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Technical Paper

A Braking Force Distribution Strategy in Integrated Braking System Based on Wear Control and Hitch Force Control

2018-04-03
2018-01-0827
A braking force distribution strategy in integrated braking system composed of the main braking system and the auxiliary braking system based on braking pad wear control and hitch force control under non-emergency braking condition is proposed based on the Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) to reduce the difference in braking pad wear between different axles and to decrease hitch force between tractors and trailers. The proposed strategy distributes the braking force based on the desired braking intensity, the degree of the braking pad wear and the limits of certain braking regulations to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed.
Technical Paper

A Comprehensive Testing and Evaluation Approach for Autonomous Vehicles

2018-04-03
2018-01-0124
Performance testing and evaluation always plays an important role in the developmental process of a vehicle, which also applies to autonomous vehicles. The complex nature of an autonomous vehicle from architecture to functionality demands even more quality-and-quantity controlled testing and evaluation than ever before. Most of the existing testing methodologies are task-or-scenario based and can only support single or partial functional testing. These approaches may be helpful at the initial stage of autonomous vehicle development. However, as the integrated autonomous system gets mature, these approaches fall short of supporting comprehensive performance evaluation. This paper proposes a novel hierarchical and systematic testing and evaluation approach to bridge the above-mentioned gap.
Technical Paper

A Driving Simulator Study of Young Driver’s Behavior under Angry Emotion

2019-04-02
2019-01-0398
The driving behaviors of young drivers under the influence of anger are analyzed by driving simulator in this paper. A total of 12 subjects are enrolled during the experiment. Standardized videos are utilized to induce the driver's anger emotion. And the driver's electrocardiogram (ECG) signal is collected synchronously and compared before and after emotional trigger, which prove the validity of emotional trigger. Based on the result, the driver's driving performance under the straight road and the curve under normal state and angry state are compared and analyzed. The results of independent sample t-test show that there are significant differences in the running time of straight sections and the standard deviation of steering wheel angle in curves between normal and angry states. In conclusion, the longitudinal and lateral operation of drivers is unstable in angry state and the driver will be more destructive to the regular driving behavior.
Technical Paper

A Fuzzy On-Line Self-Tuning Control Algorithm for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control System with the Simulation of Driver Behavior

2009-04-20
2009-01-1481
Research of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is an important issue of intelligent vehicle (IV). As we all known, a real and experienced driver can control vehicle's speed very well under every traffic environment of ACC working. So a direct and feasible way for establishing ACC controller is to build a human-like longitudinal control algorithm with the simulation of driver behavior of speed control. In this paper, a novel fuzzy self-tuning control algorithm of ACC is established and this controller's parameters can be tuned on-line based on the evaluation indexes that can describe how the driver consider the quality of dynamical characteristic of vehicle longitudinal dynamics. With the advantage of the controller's parameter on-line self-tuning, the computational workload from matching design of ACC controller is also efficiently reduced.
Journal Article

A Lane-Changing Decision-Making Method for Intelligent Vehicle Based on Acceleration Field

2018-04-03
2018-01-0599
Taking full advantage of available traffic environment information, making control decisions, and then planning trajectory systematically under structured roads conditions is a critical part of intelligent vehicle. In this article, a lane-changing decision-making method for intelligent vehicle is proposed based on acceleration field. Firstly, an acceleration field related to relative velocity and relative distance was built based on the analysis of braking process, and acceleration was taken as an indicator of safety evaluation. Then, a lane-changing decision method was set up with acceleration field while considering driver’s habits, traffic efficiency and safety. Furthermore, velocity regulation was also introduced in the lane-changing decision method to make it more flexible.
Technical Paper

A Model-Based Mass Estimation and Optimal Braking Force Distribution Algorithm of Tractor and Semi-Trailer Combination

