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Technical Paper

A Study on Nonlinear Stiffness Characteristic of Air Spring for a Bus

Using the nonlinear finite element analysis, three nonlinear characteristics of the rubber gasbag of the air spring on the bus are thoroughly analyzed, including the nonlinear characteristic of the rubber gasbag with multi layers of composite materials, the nonlinear large displacement geometry characteristic of the rubber gasbag on working, and the nonlinear contact characteristic of the rubber gasbag when contacts the pedestal and the top cover plate. A model is build and the nonlinear characteristic of the air spring on the bus is analyzed using the ABAQUS software. At last, the article discusses parameters that influence on the characteristic of the air spring for the bus.
Technical Paper

Accurate Pressure Control Strategy of Electronic Stability Program Based on the Building Characteristics of High-Speed Switching Valve

The Electronic Stability Program (ESP), as a key actuator of traditional automobile braking system, plays an important role in the development of intelligent vehicles by accurately controlling the pressure of wheels. However, the ESP is a highly nonlinear controlled object due to the changing of the working temperature, humidity, and hydraulic load. In this paper, an accurate pressure control strategy of single wheel during active braking of ESP is proposed, which doesn’t rely on the specific parameters of the hydraulic system and ESP. First, the structure and working principle of ESP have been introduced. Then, we discuss the possibility of Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) control based on the mathematical model of the high-speed switching valve. Subsequently, the pressure building characteristics of the inlet and outlet valves are analyzed by the hardware in the Loop (HiL) experimental platform.
Technical Paper

An Integrated Method for Evaluation of Seat Comfort Based on Virtual Simulation of the Interface Pressures of Driver with Different Body Sizes

This paper presents an integrated method for rapid modeling, simulation and virtual evaluation of the interface pressure between driver human body and seat. For simulation of the body-seat interaction and for calculation of the interface pressure, besides body dimensions and material characteristics an important aspect is the posture and position of the driver body with respect to seat. In addition, to ensure accommodation of the results to the target population usually several individuals are simulated, whose body anthropometries cover the scope of the whole population. The multivariate distribution of the body anthropometry and the sampling techniques are usually adopted to generate the individuals and to predict the detailed body dimensions. In biomechanical modeling of human body and seat, the correct element type, the rational settings of the contacts between different parts, the correct exertion of the loads to the calculation field, etc., are also crucial.
Technical Paper

Braking Control Strategy Based on Electronically Controlled Braking System and Intelligent Network Technology

In order to solve the coupling problems between braking safety, economical efficiency of braking and the comfort of drivers, a braking control strategy based on Electronically Controlled Braking System (EBS) and intelligent network technology under non-emergency braking conditions is proposed. The controller utilizes the intelligent network technology’s characteristics of the workshop communication to obtain the driving environment information of the current vehicle firstly, and then calculate the optimal braking deceleration of the vehicle based on optimal control method. The strategy will distribute the braking force according to the ideal braking force distribution condition based on the EBS according to the braking deceleration; the braking force will be converted to braking pressure according to brake characteristics. Computer co-simulations of the proposed strategy are performed, the strategy is verified under different initial speeds.
Technical Paper

Control Strategy of Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Double Planetary Gear Sets

Hybrid Electric Vehicles with a power split system provide a variety of possibilities to promote the fuel economy of vehicles and better adapt to various driving conditions. In this paper, a new power split system of a hybrid electric bus which consists of double planetary gear sets and a clutch is introduced. The system is able to decouple both the torque and speed of the engine from the road load, which makes it possible for the engine to operate on its optimal operation line (OOL). Considering the features of the system configuration and bus driving cycle, the driving mode of the bus is divided into Electric Vehicle (EV) mode, Electric Variable Transmission (EVT) mode and Parallel mode. By controlling the engagement of the clutch at high vehicle speed (after the mechanical point), the system operates in the parallel mode rather than EVT mode. This avoids the problem that the system efficiency sharply declines in high speed region which EVT configurations are generally faced with.
Technical Paper

Develop Hybrid Transit Buses for Chinese Cities1

This paper summarized the first phase research work to develop hybrid transit buses for China, including driving cycle analysis, performance requirements setting, key components first dimensioning, configuration choosing, saving potential estimate and parametric study. Through these fundamental works, we realize that (1) the Chinese urban bus cycle has some specialties compared with foreign ones, and these specialties cause differences on the design criteria and design results of the hybrid buses; (2) the parallel configuration is better than the series one for the Chinese cycle from both fuel consumption and cost points of view.
Technical Paper

