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Technical Paper

A Study of Electric Motorcycle

As for automobile, the mass production period of Electric Vehicle(EV) has begun by the rapid progress of the battery performance. But for EV- Motorcycle(MC), it is limited for the venture companies' releases. The design and evaluation methodologies are not yet established or standardized so far. This paper provides the practical and the experimental examples. To study the feasibility of EV-MC, we developed the prototypes in the present technical and suppliers' parts environments, and evaluated them by the practical view of the MC usage. The developed EV-MC has the equivalent driving performance of the 250cc internal combustion engine(ICE)-MC and a cruising range of 100km in normal use. In the prototype development, the reliability and the ability of protection design of the battery in the whole vehicle against the environmental loads are mainly studied, especially, heat and cold, water, shock, and the accident impact.
Technical Paper

A Study of Function Control in the Electric Motorcycle

Generally, it is thought that control is simpler than an Internal Combustion Engine (ICE)-Motorcycle(MC) as for the Electric Vehicle(EV) type MC. However, there is few characteristic to the ICE-MC to the EV-MC and it cannot get good performance without control for EV-MC. We study the methodology for design and evaluation an EV-MC. In this approach, we developed the prototype EV-MC having manual transmission. In our study, we think that EV-MC having manual transmission is feature in comparison with other general EV-MC. From this feature, we had to develop the function control in addition to standard EV-MC function control. This paper provides a function control for EV-MC having manual transmission. In this paper, we arrange the problem points of EV-MC which put electric propulsion motor and manual transmission together at first. And report the result that studied a method to solve the problem points.
Technical Paper

A Study of Noise Reduction Method on Motorcycle

With an increasing number of vehicles, the reduction of traffic noise emissions becomes a greater social requirement. On the other hand, as users' tastes for motorcycles have diversified, it becomes important to develop and supply products to meet customers' requests within a short period. Therefore, it is a key factor to efficiently develop motorcycles which conform to the noise regulations. This paper describes concrete examples of currently utilized noise-source proving methods and noise reduction methods for motorcycles.
Technical Paper

A Study of the Control Logic of Electronically Controlled Suspension for Motorcycle

Electronically controlled suspensions are expected to improve driving performance as the damping characteristics of the suspension can be adjusted in real time to respond to road conditions. This paper reports the results of testing the suspension control logic for improving ride quality, especially when driving on rough roads, using an internally developed riding simulator. The skyhook theory is widely known as a control logic for reducing vibration when driving a four-wheeled vehicle on a rough road, which we utilized in our riding simulator to examine the vibration reduction effects when applying control logic for motorcycle suspensions. The test results show that the skyhook theory can be applied in motorcycles. However, sensors for suspension systems that can be installed in mass-produced motorcycles are severely limited in terms of cost and space.
Journal Article

Acceleration Performance Analysis for Rubber V-Belt CVT with Belt Tension Clutching

The power train system for Utility Vehicles (UVs) or All-Terrain Vehicles (ATVs) mainly consists of a rubber V-belt CVT. The adjustment of the CVT specification requires many steps to realize the shifting operations of the CVT so as to satisfy the acceleration feeling of the driver. In this paper, we report on the simulation technology that predicts the transient behavior during an acceleration of the vehicle equipped with a belt tension clutching CVT, which has both functions of the shift operation and the clutch action. By using the developed simulation technique, it has become possible to adjust the CVT specifications efficiently.
Technical Paper

Advanced Environmental Control System (The 2nd Part)

The Advanced ECS is under development for the purpose of saving fuel, improving safety, and cabin comfort. In FY2006 study, basic components (i.e. MDC, OBNOGS, desiccant units, and CO2 removers) have been improved and their performances evaluated including resistance to environmental condition (i.e. vibration). In addition, the suitable system configuration for a 90-seats aircraft has been considered to evaluate the feasibility of the system. In this paper, we show the results of the evaluated performances based on prototype components, and the analytical study of a revised system configuration.
Technical Paper

Aerodynamic Development of Boundary Layer Control System for NAL QSTOL Research Aircraft ‘ASKA’

“ASKA” developed by National Aerospace Laboratory (NAL) is a quiet, short take-off and landing (QSTOL) research aircraft adopting upper surface blowing (USB) concept as a powered high lift system. To achieving sufficient STOL performance by augmenting stall angle of attack and roll control power, blowing BLC technique was applied to the outboard leading edges and ailerons.Supplied high pressure air to save the BLC piping space,the BLC system which was fit for use of high pressure air was developed. The BLC system, in which BLC air is discharged by a series of discrete jets from small drilled holes (0.8 ∼ 3.0 mm in diameter) arranged in a raw, is one of the unique features of the aircraft. In this paper, the summaries of aerodynamic development of the BLC system are described except for the air piping system.
Technical Paper

