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Technical Paper

A Fuzzy On-Line Self-Tuning Control Algorithm for Vehicle Adaptive Cruise Control System with the Simulation of Driver Behavior

2009-04-20
2009-01-1481
Research of Adaptive Cruise Control (ACC) is an important issue of intelligent vehicle (IV). As we all known, a real and experienced driver can control vehicle's speed very well under every traffic environment of ACC working. So a direct and feasible way for establishing ACC controller is to build a human-like longitudinal control algorithm with the simulation of driver behavior of speed control. In this paper, a novel fuzzy self-tuning control algorithm of ACC is established and this controller's parameters can be tuned on-line based on the evaluation indexes that can describe how the driver consider the quality of dynamical characteristic of vehicle longitudinal dynamics. With the advantage of the controller's parameter on-line self-tuning, the computational workload from matching design of ACC controller is also efficiently reduced.
Technical Paper

A Multi-mode Control Strategy for EV Based on Typical Situation

2017-03-28
2017-01-0438
A multitude of recent studies are suggestive of the EV as a paramount representative of the NEV, its development direction is transformed from “individuals adapt to vehicles” to “vehicles serve for occupants”. The multi-mode drive control technology is relatively mature in traditional auto control sphere, however, a host of EV continues to use a single control strategy, which lacks of flexibility and diversity, little if nothing interprets the vehicle performances. Furthermore, due to the complex road environment and peculiarity of vehicle occupants that different requirement has been made for vehicle performance. To solve above problems, this paper uses the key technology of mathematical statistics process in MATLAB, such as the mean, linear fitting and discrete algorithms to clean up, screening and classification the original data in general rules, and based on short trips in the segments of kinematics analysis method to establish a representative of quintessential driving cycle.
Technical Paper

A Study on Nonlinear Stiffness Characteristic of Air Spring for a Bus

2002-11-18
2002-01-3092
Using the nonlinear finite element analysis, three nonlinear characteristics of the rubber gasbag of the air spring on the bus are thoroughly analyzed, including the nonlinear characteristic of the rubber gasbag with multi layers of composite materials, the nonlinear large displacement geometry characteristic of the rubber gasbag on working, and the nonlinear contact characteristic of the rubber gasbag when contacts the pedestal and the top cover plate. A model is build and the nonlinear characteristic of the air spring on the bus is analyzed using the ABAQUS software. At last, the article discusses parameters that influence on the characteristic of the air spring for the bus.
Technical Paper

Aeroelastic Response and Structural Improvement for Heavy-Duty Truck Cab Deflectors

2019-01-14
2019-01-5004
Numerical simulations on the fluid-structure interaction were conducted using commercial software STAR-CCM+ and ABAQUS. The aeroelastic responses of a deflector under several different working conditions were simulated utilizing finite volume and finite element methods to investigate the aeroelastic problem of automotive deflectors. Results showed that the structural response of a top deflector is minimal under the influence of aerodynamics given its large structural stiffness. The size of the top deflector was optimised by using thickness as a variable. The volume and quality of the top deflector were significantly reduced, and its lightweight performance was improved to satisfy the stiffness performance requirement. The vibration of a side deflector structure was mainly induced by the turbulence on the structure surface. The amplitude of vibration was small and the vibration gradually converged in a few seconds without obvious regularity.
Technical Paper

An Adaptive PID Controller with Neural Network Self-Tuning for Vehicle Lane Keeping System

2009-04-20
2009-01-1482
Vehicle lane keeping system is becoming a new research focus of drive assistant system except adaptive cruise control system. As we all known, vehicle lateral dynamics show strong nonlinear and time-varying with the variety of longitudinal velocity, especially tire’s mechanics characteristic will change from linear characteristic under low speed to strong nonlinear under high speed. For this reason, the traditional PID controller and even self-tuning PID controller, which need to know a precise vehicle lateral dynamics model to adjust the control parameter, are too difficult to get enough accuracy and the ideal control quality. Based on neural network’s ability of self-learning, adaptive and approximate to any nonlinear function, an adaptive PID control algorithm with BP neural network self-tuning online was proposed for vehicle lane keeping.
Technical Paper