2013-04-08
2013-01-0418
Taking a good longitudinal braking performance on flat and level road of tractor and semi-trailer combination as a target, in order to achieve an ideal braking force distribution among axles, while the vehicle deceleration is just depend on the driver's intention, not affected by the variation of semi-trailer mass, the paper proposes a model based vehicle mass identification and braking force distribution strategy. The strategy identifies the driver's braking intention via braking pedal, estimates semi-trailer's mass during the building process of braking pressure in brake chamber, distributes braking force among axles by using the estimated mass. And a double closed-loop regulation of the vehicle deceleration and utilization adhesion coefficient of each axle is presented, in order to eliminate the bad effect of mass estimation error, and enhance the robustness of the whole algorithm. A simulation is conducted by utilizing MATLAB/Simulink and TruckSim.
Technical Paper

A Multi-mode Control Strategy for EV Based on Typical Situation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0438
A multitude of recent studies are suggestive of the EV as a paramount representative of the NEV, its development direction is transformed from “individuals adapt to vehicles” to “vehicles serve for occupants”. The multi-mode drive control technology is relatively mature in traditional auto control sphere, however, a host of EV continues to use a single control strategy, which lacks of flexibility and diversity, little if nothing interprets the vehicle performances. Furthermore, due to the complex road environment and peculiarity of vehicle occupants that different requirement has been made for vehicle performance. To solve above problems, this paper uses the key technology of mathematical statistics process in MATLAB, such as the mean, linear fitting and discrete algorithms to clean up, screening and classification the original data in general rules, and based on short trips in the segments of kinematics analysis method to establish a representative of quintessential driving cycle.
Journal Article

Accurate Pressure Control Based on Driver Braking Intention Identification for a Novel Integrated Braking System

2021-04-06
2021-01-0100
With the development of intelligent and electric vehicles, higher requirements are put forward for the active braking and regenerative braking ability of the braking system. The traditional braking system equipped with vacuum booster has difficulty meeting the demand, therefore it has gradually been replaced by the integrated braking system. In this paper, a novel Integrated Braking System (IBS) is presented, which mainly contains a pedal feel simulator, a permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM), a series of transmission mechanisms, and the hydraulic control unit. As an integrative system of mechanics-electronics-hydraulics, the IBS has complex nonlinear characteristics, which challenge the accurate pressure control. Furthermore, it is a completely decoupled braking system, the pedal force doesn’t participate in pressure-building, so it is necessary to precisely identify driver’s braking intention.
Technical Paper

Active Interior Noise Control for Passenger Vehicle Using the Notch Dual-Channel Algorithms with Two Different Predictive Filters

2021-02-18
2020-01-5228
Active control of low-frequency engine order noise helps to improve the passenger’s sense of hearing, so it has become one of the hot topics in the automotive field. Depth improvement of active noise control (ANC) performance from the perspective of novel algorithms has attracted the attention of researchers. The conventional notch dual-channel filtered-x least mean square (NDFxLMS) algorithm shows acceptable noise reduction for the elimination of engine order noise. To further enhance the steady-state ANC effect, this paper proposed two new notch algorithms: the notch dual-channel filtered-x recursive least square (NDFxRLS) algorithm and the notch dual-channel affine projection (NDAP) algorithm. Vehicle simulation tests show that both the proposed algorithms, especially the NDFxRLS algorithm, have a satisfying performance for the cancellation of interior noise from the engine.
Technical Paper

Active Noise Control Method Considering Auditory Characteristics

2012-04-16
2012-01-0993
In contrast to functionality and reliability, which are more and more assumed to be a natural and necessary condition of any vehicle, the performance of Noise, Vibration and Harshness (NVH) now belongs to those features which play an essential role for the customer's purchasing decision. Sound design and vehicle interior noise control are essential parts of NVH. One tool of the NVH solution toolbox is Active Noise Control (ANC). ANC technology aims to cancel unwanted noise by generating an “anti-noise” with equal amplitude and opposite phase. Owing to the fact that human hearing has selective sensitivity for different critical bands, a new control strategy of ANC, which selectively controls the noise of specific bandwidths according to the result of specific loudness and retains the part of noise created by the normal running of facilities, trying to attenuate the unwanted and unacceptable noise, has been proposed in this paper.
Technical Paper