Analysis of Disk Brake Squeal Using Substructure Synthesis Method

This paper describes a numerical analysis method for predicting the brake squeal using the Substructure Synthesis Method. This method is more accurate than the classical method based on the mass-spring system, and simpler than the analysis of all the brake system by FEM. The squeal studied here is focused the one occurring in the low frequency range and its mechanism is due the structural instability of the brake assembly. First, some experiments were carried out in order to grasp the brake squeal phenomenon. These experiments made clear the following items. (1) The low frequency brake squeal occurred at 850Hz. (2) The vibration mode shape had 5 nodes fixed in a space. (3) The brake squeal became maximum at 0.3 - 0.5 (MPa) liquid pressure under the constant temperature condition. (4) The higher the temperature of the pad was, the stronger the brake squeal was under the constant liquid pressure condition.
Technical Paper

Analysis on Sport All-Terrain Vehicle Jumping with Multibody Dynamic Simulations

In case of all-terrain vehicles (ATVs), which have characteristics of both motorcycles and cars, the effect of the rider movement can not be ignored when analyzing ATVs' behavior. We have developed a simulation system of an ATV with rider operations, which are throttle control and rider movement, by using multibody dynamic simulation software. To quantify the rider operations and verify the validity of the simulation system, we have conducted experiments and simulations on a sport-ATV in two jumping patterns. In this paper the results of comparison between simulation and experiment are reviewed. Then, we report the analysis results of the effects of the rider operations and the ground profile to ATV jumping behavior with using the simulation system.
Technical Paper

CFD Simulation of the Lubricating Oil Flow in Motorcycle Oilpan

This paper describes a simulation of the lubricating oil flow in a motorcycle oilpan using a CFD technique in consideration of oil suction and oil return. In the technique, sink boundary and source boundary were used to simulate oil suction and oil return, and a VOF method was used to simulate the free surface of oil. To validate the simulation, a simulation result was compared with experiment results of a prototype motorcycle. As a result, the time of the simulated oil pressure drop in main gallery when the motorcycle decelerated rapidly in a racing circuit was agreed with the measured one. In addition, to demonstrate the applicability of the CFD simulation, a case study of the shape optimization on the baffle plate in the oilpan was shown.
Technical Paper

Chassis Development for the Motorcycle With High Power Output Supercharged Engine

In motorcycles, the size and output performance of the engine itself has a major effect on the maneuverability of the motorcycle. In particular for cases where a high output engine is mounted on a lightweight frame, these effects are even more of a concern. In the case of developing a racing motorcycle with a high power engine, the behavior of the motorcycle differs depending on the output range used and there are a lot of cases where changes to the basic dimensions of the motorcycle as well as the main components are required. Here, there are a lot of cases where the rider and drive-able courses are limited to compatibility with distinct specifications and when considering use as a general mass production motorcycle by riders with varying levels of skills and in various environments, it difficult to determine how to provide support.
Technical Paper

Development and Progress of the Exhaust-System Device for 2-Stroke Engines

Though most street-use motorcycles are now equipped with 4-stroke engines, off-road motorcycles, especially moto-cross racers, still mainly use 2-stroke engines because of their high power and light weight. 2-stroke engines for moto-cross racers require the engine characteristics of high power and excellent throttle response on a wide range of engine speeds. These characteristics immediately require an effective exhaust device to improve output performance at the middle-speed range while maintaining high power at the high-speed range. The latest 2-stroke engines maintain such performance by using an exhaust device, and also by the application of extensively improved basic elements such as the scavenging passage arrangement, exhaust timing and passage shape, etc. This paper briefly summarizes continuous efforts for the improvement of our exhaust-system device from its beginning until the present.
Technical Paper

Development of Alternative Fuel Content Estimation Method and Apparatus

Environmental and energy independence concerns have stimulated the development of an apparatus for alternative fuel. It estimates the ethanol content in the fuel in order to perform a reliable combustion. One means for measuring the ratio of ethanol present in the fuel tank is to provide a fuel composition sensor. However, such a fuel composition sensor increases the number of parts and causes the cost issues in motorcycles. We used an oxygen sensor disposed to the exhaust pipe to estimate the ethanol content without increasing the parts and costs. The common method of the estimation is the oxygen feed-back in stoichiometric air fuel ratio condition. Unfortunately, two-wheel vehicles are often operated in rich conditions and have less chance of stoichiometric condition. In this study, we used a one-liter four-cylinder motorcycle, and have developed a practical method to estimate the ethanol content even in the not-stoichiometric condition.
Technical Paper