Automatic Drive Train Management System for 4WD Vehicle Based on Road Situation Identification

2018-04-03
2018-01-0987
The slip ratio of vehicle driving wheels is easily beyond a reasonable range in the complex and changeable driving conditions. In order to achieve the adaptive acceleration slip regulation of four-wheel driving (4WD) vehicle, a fuzzy control strategy of Automatic Drive Train Management (ADM) system based on road situation identification was proposed in this paper. Firstly, the influence on the control strategy of ADM system was analyzed from two aspects, which included the different road adhesion coefficients and the vehicle’s ramp driving state. In the meantime several quantitative expressions of relevant control parameters were derived. Secondly, the fuzzy logic control algorithm was adopted to design a road situation identification subsystem and a ramp driving state identification subsystem respectively. The former was based on the μ-S curve model, and the latter was based on the vehicle driving equilibrium equation.
Technical Paper

Automobile Interior Noise Prediction Based on Energy Finite Element Method

2011-04-12
2011-01-0507
For the purpose of predicting the interior noise of a passenger automobile at middle and high frequency, an energy finite element analysis (EFEA) model of the automobile was created using EFEA method. The excitations including engine mount excitation and road excitation were measured by road experiment at a speed of 120 km/h. The sound excitation was measured in a semi-anechoic chamber. And the wind excitation was calculated utilizing numeric computation method of computational fluid dynamics (CFD). The sound pressure level (SPL) and energy density contours of the interior acoustic cavity of the automobile were presented at 2000 Hz. Meanwhile, the flexural energy density and flexural velocity of body plates were calculated. The SPL of interior noise was predicted and compared with the corresponding value of experiment.
Technical Paper

Co-Simulation Research of Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Braking System

2016-04-05
2016-01-1647
A program of integrated electro-hydraulic braking system is proposed, and its structural composition and working principle are analyzed. According to the structural and mechanical characteristics of all key components, through some reasonable assumptions and simplifications, a motor, a brake master cylinder, four brake wheel cylinders, solenoid valves and an ESP (Electronic Stability Program) algorithm model is set up and simulations of typical braking conditions are carried out based on the Matlab/Simulink. Finally, after the assembly of each sub-model is complete and combining a vehicle which is set up in CarSim software environment, simulation tests and comprehensive performance analysis of the active safety stability control for a vehicle in double lane change and single lane change situations are carried out respectively. According to the dynamic characteristic curves of system, the effects of different structural and control parameters on braking performance are analyzed.
Technical Paper

Commercial Vehicles Thrust Rod Static and Dynamic Characteristics Analysis

2016-10-17
2016-01-2345
In order to study the static and dynamic characteristics of the thrust rod. Based on the multi-body dynamics theory, the dynamic model of the thrust rod and the vehicle system is established by using ADAMS software. The limit braking condition is simulated, and the limit braking load of the thrust rod is obtained. Thrust rod finite element model is established, the load calculation value and rubber test data as a finite element analysis of input conditions, using ABAQUS software to carry on the stiffness and strength analysis, analysis results show that the strength meets the requirement, and the stiffness and strength calculation result is in good agreement with the sample test, accurately describes the finite element model. The analytical method used can be used to predict the stiffness of the thrust rod.
Technical Paper

Development and Validation of New Control Algorithm for Parallel Hybrid Electric Transit Bus

2006-10-31
2006-01-3571
The new control algorithm for parallel hybrid electric vehicle is presented systematically, in which engine operation points are limited within higher efficient area by the control algorithm and the state of charge (SOC) is limited in a range in order to enhance the batteries' charging and discharging efficiency. In order to determine the ideal operating point of the vehicle's engine, the control strategy uses a lookup table to determine the torque output of the engine. The off-line simulation model of parallel HEV power train is developed which includes the control system and controlled objective (such as engine, electric motor, battery pack and so on). The results show that the control algorithm can effectively limite engine and battery operation points and much more fuel economy can be achieved than that of conventional one.
Technical Paper

