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Technical Paper

248mm Elliptical Torque Converter from DaimlerChrysler Corporation

The need for efficient space utilization has provided a framework for the design of a 248mm family of torque converters that supports a wide choice of engine and transmission combinations. The axial length of the part and its weight have been substantially reduced while the performance range has been broadened without degradation of efficiency. The new converter operates in an expanded slipping clutch mode. It significantly contributes to the performance and fuel economy improvements of related vehicles. To meet the cost target, the comprehensive lineup and the resulting complexity have required a high level of component interchangeability. During the design phase, the manufacturing core competencies were scrutinized and process redundancies eliminated, both resulting in optimization of material selection and applicable technology.
Technical Paper

A CAE Based Stochastic Assessment and Improvement of Vehicle NCAP Response

One of the primary issues in the interpretation of vehicle impact response data, observed from vehicle crash test events, is coping with variability. This vehicle response inconsistency generally causes test results to be unpredictable and makes CAE test validation work difficult as well. This paper, considering the uncertain characteristics of vehicle impact events, has implemented a stochastic assessment of vehicle NCAP response variation through a CAE vehicle impact model, and it has accomplished the three primary study objectives as stated follows: 1) Identify the response variation causing factors stochastically from various structural and environmental factor candidates and quantify the degree of their influences on crash response, 2) Develop a methodology for interpreting the significance of the factor effects in conjunction with vehicle impact mechanics and physics, and 3) Implement a stochastic improvement of the vehicle NCAP responses and their repeatability
Technical Paper

A Comparison of Conversion Efficiencies of Individual Hydrocarbon Species Across Pd- and Pt-Based Catalysts as a Function of Fuel-Air Ratio

Individual hydrocarbon conversion efficiencies of engine-out emissions have been measured for four different catalyst formulations (Pd-only, trimetallic, Pd/Rh, and Pt/Rh) during stoichiometric and rich operation. The measurements were carried out as a function of fuel-air equivalence ratio (Φ) using a dynamometer-controlled 1993 Ford V8 engine and capillary gas chromatography. HC conversion efficiency was examined in terms of mass conversion efficiency and also using three new definitions of catalyst conversion efficiency. The efficiencies across the four catalysts show similar trends with Φ for almost all HC species. The catalyst efficiencies for alkanes, alkenes, and aromatic species decrease as Φ increases above stoichiometric: alkane efficiencies decrease faster than alkenes which in turn decrease faster than aromatics. All efficiencies fall to zero near Φ = 1.08 except those of MTBE and acetylene, which remain near 100%.
Technical Paper

A Computer Model Based Sensitivity Analysis of Parameters of an Automotive Air Conditioning System

The objective of this work is to perform a computer model based sensitivity analysis of parameters of an automotive air conditioning system to identify the critical parameters. Design of Experiment (DOE) and Analysis of Variance (ANOVA) techniques have been used to identify the critical parameters and their relative effects on the air conditioning system performance. The sensitivity analysis has been verified by running similar tests on an air conditioning system test stand (AC Test Stand).
Technical Paper

A Computerized Optimization Method Of Engine Mounting System

This paper presents a method for optimization design of an engine mounting system subjected to some constraints. The engine center of gravity, the mount stiffness rates, the mount locations and/or their orientations with respect to the vehicle can be chosen as design variables, but some of them are given in advance or have limitations because of the packaging constraints on the mount locations, as well as the individual mount rate ratio limitations imposed by manufacturability. A computer program, called DynaMount, has been developed that identifies the optimum design variables for the engine mounting system, including decoupling mode, natural frequency placement, etc.. The degree of decoupling achieved is quantified by kinetic energy distributions calculated for each of the modes. Several application examples are presented to illustrate the validity of this method and the computer program.
Technical Paper

A Design Study to Determine the Impact of Various Parameters on Door Acoustics

Once the design of a door sheetmetal and accessories is confirmed, the acoustics of the door system depends on the sound package assembly. This essentially consists of a watershield which acts as a barrier and a porous material which acts as an absorber. The acoustical performance of the watershield and the reverberant sound build-up in the door cavity control the performance. This paper discusses the findings of a design study that was developed based on design of experiments (DOE) concepts to determine which parameters of the door sound package assembly are important to the door acoustics. The study was based on conducting a minimum number of tests on a five factor - two level design that covered over 16 different design configurations. In addition, other measurements were made that aided in developing a SEA model which is also compared with the findings of the results of the design study.
Technical Paper