Experimental Study on Source Identification of Bus Floor's Vibration

To find out the main excitation sources of a bus floor's vibration, modal analysis and spectral analysis were respectively performed in the paper. First we tested the vibration modal of the bus's floor under the full-load condition, and the first ten natural frequencies and vibration modes were obtained for the source identification of the bus floor's vibration. Second the vibration characteristic of the bus floor was measured in an on-road experiment. The acceleration sensors were arranged on the bus's floor and the possible excitation sources of the bus, which includes engine mounting system, driveline system, exhaust system, and wheels. Then the on-road experiment was carefully conducted on a highway under the four kinds of test condition: in-situ acceleration, uniform velocity (90km/h, 100km/h, 110km/h, 120km/h), uniform acceleration with top gear, and stall sliding condition with neutral gear.
Technical Paper

Hydraulic Pressure Control and Parameter Optimization of Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Brake System

A general principle scheme of IEHB (Integrated Electro-Hydraulic Brake system) is proposed, and the working principle of the system is simply introduced in this paper. Considering the structure characteristics of the hydraulic control unit of the system, a kind of time-sharing control strategy is adopted to realize the purpose of independent and precise hydraulic pressure regulation of each wheel brake cylinder in various brake conditions of a vehicle. Because of the strong nonlinear and time varying characteristics of the dynamic brake pressure regulation processes of IEHB, its comprehensive brake performance is mainly affected by temperature, humidity, load change, the structure and control parameters of IEHB, and so on.
Technical Paper

Impact Theory Based Total Cylinder Sampling System and its Application

A novel non-destroy repeatable-use impact theory based total cylinder sampling system has been established. This system is mainly composed of a knocking body and a sampling valve. The knocking body impacts the sampling valve with certain velocity resulting in huge force to open the sampling valve and most of the in-cylinder gas has been dumped to one sampling bag for after-treatment. The feasibility and sampling response characteristics of this impact theory based total cylinder sampling system were investigated by engine bench testing. Within 0 to 35°CA ATDC (Crank Angle After Top Dead Center) sample timing 50 percent to 80 percent of in-cylinder mass would be sampled, which was a little less compared with the traditional system. The half decay period of pressure drop was 10 to 20 degrees crank angle within 0 to 60°CA ATDC sample timing, which was about 2-3 times of the traditional system.
Technical Paper

Improving Light Bus Handling and Stability by Anti-roll Bar and Bushing Adjustment

In order to improve the handling and stability of a light bus at high speed, a virtual model was established in Adams-Car and its anti-roll bar and bushing parameters were virtually optimized. The tyre mechanical characteristics were firstly tested by using a plate-type tyre tester and the Magic Formula parameters of the tyre were obtained. Then the virtual bus model's handling performance were studied by the simulation of central steering test and steady static circular test. An optimal matching method was put forward. By using genetic algorithm to conduct optimization, the optimised parameters were obtained. After that the anti-roll bar and bushing samples were respectively manufactured. At last, the comparative trials were performed in an automotive proving ground, and the subjective evaluation of the light bus's handling and stability was taken by three specialized assessors.
Technical Paper

Model-Based Pneumatic Braking Force Control for the Emergency Braking System of Tractor-Semitrailer

As bottom layer actuator for the AEB system, the active brake system and the brake force control of tractor-semitrailer have been the hot topics recently. In this paper, a set of active pneumatic brake system was designed based on the traditional brake system of tractor-semitrailer, which can realize the active brake of the vehicle under necessary conditions. Then, a precise mathematical model of the active pneumatic brake system was built by referring the flow characteristics of the solenoid valve, and some tests were implemented to verify the accuracy and validity of the active brake system model. Based on the model, an active pneumatic brake pressure control strategy combining the feedforward and feedback controlling modes was designed. By generating the PWM control signal, it can precisely control the desired wheel cylinder brake pressure of the active brake system. Finally, the brake pressure control strategy was validated both by simulation tests and bench tests.
Technical Paper

Numerical Analysis of Underbody Diffusers with Different Angles and Channels

The underbody diffusers are used widely in race cars to improve the flow field structure at the bottom of the car and provide enough downforce. In recent years, passenger cars have begun to use bottom diffuser to improve aerodynamic characteristics, so as to reduce drag and increase downforce. In this paper, the aerodynamic characteristics of the bus with different underbody diffuser angles and channel numbers are studied by numerical simulation analysis. Firstly, the aerodynamics of the bus under different diffuser inlet and outlet angles are studied, and then an optimal inlet and outlet angle is determined based on the simulation results. Then, using this angle as a constant, the 2, 3, and 4 channel numbers were chosen as the diffuser channel variables to study the influence of the multiple-channel diffusers on the aerodynamic drag of the vehicle.
Journal Article

Objective Evaluation of Interior Sound Quality in Passenger Cars Using Artificial Neural Networks

In this research, the interior noise of a passenger car was measured, and the sound quality metrics including sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were calculated. An artificial neural network was designed to successfully apply on automotive interior noise as well as numerous different fields of technology which aim to overcome difficulties of experimentations and save cost, time and workforce. Sound pressure level, loudness, sharpness, and roughness were estimated by using the artificial neural network designed by using the experiment values. The predicted values and experiment results are compared. The comparison results show that the realized artificial intelligence model is an appropriate model to estimate the sound quality of the automotive interior noise. The reliability value is calculated as 0.9995 by using statistical analysis.
Technical Paper