Development of an Advanced Stability Control System of 4WD Electric Vehicle with In-Wheel-Motors

2016-04-05
2016-01-1671
Direct yaw moment control can maintain the vehicle stability in critical situation. For four-wheel independently driven (4WD) electric vehicle with in-wheel motors (IWMs), direct yaw moment control (DYC) can be easily achieved. A fairly accurate calculation of the required yaw moment can improve vehicle stability. A novel sliding mode control (SMC) technique is employed for the motion control so as to track the desired vehicle motion, which is it for different working circumstances compared to the well-used traditional DYC. Through the weighted least square algorithm, the lower controller is used to determine the torque properly allocated to each wheel according to the desired yaw moment. Several actuator constraints are considered in the control strategy. In addition, a nonlinear tire model is utilized to improve the accuracy of tire lateral force estimation. Then, simulations are carried out and the values of vehicle states are compared.
Technical Paper

Driver Behavior Characteristics Identification Strategy for Adaptive Cruise Control System with Lane Change Assistance

2017-03-28
2017-01-0432
Adaptive cruise control system with lane change assistance (LCACC) is a novel advanced driver assistance system (ADAS), which enables dual-target tracking, safe lane change, and longitudinal ride comfort. To design the personalized LCACC system, one of the most important prerequisites is to identify the driver’s individualities. This paper presents a real-time driver behavior characteristics identification strategy for LCACC system. Firstly, a driver behavior data acquisition system was established based on the driver-in-the-loop simulator, and the behavior data of different types of drivers were collected under the typical test condition. Then, the driver behavior characteristics factor Ks we proposed, which combined the longitudinal and lateral control behaviors, was used to identify the driver behavior characteristics. And an individual safe inter-vehicle distances field (ISIDF) was established according to the identification results.
Technical Paper

Finite Element Analysis of Light Vehicle Cab's Hydraulic Mount Based on Fluid-Structure Interaction Method

2011-05-17
2011-01-1604
Hyperelastic model constants of rubber material are predicted based on test date. The fluid-structure interaction model of light vehicle cab's hydraulic mount is established. Static characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed by quasi-static method. In dynamic characteristics analysis, the flow model of fluid is set to turbulent K-Epsilon RNG. The dynamic stiffness and loss angle of the hydraulic mount are presented via the finite element model. The simulations of static and dynamic characteristics agree well with corresponding test results. The effects of main structure parameters to the dynamic characteristics of the hydraulic mount are analyzed based on the finite element model.
Technical Paper

Fuzzy PID Based Optimization of Starting Control for AMT Clutch of Heavy-duty Trucks

2018-04-03
2018-01-1166
Starting control has become a troublesome issue in the developing field of the control system for heavy-duty trucks, due to the complexity of vehicle driving and the variability of driver's intention. The too fast clutch engagement may result in serious impact, influence on the comfort and fatigue life, and even the engine flameout, while the too slow clutch engagement may lead to long time of friction, the increased temperature, and accelerated wear of friction pair, as well as influence on the power performance and fatigue life[1]. Therefore, the key technique of starting control is clutch engagement control, for which the fuzzy PID based optimization of starting control for AMT clutch is proposed, with the pneumatic AMT clutch of heavy-duty trucks as the research object.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Pressure Control and Parameter Optimization of Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

2017-09-17
2017-01-2516
A general principle scheme of IEHB (Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Brake system) is proposed, and the working principle of the system is simply introduced in this paper. Considering the structure characteristics of the hydraulic control unit of the system, a kind of time-sharing control strategy is adopted to realize the purpose of independent and precise hydraulic pressure regulation of each wheel brake cylinder in various brake conditions of a vehicle. Because of the strong nonlinear and time varying characteristics of the dynamic brake pressure regulation processes of IEHB, its comprehensive brake performance is mainly affected by temperature, humidity, load change, the structure and control parameters of IEHB, and so on.
Technical Paper