A Failure Criterion for Stretch Bendability of Advanced High Strength Steels

Studies in an Angular Stretch Bend Test (ASBT) have demonstrated that the failure location moves from the side wall to punch nose area. This occurs as the R/T ratio decreases below a certain limit and applies to most low carbon steels with the exception of Dual Phase (DP) steels. Such behavior in DP steels indicates that bending effects have a severe impact on the formability of DP materials. Therefore, the traditional criterion using the forming limit curve (FLC) is not suitable to assess the formability at punch radius areas for DP steels due in part to its uniqueness of unconventional microstructures. In this paper, a new failure criterion, ‘Bending-modified’ FLC (BFLC), is proposed by extending the traditional FLC using the “Stretch Bendability Index” (SBI) concept for the stretch bendability assessment.
Technical Paper

A Fully Variable Mechanical Valvetrain with a Simple Moving Pivot

A continuously variable lift, duration and phase mechanical lift mechanism is described, as applied to the intake valvetrain of a SOHC, 4-valve per cylinder, four-cylinder production engine. Improvements in fuel economy were sought by reduction of pumping losses and improved charge preparation, and optimization of WOT torque was attempted by variation of intake valve closing angle. Adjustment of the mechanism is achieved by movement of the pivot shaft for the rocker arms. The relationship between lift, duration and phase is predetermined at the design stage, and is fixed during operation. There is considerable design flexibility to achieve the envelope of lift curves deemed desirable. The operation of the mechanism is described, as are the development procedure, testing with fixed cams, some cycle simulation, friction testing on a separate rig and dyno testing results for idle, part load and WOT.
Technical Paper

A Grammatical Evolution Approach to System Identification of Laser Lap Welding

Laser lap welding quality is a non-linear response based on a host of categorical and numeric material and process variables. This paper describes a Grammatical Evolution approach to the structure identification of the laser lap welding process and compares its performance with linear regression and a neuro-fuzzy inference system.
Technical Paper

A Graphical Representation of Road Profile Characteristics

Load data representing severe customer usage is required during the chassis development process. One area of current research is the use of road profiles for predicting chassis loads. The most direct method of predicting these loads is to run dynamic simulations of the vehicle using numerous road profiles as the excitation. This onerous task may be avoided, and a greatly reduced number of simulations would be required, if roads having similar characteristics can be grouped. Currently, road profiles are characterized by their spectral content. It has been noted by several researches, however, that road profiles are generally nonstationary signals that contain significant transient events and are not well described in the spectral domain. The objective of this work, then, is to develop a method by which the characteristics of the road can be captured by describing these constitutive transient events.
Technical Paper

A Hybrid Method for Vehicle Axle Noise Simulation with Experimental Validation

Recently, many authors have attempted to represent an automobile body in terms of experimentally derived frequency response functions (FRFs), and to couple the FRFs with a FEA model of chassis for performing a total system dynamic analysis. This method is called Hybrid FEA-Experimental FRF method, or briefly HYFEX. However, in cases where the chassis model does not include the bushing models, one can not directly connect the FRFs of the auto body to the chassis model for performing a total system dynamic analysis. In other cases when the chassis model includes the bushings, the bushing dynamic rates are modeled as constant stiffness rather than frequency dependent stiffness, the direct use of the HYFEX method will yield unsatisfactory results. This paper describes how the FRF's of the auto body and the frequency dependent stiffness data of the bushings can be combined with an appropriate mathematical formulation to better represent the dynamic characteristics of a full vehicle.
Technical Paper

A Method for Improving the Accuracy of Standard Stereo Photogrammetry When Using Small Subtended Angles

In stereo photogrammetry, the accuracy of calculating the location of a point in space, decreases as the angle between the two cameras decreases. For vehicle crash testing, the need for accurate 3D data conflicts with the need for flexible positioning of the cameras, to enable unobstructed views of the targets inside the vehicle throughout the impact event. This paper discusses a method for increasing the quantity and quality of film analysis data when small subtended angles are used. The method uses the 3D information developed through triangulation of two cameras as input to a single camera analysis.
Journal Article

A Miller Cycle Engine without Compromise - The Magma Concept

The Magma engine concept is characterised by a high compression ratio, central injector combustion system employed in a downsized direct-injection gasoline engine. An advanced boosting system and Miller cycle intake-valve closing strategies are used to control combustion knock while maintaining specific performance. A key feature of the Magma concept is the use of high CR without compromise to mainstream full-load performance levels. This paper focuses on development of the Magma combustion system using a single-cylinder engine, including valve event, air motion and injection strategies. Key findings are that Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) is effective both in mitigating knock and improving fuel consumption. A Net Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (NIMEP) equivalent to 23.6 bar Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) on a multi-cylinder engine has been achieved with a geometric compression ratio of 13:1.
Technical Paper