Development of Fail-safe Method for Motorcycle's Electronic Throttle Control System

In recent years, even motorcycles impose demands for engine power controls that are more flexible and precise. The Electronic Throttle Control (ETC) system is one of the methods that addresses this need. However, the most important issue facing the installation of the ETC system on the motorcycle is handling failures. To avoid this problem, we developed an ETC system for motorcycles that can properly effect engine power control in case of a failure. This ETC system contains in duplicate the major components to detect failures and switch to a failure mode properly. To effect control that is optimally suited to the type of failure, this system switches between three types of failure modes. These failure modes are designed to minimize risks in case of a failure and maximize the operational capability while the rider is on the way to have the motorcycle repaired.
Technical Paper

Development of Fatigue Durability Evaluation Technology for Motorcycle Frame

In the development of a motorcycle frame, the balance between high performance and reliability and a short development period are important. In this study, a fatigue durability evaluation technique for a motorcycle frame was developed to enable highly accurate development within a short period of time. Furthermore, we developed a shaking table excitation system as a means to supplement the road test.
Technical Paper

Development of New Hydraulic Fluids Specifications for Construction Machinery

Hydraulic fluid (HF) specifications for mobile construction equipment called JCMAS HK and HKB have been established by the Fuels and Lubricants Committee of Japan Construction Mechanization Association (JCMA). The specifications are designated by two viscosity categories of single grade and multigrade. Each category has ISO viscosity grade (VG) 32 and 46. The JCMAS HK oils are recommended for use in hydraulic systems designed at pressure up to 34.3MPa(5000psi) and to heat hydraulic fluid up to 100 °C. These oils also provide wear control, friction performance, oxidation and rust protection, seal swell control and filterability performance. Two piston pump test procedures were developed to evaluate lubricating performance of these oils under high pressure conditions. The JACMAS HKB oils are classified as environmentally friendly oils due to the additional requirement for biodegradability.
Technical Paper

Development of Oxygen Generation System for Spacecraft

Regenerative processes for the air revitalization system of spacecraft atmosphere are essential for realization of long-term manned space missions. These processes include Oxygen (O2) Generation System (OGS) through water electrolysis. The authors have been studying O2 generation system of a new Solid Polymer Water Electrolyte (SPWE) with simplified cell structure since 1985. The initial study results until 1991 were presented in the 21st and the former International Conference on Environmental Systems shown in REFERENCE. This paper describes a follow-on study activity to OGS which focuses on the improvement of cell endurance performance and resource.
Technical Paper

Development of Technology for Measuring Dynamic Deformation of Motorcycle Bodies

In this study, a technology for measuring dynamic deformation of motorcycle bodies in running is developed. The deformation has significant association with the maneuverability and stability of motorcycles. The developed system by combining the numerical simulation and the measurement of strains enable application of the measurement of dynamic deformation of motorcycles. This paper reports technical details of the system and measurement results of dynamic deformation of motorcycle bodies.
Journal Article

Development of a Control Method to Reduce Acceleration Shock in Motorcycles

The purpose of this paper is to propose a control method to reduce acceleration shock in motorcycles. Reducing the acceleration shock is very important in improving driveability of motorcycles. Motorcycles equipped with manual transmission have some backlashes in the transmission, with large backlash especially in dog clutch portions. We have figured out that one of the main causes of the acceleration shock is the collision of the dogs at high relative angular velocity during acceleration. Also, our data analysis has revealed that there is a correlation between a peak value of the longitudinal body acceleration and the relative angular velocity at the moment of the dog collision. A simulation was undertaken to verify this phenomenon, and its results have made it clear that we need to decrease the relative angular velocity at the moment of the dog collision so as to reduce the acceleration shock.
Technical Paper

Development of a Riding Simulator for Motorcycles

We developed the motorcycles based on RIDEOLOGY (Ride + Ideology) concept. In the past, the “Ride” was studied by a sensory evaluation with actual driving. However, the recent progress in numerical analysis, there have been developed driving simulators. It allows more quantitative measurement in a sensory evaluation. Therefore, we also developed a riding simulator specialized for motorcycles. In order to develop such riding simulator, there are some technical challenges for motorcycles. First, we need to reproduce roll motion height of motorcycles. Compared to four-wheeled vehicles, motorcycles have a higher center of rotation. Second, we need to reproduce vehicle motion control by rider’s changing body position. A rider controls vehicle’s lean by shifting his center of gravity. Therefore, it is necessary to construct a measurement system of rider’s body position. Third, we need to improve senses of speed and reality.