Investigation of Transient Performance for Gasoline Engine with Electronic Throttle Control System

2008-06-23
2008-01-1782
The calibration of the electronic throttle unit and the pedal unit was made. Based on it, an electronic control system of electronic throttle was designed and installed on a 4G18 engine. Engine experiment was made especially for its transient working condition. Engine performance at transient working condition was investigated. The test results indicate that the optimum way of opening the throttle valve is to open the throttle valve to the target location at once, when 4G18 engine transit from 2000r/min to 3000r/min without load. And its optimum calibration for the electronic throttle control unit is made based on the test results. The control system, the experiment, the test results and the calibration were introduced in this paper.
Technical Paper

Lateral Stability Control Algorithm of Intelligent Electric Vehicle Based on Dynamic Sliding Mode Control

2016-09-14
2016-01-1902
A new lateral stability control method, which is based on vehicle sideslip angle and tire cornering stiffness estimation, is proposed to improve the lateral stability of the four-in-wheel-motor-driven electric vehicle (FIWMD-EV) in this paper. Through the lateral tire force information, vehicle sideslip angle can be estimated by the extended kalman filter (EKF). Using the estimated vehicle sideslip angle, tire cornering stiffness can be also estimated by forgetting factor recursive least squares (FFRLS). Furthermore, combining with the vehicle dynamics model, an adaptive control target model is proposed with the information on vehicle sideslip angle and tire cornering stiffness. The new lateral stability control system uses the direct yaw moment control (DYC) based on dynamic sliding mode is proposed. The performance and effectiveness of the proposed vehicle state estimation and lateral stability control system are verified by CarSim and Simulink cosimulation.
Technical Paper

Nonlinear Control of Vehicle Chassis Planar Stability Based on T-S Fuzzy Model

2016-04-05
2016-01-0471
In the past decades, the stability of vehicles has been improved significantly by use of variety of chassis control systems such as Antilock Braking System (ABS), Electric Stability Program (ESP) and Active Front Steering (AFS). Recently, in order to further improve the performance of vehicles, more and more researches are focused on the integration control of multiple degrees of freedom of vehicle dynamic. However, in order to control multiple degrees of freedom simultaneously, the nonlinear problems caused by the coupling between different degrees of freedom have to be solved, which is always a difficult task. In this paper, a three-degrees-of-freedom single track vehicle model, in which some nonlinear terms are considered, is built firstly. Then, the nonlinear model is processed by the fuzzy technique and the T-S fuzzy model is designed.
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound Quality in Passenger Cars Using Artificial Neural Networks

2013-04-08
2013-01-1704
In this research, the interior noise of a passenger car was measured, and the sound quality metrics including sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were calculated. An artificial neural network was designed to successfully apply on automotive interior noise as well as numerous different fields of technology which aim to overcome difficulties of experimentations and save cost, time and workforce. Sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were estimated by using the artificial neural network designed by using the experiment values. The predicted values and experiment results are compared. The comparison results show that the realized artificial intelligence model is an appropriate model to estimate the sound quality of the automotive interior noise. The reliability value is calculated as 0.9995 by using statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

Optimal Anti-vibration Design of Vehicle-mounted Vibration Isolation Platform

2018-04-03
2018-01-1400
A vehicle-mounted anti-vibration system is designed to semi-actively reduce accelerations acting on vibration isolation platform under different road conditions. To provide the basis for optimal anti-vibration design, the kinematics and dynamics of the platform are analyzed to investigate the relationship between leg length, strength, the platform position and vibration properties. As the platform is fixed on vehicle, a combined vehicle-platform model is necessary for verifying the performance and applying some suitable control algorithms. Also, typical digital testing roads will be built using road load spectrum. To optimize the platform parameters, especially stiffness and damping, an active control system is designed at first. An anti-vibration system including a semi-active inerter is designed to match the control forces which are calculated from the above active system.
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