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Technical Paper

A Design Study to Determine the Impact of Various Parameters on Door Acoustics

2003-05-05
2003-01-1430
Once the design of a door sheetmetal and accessories is confirmed, the acoustics of the door system depends on the sound package assembly. This essentially consists of a watershield which acts as a barrier and a porous material which acts as an absorber. The acoustical performance of the watershield and the reverberant sound build-up in the door cavity control the performance. This paper discusses the findings of a design study that was developed based on design of experiments (DOE) concepts to determine which parameters of the door sound package assembly are important to the door acoustics. The study was based on conducting a minimum number of tests on a five factor - two level design that covered over 16 different design configurations. In addition, other measurements were made that aided in developing a SEA model which is also compared with the findings of the results of the design study.
Technical Paper

A Grammatical Evolution Approach to System Identification of Laser Lap Welding

2006-04-03
2006-01-1614
Laser lap welding quality is a non-linear response based on a host of categorical and numeric material and process variables. This paper describes a Grammatical Evolution approach to the structure identification of the laser lap welding process and compares its performance with linear regression and a neuro-fuzzy inference system.
Technical Paper

Application of Multi-Parameter and Boundary Mannequin Techniques in Automotive Assembly Process

2003-06-17
2003-01-2198
This paper deals with the multi-parameter and boundary mannequin techniques in creating human models in automotive applications. The concepts and applications of single-parameter, multiple parameter and boundary mannequin method are discussed respectively to clarify certain confusion. Emphasis is put on how to create boundary mannequins for a specific application, which may have been puzzling many engineers in practical applications. The authors would like to share their experience in using the digital human modeling software and make discussions on some common issues. A number of case studies from typical automotive manufacturing assembly operations are also presented to demonstrate the usage of the multi-parameter and boundary mannequin techniques.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 45RFE a New Generation Light Truck Automatic Transmission

1999-03-01
1999-01-1260
The 45RFE is a new generation electronically controlled rear wheel drive automatic transmission. It employs real-time feedback, closed-loop modulation of shift functions to achieve outstanding shift quality and to meet demanding durability goals. It uses no shift valves; all friction element applications are effected with high-flow electro-hydraulic solenoid valves. A unique gear train arrangement of three planetary carriers allows all sun gears and annulus gears to have the same number of teeth respectively and use a common pinion gear in all carriers, resulting in significant manufacturing simplification. The three-planetary system is designed for four forward ratios of 3.00, 1.67, 1.00 and 0.75 and one reverse gear ratio equal to the low gear ratio. A fifth ratio of 1.50 is used only in certain kick-down shift sequences for highway passing. A sixth forward ratio, an additional overdrive ratio of 0.67, is available in the hardware.
Technical Paper

Computer Aided Simulations in Machining Applications

2005-04-11
2005-01-0518
Computer applications have been widely used to assist product design. The successes and sophistication of computer aided engineering (CAE) techniques are respectfully recognized in this field. CAE applications in the manufacturing area however are still developing, although the manufacturing community is increasingly starting to pay attentions to computer simulations in its daily workings. This paper will briefly introduce some of these applications and promote awareness of computer simulations in manufacturing area. It contains four main sections: finite element analysis (FEA) in machining fixture design, FEA applications in component assembly, machining process simulations and machining vibrations in the milling operation. Each section comes with a practical case study, potential benefits are identified and conclusions are presented by using an integrated design and analysis approach.
Technical Paper

Grammatical Evolution Based Tool for Predicting Multivariable Response Surface for Laser Lap Welding

2008-04-14
2008-01-1372
The problem of predicting the quality of weld is critical to manufacturing. A great deal of data is collected under multiple conditions to predict the quality. The data generated at Daimler Chrysler has been used to develop a model based on grammatical evolution. Grammatical Evolution Technique is based on Genetic Algorithms and generates rules from the data which fit the data. This paper describes the development of a software tool that enables the user to choose input variables such as the metal types of top and bottom layers and their thickness, intensity and speed of laser beam, to generate a three dimensional map showing weld quality. A 3D weld quality surface can be generated in response to any of the two input variables picked from the set of defining input parameters. This tool will enable the user to pick the right set of input conditions to get an optimal weld quality. The tool is developed in Matlab with Graphical User Interface for the ease of operation.
Technical Paper

Injection Molded, Extruded-In-Color Film Fascia

2003-03-03
2003-01-1126
A new multi-layer co-extruded in-color Ionomer film is developed to provide an alternative decoration process to replace paint on Dodge Neon Fascias. The Ionomer film provides a high-gloss “class-A” surface in both non-metallic and metallic colors that match the car body paint finish. Using the Ionomer film to decorate fascias reduces cost; eliminates VOCs; increases manufacturing flexibility and improves performance (weatherability and durability). The molding process consists of thermoforming a film blank and injection molding Polypropylene or TPO behind the film. The paper will include the background, the benefits, the technology development objectives, the film materials development, tooling optimization, film fascia processing (co-extrusion; thermoforming and injection molding) and validation testing of the film.
Technical Paper