One Calculation Method of the Contact Load of a Two-Level Variable Stiffness Suspension

This paper presented one calculation method of the contact load, which is the load acted on the spring at the moment when the second-level stiffness of the spring just begins to work. In the proposed method, the contact load calculation mainly based on the dynamic load of the unsprung mass and the road grades and the commonly driving speed were also considered. A semiempirical formula of the contact load was put forward. Then the contact load of the commercial bus's rear suspension was respectively calculated by using the proposed formula and traditional methods(geometric mean method and average load method) to compare each other and to verify the new method. Later, the spring samples were respectively manufactured based on the calculation results. At last, the validation tests were respectively performed in an automotive proving ground.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Bus Body Based on Vehicle Interior Vibration

In order to solve the abnormal vibration of a light bus, order tracking analysis of finite element simulation and road test was made to identify the vibration source, finding that the rotation angular frequency of the wheels and the first two natural frequency of the body structure overlaps, resonance occurring which lead to increased vibration. To stagger the first two natural frequency and excitation frequency of the body, thickness of sheet metal and skeleton of the body-in-white were chosen as the design variables, rise of the first two natural frequency of the body-in-white as the optimization objective, optimal design and sensitivity analysis of the body-in-white was carried out with the modal analysis theory. Combining with the modal sensitivity and mass sensitivity of sheet metal and skeleton, the optimum design was achieved and tests analysis was conducted.
Technical Paper

Parametric Design of Series Hybrid Power-train for Transit Bus

Utilizing the developed off-line simulation model of series hybrid power train the study on the influence of components' parameters on acceleration performance and fuel economy of transit bus is completed. Based on these the guideline strategies of parametric design of series hybrid power train for transit bus are brought forward in this paper. Given the condition of propulsion requirement the parametric design for this transit bus are performed targeting minimizing fuel consumption. It is conclusion that the appropriate components' parameters determined by means of parametric design can make series hybrid transit bus achieve much better acceleration performance and much lower fuel equivalent consumption than that of baseline transit bus.
Technical Paper

Performance Simulation Research on Bus with Air Suspension

Air spring has a variable stiffness characteristic, its vibration frequency is much lower than that of leaf spring and will not vary with load of vehicle. More and more air springs are applied on automobile suspension. A study on the automobile ride comfort, and the controllability and stability about the bus with air suspension is performed in the paper, which is based on multi-body system dynamics.
Journal Article

Physical Modeling of Shock Absorber Using Large Deflection Theory

In this paper, a shock absorber physical model is developed. Firstly, a rebound valve model which is based on its structure parameters is built through using the large deflection theory. The von Karman equations are introduced to discover the physical relationships between the load and the deflection of valve discs. An analytical solution of the von Karman equations is then deducted via perturbation method. Secondly, the flow equations and the pressure equations of the shock absorber operating are investigated. The relationship between fluid flow rate and pressure drop of rebound valve is analyzed based on the analytical solution of valve discs deflection. Thirdly, an inter-iterative process of flow rate and pressure drop is employed in order to adequately consider the influence of fluid flow on damping force. Finally, the physical model is validated by comparing the experimental data with the simulation output.
Technical Paper

Pressure Control for Hydraulic Brake System Equipped with an Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster

The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster (Ebooster) is a critical component of the novel brake system for electric intelligent vehicles. It is independent of engine vacuum source, provides powerful active brake performance and can be combined with electric regenerative braking. In this paper, a brake control algorithm for hydraulic brake system equipped with an Ebooster is proposed. First, the configuration of the Ebooster is introduced and the system model including the permanent magnet synchronous motor (PMSM) and hydraulic brake system is established by Matlab/Simulink. Second, a Four-closed-loop algorithm is introduced for accurate active brake pressure control. Finally, according to the requirement of different brake force, series of simulations are carried out under active braking condition. The results show that the control algorithm introduced in this paper can ensure the brake hydraulic pressure tracking a target value precisely and show a good control performance.
Technical Paper

Pressure Tracking Control of Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster System

The Electro-Mechanical Brake Booster system (EMBB) is a kind of novel braking booster system, which integrates active braking, regenerative braking, and other functions. It usually composes of a servo motor and the transmission mechanism. EMBB can greatly meet the development needs of vehicle intelligentization and electrification. During active braking, EMBB is required to respond quickly to the braking request and track the target pressure accurately. However, due to the highly nonlinearity of the hydraulic system and EMBB, traditional control algorithms especially for PID algorithm do not work well for pressure control. And a large amount of calibration work is required when applying PID algorithms to pressure control in engineering.