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Journal Article

An Evaluation of Particle Size Distributions and Particle Number-Based Reductions from Various PM Emission Control Technologies

For diesel emission control technologies, reduction efficiencies of Particulate Matter (PM) control systems have been traditionally reported based on mass-based criteria. However, particle number-based criteria are now receiving increased attention. In this paper, results of real-time particle size distribution and number based evaluation of the effectiveness of multiple PM control technologies are reported on an HDD engine. An Engine Exhaust Particle Sizer (EEPS) was used for comparative analysis. The technologies that were evaluated included diesel oxidation catalysts (DOC), a DOC with an uncatalyzed wall-flow filter as a continuously regenerating diesel particulate filter (CR-DPF) system, a DOC with a catalytically coated wall-flow filter as a catalyzed CR-DPF (CCR-DPF), and a DOC with a partial filter as a continuously regenerating partial filter (CR-PF).
Technical Paper

Development of Emission Control Systems to Enable High NOx Conversion on Heavy Duty Diesel Engines

Selective Catalytic Reduction (SCR) systems have been demonstrated as effective solutions for controlling NOx emissions from Heavy Duty diesel engines. Future HD diesel engines are being designed for higher engine out NOx to improve fuel economy, which will require increasingly higher NOx conversion to meet emission regulations. For future aftertreatment designs, advanced technologies such as SCR coated on filter (SCRF®) and SCR coated on high porous flow through substrates can be utilized to achieve high NOx conversion. In this work, different options were evaluated for achieving high NOx conversion. First, high performance NOx control catalysts were designed by using SCRF unit followed by additional SCR on high porosity substrates. Second, different control strategies were evaluated to understand the effect of reductant dosing strategy and thermal management on NOx conversion. Tests were carried out on a HD engine under transient test cycles.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Diesel Engine Emission Control to Meet BS VI Regulations

The next generation advanced emission regulations have been proposed for the Indian heavy duty automotive industry for implementation from 2020. These BS VI emission regulations will require both advanced NOx control as well as advanced PM (Particulate Matter) control along with Particle Number limitations. This will require implementation of full DPF (Diesel Particulate Filter) and simultaneous NOx control using SCR technologies. DPF technologies have already been successfully implemented in Euro VI and US 10 HDD systems. These systems use low temperature NO2 based passive DPF regeneration as well as high temperature oxygen based active DPF regeneration. Effective DPF and DOC designs are essential to enable successful DPF regeneration (minimize soot loading in the DPF) while operating HDD vehicles under transient conditions. DOC designs are optimized to oxidize engine out NO into NO2, which helps with passive DPF regeneration.
Technical Paper

Heavy Duty Emission Control System Analysis and Optimization for Future Demands

This paper will review several different emission control systems for heavy duty diesel (HDD) applications aimed at future legislations. The focus will be on the (DOC+CSF+SCR+ASC) configuration. As of today, various SCR technologies are used on commercial vehicles around the globe. Moving beyond EuroVI/US10 emission levels, both fuel consumption savings and higher catalyst system efficiency are required. Therefore, significant system optimization has to be considered. Examples of this include: catalyst development, optimized thermal management, advanced urea dosing calibrations, and optimized SCR inlet NO:NO2 ratios. The aim of this paper is to provide a thorough system screening using a range of advanced SCR technologies, where the pros and cons from a system perspective will be discussed. Further optimization of selected systems will also be reviewed. The results suggest that current legislation requirements can be met for all SCR catalysts under investigation.