Laminated Steel Forming Modeling Techniques and Experimental Verifications

2003-03-03
2003-01-0689
Laminated steel sheets sandwiched with a polymer core are increasingly used for automotive applications due to their vibration and sound damping properties. However, it has become a major challenge in finite element modeling of laminated steel structures and forming processes due to the extremely large differences in mechanical properties and in the gauges of the polymer core and the steel skins. In this study, circular cup deep drawing and V-bending experiments using laminated steels were conducted in order to develop a modeling technique for laminate forming processes. The effectiveness of several finite element modeling techniques was investigated using the commercial FEM code LS-Dyna. Furthermore, two production parts were selected to verify the modeling techniques in real world applications.
Technical Paper

Large Scale High Speed Dynamic Crush Tests Using Two Sleds

2005-04-11
2005-01-1418
It is often necessary to dynamically test a big vehicle part such as a rail tip at component level in high speed. Such a big part can be crush tested dynamically using two sled carriers. The methodology is shown and discussed here, and equations are developed to help determine required parameters such as sled velocity and weights. Test results using a truck rail tip are shown and compared to full vehicle test results for correlation.
Technical Paper

Light Truck Frame Joint Stiffness Study

2003-03-03
2003-01-0241
Truck frame structural performance of body on frame vehicles is greatly affected by crossmember and joint design. While the structural characteristics of these joints vary widely, there is no known tool currently in use that quickly predicts joint stiffness early in the design cycle. This paper will describe a process used to evaluate the structural stiffness of frame joints based on research of existing procedures and implementation of newly developed methods. Results of five different joint tests selected from current production body-on-frame vehicles will be reported. Correlation between finite element analysis and test results will be shown. Three samples of each joint were tested and the sample variation will be shown. After physical and analytical testing was completed, a Design of Experiments approach was implemented to evaluate the sensitivity of joints with respect to gauge and shape modification.
Technical Paper

Modal Overlap at Low Frequencies - A Stochastic Approach for Vehicle System Modal Management

2003-05-05
2003-01-1612
In the early stages of a vehicle program, it is a common practice to set target ranges for the global body, suspension and powertrain modes. This modal management process allows engineers to avoid potential noise and vibration problems stemming from strong overlap of major global modes. Before the first prototype hardware is built, finite element models of the body, suspension and powertrain are usually exercised to compare predicted versus targeted ranges of the major system modes in the form of a modal management chart. However, uncertainty associated with the design parameters, manufacturing process and other sources can lead to a major departure from the design intent when the first hardware prototype is built. In this study, a first order reliability method is used to predict variance of the eigen values due to parameter uncertainties. This allows the CAE engineers to add a “three sigma” bound on the eigen values reported in the modal management chart.
Technical Paper

Multi-Disciplinary Aerodynamics Analysis for Vehicles: Application of External Flow Simulations to Aerodynamics, Aeroacoustics and Thermal Management of a Pickup Truck

2007-04-16
2007-01-0100
During the design process for a vehicle, the CAD surface geometry becomes available at an early stage so that numerical assessment of aerodynamic performance may accompany the design of the vehicle's shape. Accurate prediction requires open grille models with detailed underhood and underbody geometry with a high level of detail on the upper body surface, such as moldings, trim and parting lines. These details are also needed for aeroacoustics simulations to compute wall-pressure fluctuations, and for thermal management simulations to compute underhood cooling, surface temperatures and heat exchanger effectiveness. This paper presents the results of a significant effort to capitalize on the investment required to build a detailed virtual model of a pickup truck in order to simultaneously assess performance factors for aerodynamics, aeroacoustics and thermal management.
Technical Paper

Optimization of Damping Treatment for Structure Borne Noise Reduction

2003-05-05
2003-01-1592
In automotive industry, all passenger vehicles are treated with damping materials to reduce structure borne noise. The effectiveness of damping treatments depends upon design parameters such as choice of damping materials, locations and size of the treatment. This paper proposes a CAE (Computer Aided Engineering) methodology based on finite element analysis to optimize damping treatments. The developed method uses modal strain-energy information of bare structural panels to identify flexible regions, which in turn facilitates optimization of damping treatments with respect to location and size. The efficacy of the method is demonstrated by optimizing damping treatment for a full-size pick-up truck. Moreover, simulated road noise performances of the truck with and without damping treatments are compared, which show the benefits of applying damping treatment.
Technical Paper