An Efficient Assistance Tool for Evaluating the Effect of Tire Characteristics on Vehicle Pull Problem

2020-04-14
2020-01-1237
The vehicle pull problem is very important to driving safety. Major factors that may cause the pull problem related to tire include variations of geometric dimension (e.g. RPK) and stiffness (e.g. cornering stiffness, aligning stiffness), plysteer and conicity. In previous research, the influencing mechanism of these factors was well studied. But in fact, vehicle pull problem caused by tire is probabilistic. When we assemble four tires onto the car, there could be 384 different assembly arrangements. If there are significant differences among these four tires, there will also be significant differences in the influence of different tire assembly schemes on vehicle pull, which has not been systematically discussed in previous studies. If we want to evaluate the pull performance of all these arrangements by vehicle test, it will be a time consuming process which will take almost 24 working days, along with a high test expense.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Method for Evaluation of Seat Comfort Based on Virtual Simulation of the Interface Pressures of Driver with Different Body Sizes

2017-03-28
2017-01-0406
This paper presents an integrated method for rapid modeling, simulation and virtual evaluation of the interface pressure between driver human body and seat. For simulation of the body-seat interaction and for calculation of the interface pressure, besides body dimensions and material characteristics an important aspect is the posture and position of the driver body with respect to seat. In addition, to ensure accommodation of the results to the target population usually several individuals are simulated, whose body anthropometries cover the scope of the whole population. The multivariate distribution of the body anthropometry and the sampling techniques are usually adopted to generate the individuals and to predict the detailed body dimensions. In biomechanical modeling of human body and seat, the correct element type, the rational settings of the contacts between different parts, the correct exertion of the loads to the calculation field, etc., are also crucial.
Technical Paper

Analysis and Design of Personalized Adaptive Cruise System

2020-05-19
2020-01-5053
The global adaptive cruise control (ACC) market is expected to witness a compound annual growth rate of 18.3% during the forecast period to reach $15,290 million by 2023 [1]. The driver uses an ACC system to reduce the driving burden and improve safety. The ACC mode in a car is fixed, but different drivers have different driving habits. This paper will verify this through experiments and divide drivers into three categories according to the drivers’ driving habits. Therefore, we will design a personalized ACC, wherein an ACC system, under the same working conditions, can have different acceleration and deceleration to meet the needs of different types of drivers. Therefore, this paper collects driver data, analyzes model data and identifies its parameters, and finally verifies the different effects of personalized ACC through simulation.
Journal Article

Analysis of Performance Parameters of Torsional Vibration Damper Under Various Operating Conditions

2013-04-08
2013-01-1488
The performance parameters of torsional vibration damper, including stiffness and damping, have great influence on the torsional vibration of automobile driveline. At present, the research on torsional vibration damper mainly concentrates on the torsional stiffness, but rarely on the torsional damping characteristics. This paper systematically studied the effect of torsional stiffness and damping on torsional vibration of automobile driveline under uniform speed conditions, accelerated and decelerated conditions, idling conditions and resonance conditions. The requirements on stiffness and damping of various operating conditions were summarized. The effect and requirements researched were useful to performance match design of torsional vibration damper.
Technical Paper

Assessment Approaches of Automobile Frontal Crash Pulse

2018-07-09
2018-01-5024
This article presents three assessment approaches of automobile frontal crash pulse by using data from the National Highway Traffic Safety Administration (NHTSA) database (56 km/h frontal crash tests). A direct relationship between structural characteristics and automobile safety is established in the study. In the first approach, the crash pulse criterion is improved in the form of a spider diagram based on the star rating. In the second approach, the crash pulse comprehensive evaluation index (PI) is built by weighting function and correlation analysis between pulse parameters and occupant injury risk indexes. In the final approach, a prediction model for major occupant injury risks and indexes which can be regard as an additional evaluation method of crash pulse quality is built by the multiple linear regression method.
Technical Paper

