modelled in the virtual world and used for detection task.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Vehicle Steering Stability of Nonlinear Four Wheel Steering Based on Sliding Mode Control

Steering movement is the most basic movement of the vehicle, in the car driving process, the driver through the steering wheel has always been to control the direction of the car, in order to achieve their own driving intention. Four Wheel Steering (4WS) is an advanced vehicle control technique which can markedly improve vehicle steering characteristics. Compared with traditional front wheel steering vehicles, 4WS vehicles can steer the front wheels and the rear wheels individually for cornering, according to the vehicle motion states such as the information of vehicle speed, yaw velocity and lateral acceleration. Therefore, 4WS can enhance the handling stability and improve the active safety for vehicles.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation Research of Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

A program of integrated electro-hydraulic braking system is proposed, and its structural composition and working principle are analyzed. According to the structural and mechanical characteristics of all key components, through some reasonable assumptions and simplifications, a motor, a brake master cylinder, four brake wheel cylinders, solenoid valves and an ESP (Electronic Stability Program) algorithm model is set up and simulations of typical braking conditions are carried out based on the Matlab/Simulink. Finally, after the assembly of each sub-model is complete and combining a vehicle which is set up in CarSim software environment, simulation tests and comprehensive performance analysis of the active safety stability control for a vehicle in double lane change and single lane change situations are carried out respectively. According to the dynamic characteristic curves of system, the effects of different structural and control parameters on braking performance are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Development of a Control Strategy and HIL Validation of Electronic Braking System for Commercial Vehicle

This article focuses on the research of control algorithm and control logic for the pneumatic EBS (Electronic Braking System) of commercial vehicle. An overall technical program was proposed which develops conventional braking and emergency braking for commercial vehicle EBS. According to the overall scheme, the methods of vehicle state estimation and driver's braking intention were determined, modeling and simulation for key components of commercial vehicle EBS were then carried out. This lead to the development of deceleration control, braking force distribution, brake assist and ABS control. Simulation models for key components of EBS and control strategy were validated through hardware-in-the-loop simulation tests. Simulation results show that the control strategy improves vehicle braking stability and vehicle active safety.
Technical Paper

Lidar Inertial Odometry and Mapping for Autonomous Vehicle in GPS-Denied Parking Lot

High-precision and real-time ego-motion estimation is vital for autonomous vehicle. There is a lot GPS-denied maneuver such as underground parking lot in urban areas. Therefore, the localization system relying solely on GPS cannot meets the requirements. Recently, lidar odometry and visual odometry have been introduced into localization systems to overcome the problem of missing GPS signals. Compared with visual odometry, lidar odometry is not susceptible to light, which is widely applied in weak-light environments. Besides, the autonomous parking is highly dependent on the geometric information around the vehicle, which makes building map of surroundings essential for autonomous vehicle. We propose a lidar inertial odometry and mapping. By sensor fusion, we compensate for the drawback of applying a single sensor, allowing the system to provide a more accurate estimate.
Technical Paper

Objective Evaluation Model of Automatic Transmission Shift Quality Based on Multi-Hierarchical Grey Relational Analysis

Improvement of shift quality evaluation has become more prevalent over the past few years in the development of automatic transmission electronic control system. For the problems of the subjective shift quality evaluation that subjectivity is too strong, the standard cannot be unified and the definition of the objective evaluation index is not clear at present, this paper studies on the methods of objective evaluation of shift quality based on the multi-hierarchical grey relational analysis. Firstly, objective evaluation index system is constructed based on physical quantities, such as the engine speed, the longitudinal acceleration of the vehicle and so on, which broadens the scope of the traditional objective evaluation index further.
Technical Paper

Recognition and Classification of Vehicle Target Using the Vehicle-Mounted Velodyne LIDAR

This paper describes a novel recognition and classification method of vehicle targets in urban road based on a vehicle-mounted Velodyne HDL64E light detection and ranging (LIDAR) system. The autonomous vehicle will choose different driving strategy according to the surrounding traffic environments to guarantee that the driving is safe, stable and efficient. It is helpful for controller to provide the efficient stagey to know the exact type of vehicle around. So this method concentrates on reorganization and classification the type of vehicle targets so that the controller can provide a safe and efficient driving strategy for autonomous ground vehicles. The approach is targeted at high-speed ground vehicle, so real-time performance of the method plays a critical role. In order to improve the real-time performance, some methods of data preprocessing should be taken to simplify the large-size long-range 3D point clouds.
Technical Paper

Research on the Dynamic Integration Control for Distributed-Traction Electric Vehicle with Four-Wheel-Distributed Steering System

With rapid development of the automobile industry and the growing maturity of the automotive electronic technologies, the distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering/braking/traction systems is regarded as an important development direction. With its unique chassis structure, it is the ideal benchmark platform used to evaluate active safety systems. The distributed-traction electric vehicle with four-wheel-distributed steering system is essentially full drive-by-wire vehicle. With its flexible chassis layout and high control degrees-of-freedom, the full drive-by-wire electric vehicle acted as a kind of redundant system is an ideal platform for the research of integrated control. In this treatise, the longitudinal dynamics of the electric vehicle as well as its lateral and yaw motions are controlled simultaneously.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Curved Road Collision Prevention Warning System of Automobile Based on V2X

The high popularity of automobiles has led to frequent collisions. According to the latest statistics of the United Nations, about 1.25 million people worldwide die from road traffic accidents each year. In order to improve the safety of vehicles in driving, the active safety system has become a research hotspot of various car companies and research institutions around the world. Among them, the more mature and popular active security system are Forward Collision Warning(FCW) and Autonomous Emergency Braking(AEB). However, the current active safety system is based on traditional sensors such as radar and camera. Therefore, the system itself has many limitations due to the shortage of traditional sensors. Compared to traditional sensors, Vehicle to Everything (V2X) technology has the advantages of richer vehicle parameter information, no perceived blind spots, dynamic prediction of dangerous vehicle status, and no occlusion restriction.
Technical Paper

Study on Comprehensive Evaluation Index of Front Collision Hazard of Intelligent Vehicle

Collision avoidance technology is one of the key areas in the longitudinal safety research of intelligent vehicles. For the research of collision avoidance system, the existing methods usually use the evaluation index based on time interval or braking process to carry out risk assessment. In order to overcome the shortcomings of the formulas for describing the longitudinal hazard degree established in most studies, such as great differences, inconsistent standards and weak normalization, a comprehensive evaluation method for the longitudinal hazard in front-impact scenarios is established. This method takes into account both the analysis of time interval and braking process, and considers the non-linear variation of the longitudinal hazard degree with the real-time distance and speed of two vehicles. It can describe the longitudinal hazard degree of vehicles in dangerous traffic scenarios.
Technical Paper

Trajectory Planning and Tracking for Four-Wheel-Steering Autonomous Vehicle with V2V Communication

Lane-changing is a typical traffic scene effecting on road traffic with high request for reliability, robustness and driving comfort to improve the road safety and transportation efficiency. The development of connected autonomous vehicles with V2V communication provide more advanced control strategies to research of lane-changing. Meanwhile, four-wheel steering is an effective way to improve flexibility of vehicle. The front and rear wheels rotate in opposite direction to reduce the turning radius to improve the servo agility operation at the low speed while those rotate in same direction to reduce the probability of the slip accident to improve the stability at the high speed. Hence, this paper established Four-Wheel-Steering(4WS) vehicle dynamic model and quasi real lane-changing scenes to analyze the motion constraints of the vehicles.