Press-Line Simulation in Stamping Process

2004-03-08
2004-01-1047
The automotive industry is rapidly implementing computer simulation in every aspect of their processes mainly to decrease the time required to bring new models to market. Computer simulation can also be used to reduce the cost of vehicle development and manufacturing. A major portion of the manufacturing cost associated with automotive stamping lies in the process design, build and tryout of production dies and in automation of the transfer equipment. Press home-line tryout is largely a trial-and-error process relying heavily on the skills and experience of tool and die makers. To reduce this dependence on human skills and effort, press-line simulation can be effectively utilized to verify the design accuracy thereby reducing the changes needed to rework the production die/tool. The entire press-line with all its complete accessories can be modeled and checked for design errors similar to the try-out conducted in the production plant.
Technical Paper

Simulation of Hot Stamping Process With Advanced Material Modeling

2004-03-08
2004-01-0168
Advanced material modeling was conducted to describe the thermal-mechanical behavior of Boron Steel during hot stamping, a process in which blanks at 900 °C are formed and quenched between cold dies. Plastic deformation, thermal dilatation and phase transformation were incorporated in the constitutive model and a user-defined subroutine was developed to interface with LS-DYNA. Simulation was conducted on the hot stamping process of a door intrusion beam to gain insight into the physics of the process. Results showed significant influence of the thermal cycle on final product. It was also demonstrated that the program developed can be used as an early feasibility tool to determine baseline processing parameters and to detect potential defects in products without physical prototyping.
Technical Paper

Specifying Steel Properties and Incorporating Forming Effects in Full Vehicle Impact Simulation

2002-03-04
2002-01-0639
Mechanical properties of as-rolled steels used in a vehicle vary with many parameters including gages, steel suppliers and manufacturing processes. The residual forming and strain rate effects of automotive components have been generally neglected in full vehicle crashworthiness analyses. Not having the above information has been considered as one of the reasons for the discrepancy between the results from computer simulation models and actual vehicle tests. The objective of this study is to choose the right material property for as-rolled steels for stamping and crash computer simulation, and investigate the effect of forming and strain rate on the results of full vehicle impact analyses. Major Body-in-White components which were in the crash load paths and whose material property would change in the forming process were selected in this study. The post-formed thickness and yield stress distributions on the components were estimated using One Step forming analyses.
Technical Paper

Springback Study on a Stamped Fender Outer

2003-03-03
2003-01-0685
Springback study on a Dodge Ram fender outer panel is detailed in this paper. A simple measurement fixture is designed for the panel, wherein non-contact laser scan technology is applied The measurement data are compared with the original CAD design surface and deviation contour maps are obtained. Consistency of measurement is studied at different sections among three samples. Details of FEA simulations are outlined. The comparison between measurement and simulation prediction is summarized. A method to describe the consistency of measurement and the accuracy of simulation prediction is proposed. The targets for measurement consistency and simulation accuracy are verified. A sensitivity analysis is also performed to investigate various simulation input parameters.
Technical Paper

Stamping Effect on Oil Canning and Dent Resistance Performances of an Automotive Roof Panel

2007-04-16
2007-01-1696
The objective of this paper is to investigate the effect of stamping process on oil canning and dent resistance performances of an automotive roof panel. Finite element analysis of stamping processes was carried out using LS-Dyna to obtain thickness and plastic strain distributions under various forming conditions. The forming results were mapped onto the roof model by an in-house developed mapping code. A displacement control approach using an implicit FEM code ABAQUS/Standard was employed for oil canning and denting analysis. An Auto/Steel Partnership Standardized Test Procedure for Dent Resistance was employed to establish the analysis model and to determine the dent and oil canning loads. The results indicate that stamping has a positive effect on dent resistance and a negative effect on oil canning performance. As forming strains increase, dent resistance increases while the oil canning load decreases.
Technical Paper

Stamping Simulation in Pentium PC and Linux Environment

2003-03-03
2003-01-0691
This paper describes the performance improvement and cost savings achieved by the Stamping Technology Department at DaimlerChrysler Corporation (Chrysler group), in migrating from Unix workstations with RISC technology to Linux PCs with Intel Pentium technology. Performance comparisons of various engineering applications running on these two system configurations are analyzed. The major aspects such as hardware configuration, operating system, software availability, compatibility, reliability, accuracy and consistency of simulation results are discussed. The improvement in computing speed and deviations in simulation results between MPP LS-Dyna and SMP LS-Dyna are presented.
Technical Paper

Study on Simplified Finite Element Simulation Approaches of Fastened Joints

2006-04-03
2006-01-1268
In this paper, mechanism of fastened joints is described; numerical analyses and testing calibrations are conducted for the possible simplified finite element simulation approaches of the joints; and the best simplified approach is recommended. The approaches cover variations of element types and different ways that the joints are connected. The element types include rigid elements, deformable bar elements, solid elements, shell elements and combinations of these element types. The different ways that the joints are connected include connections of one row of nodes, two row of nodes and alternate nodes in the first and second rows. These simplified simulation approaches are numerically evaluated on a joint of two plates connected by a single fastener. The fundamental loads, bending with shear, shear and tension are applied in the numerical analyses. A detailed model including contact and clamp load are analyzed simultaneously to provide “accurate results”.
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