Braking Control Strategy Based on Electronically Controlled Braking System and Intelligent Network Technology

2019-11-04
2019-01-5038
In order to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers, a braking control strategy based on Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) and intelligent network technology under non-emergency braking conditions is proposed. The controller utilizes the intelligent network technology’s characteristics of the workshop communication to obtain the driving environment information of the current vehicle firstly, and then calculate the optimal braking deceleration of the vehicle based on optimal control method. The strategy will distribute the braking force according to the ideal braking force distribution condition based on the EBS according to the braking deceleration; the braking force will be converted to braking pressure according to brake characteristics. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed, the strategy is verified under different initial speeds.
Technical Paper

Comparative Analysis of Truck Ride Comfort of 4 Degree of Freedom Rigid-Elastic Model with 2 Degree of Freedom Rigid Model

2015-04-14
2015-01-0615
In order to study the influence of body flexibility on the truck ride comfort, a 4 DOF half vibration model of truck based on the motion synthesis between rigid body and body flexibility is established using elastic beam theory of equal section with both free ends. At the same time, a corresponding 2 DOF rigid vibration model is also built. The frequency response functions of system and response variables of two models are derived based on front wheel. The power spectral densities and the root mean square values of body acceleration, dynamic deflections and relative dynamic loads are obtained. By comparing the simulation results of rigid-elastic model and rigid model, it shows that body flexibility has a great impact on truck ride comfort and it cannot be ignored.
Technical Paper

Computational Accuracy and Efficiency of the Element Types and Sizes for Car Acoustic Finite Element Model

2014-04-01
2014-01-0890
Automobile cabin acoustical comfort is one of the main features that may attract customers to purchase a new car. The acoustic cavity mode of the car has an effect on the acoustical comfort. To identify the factors affecting computing accuracy of the acoustic mode, three different element type and six different element size acoustic finite element models of an automobile passenger compartment are developed and experimentally assessed. The three different element type models are meshed in three different ways, tetrahedral elements, hexahedral elements and node coupling tetrahedral and hexahedral elements (tetra-hexahedral elements). The six different element size models are meshed with hexahedral element varies from 50mm to 75mm. Modal analysis test of the passenger car is conducted using loudspeaker excitation to identify the compartment cavity modes.
Technical Paper

Control Synthesis for Distributed Vehicle Platoon Under Different Topological Communication Structures

2019-04-02
2019-01-0494
The wireless inter-vehicle communication provide a manner to achieve multi-vehicle cooperative driving, and the platoon of automotive vehicle can significantly improve traffic efficiency and ensure traffic safety. Previous researches mostly focus on the state of the proceeding vehicle, and transmit information from self to the succeeding vehicle. Nevertheless, this structure possesses high requirements for controller design and shows poor effect in system stability. In this paper, the state of vehicles is not only related to the information of neighbor vehicles, while V2V communication transmit information over a wide range of area. To begin with, the node dynamic model of vehicle is described by linear integrator with inertia delay and the space control strategy is proposed with different topological communication structures as BF, LBF, PBF, etc.
Technical Paper

Coordinated Control of Continuously Variable Transmission Speed Ratio in Engine Starting-Up for Hybrid Electric Vehicle

2021-03-16
2021-01-5003
In order to improve the mode switching performance of parallel hybrid electric vehicles (PHEV) and make better use of the dynamics of the vehicle, this paper proposes a three-stage control method for the start-up mode of start-up, speed synchronization, and clutch slip based on the response characteristics of actual vehicle components and the complex working conditions of the actual road. In the speed synchronization phase, a coordinated control method of “engine speed active following + continuously variable transmission (CVT) speed ratio motor speed limiting” is proposed. The real vehicle test results show that the engine starting-up coordinated control method can significantly accelerate the speed synchronization and shorten the starting-up mode duration during the rapid acceleration, so that the vehicle’s power performance can be well played and the ride comfort can be effectively guaranteed.
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