A Minimum-Effort Motion Algorithm for Digital Human Models

A new realistic motion control algorithm for digital human models is presented in this paper based on the principle of effort minimization. The proposed algorithm is developed through an innovative mathematical model to make the applications more flexible and more global, especially for the visualization of human motions in automotive assembly operations. The central idea of this unique model is to interpret the solution of the homogeneous Lagrange equation for a mannequin as the origin of dynamic motion. Furthermore, a digital human possesses about 42 joints over the main body except the head, fingers and toes, and offers a large room of kinematic redundancy. We have found 14 new 3-D independent motion markers assigned over the human body to constitute a Cartesian coordinate system, under which a minimum-effort based dynamic control scheme is developed using a state-feedback linearization procedure.
Technical Paper

A Model for On-Line Monitoring of In-Cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF) and Mass Flowrate in Gasoline Engines

In a gasoline engine, the unswept in-cylinder residual gas and introduction of external EGR is one of the important means of controlling engine raw NOx emissions and improving part load fuel economy via reduction of pumping losses. Since the trapped in-cylinder Residual Gas Fraction (RGF, comprised of both internal, and external) significantly affects the combustion process, on-line diagnosis and monitoring of in-cylinder RGF is very important to the understanding of the in-cylinder dilution condition. This is critical during the combustion system development testing and calibration processes. However, on-line measurement of in-cylinder RGF is difficult and requires an expensive exhaust gas analyzer, making it impractical for every application. Other existing methods, based on measured intake and exhaust pressures (steady state or dynamic traces) to calculate gas mass flowrate across the cylinder ports, provide a fast and economical solution to this problem.
Technical Paper

A Multiple Order Conformability Model for Uniform Cross-Section Piston Rings

This paper examines the conformability of elastic piston rings to a distorted cylinder bore. Several bounds are available in the literature to help estimate the maximum allowable Fourier coefficient in a Fourier expansion of bore distortion: the analytically derived bounds in [7] and [8], and the semi-empirically derived bounds discussed in [9]. The underlying assumptions for each set of analytic bounds are examined and a multiple order algorithm is derived. The proposed algorithm takes account of multiple orders of distortion at once. It is tested with finite element (FE) data and compared to the classical bound approach. The results indicate that the bounds in [7] are compatible with linear elasticity theory (LET), whereas the bounds in [8] are not. Furthermore, numerical evidence indicates that the present multiple order algorithm can predict seal breaches more accurately than either of the other analytic bounds.
Technical Paper

A New Method for Obtaining FRF of a Structure in Area Where Impact Hammer Cannot Reach

The Frequency Response Function (FRF) is a fundamental component to identifying the dynamic characteristics of a system. FRF's have a significant impact on modal analysis and root cause analysis of NVH issues. In most cases the FRF can be easily measured, but there are instances when the measurement is unobtainable due to spatial constraints. This paper outlines a simple experimental method for obtaining a high quality input-output FRF of a structure in areas where an impact hammer can not reach during impact testing. Traditionally, the FRF in such an area is obtained by using a load cell extender with a hammer impact excitation. A common problem with this device is a double hit, that yields unacceptable results.
Technical Paper

A New Way of Electrical/Electronic Systems Endurance Testing of Vehicles in a Real World Environment Prior to Production Launch

With the increasing emphasis on Systems Engineering, there is a need to ensure that Electrical/Electronic (E/E) Systems Endurance Testing of vehicles, in a real world environment, prior to Production Launch, is performed in a manner and at a technological level that is commensurate with the high level of electronics and computers in contemporary vehicles. Additionally, validating the design and performance of individual standalone electronic systems and modules “on the bench” does not guarantee that all the permutations and combinations of real-world hardware, software, and driving conditions are taken into account. Traditional Proving Ground (PG) vehicle testing focuses mainly on powertrain durability testing, with only a simple checklist being used by the PG drivers as a reminder to cycle some of the electrical components such as the power window switches, turn signals, etc.
Technical Paper

A Semi-Empirical Model for Fast Residual Gas Fraction Estimation in Gasoline Engines

Accurate accounting for fresh charge (fuel and air) along with trapped RGF is essential for the subsequent thermodynamic analysis of combustion in gasoline engines as well as for on-line and real-time quantification as relevant to engine calibration and control. Cost and complexity of such techniques renders direct measurement of RGF impractical for running engines. In this paper, an empirically-based approach is proposed for on-line RGF, based on an existing semi-empirical model [1]. The model developed expands the range over which the semi-empirical model is valid and further improves its accuracy. The model was rigorously validated against a well correlated GT-POWER model as well as results from 1D gas exchange model [2]. Overall, using this model, RGF estimation error was within ∼1.5% for a wide range of engine operating conditions. The model will be implemented in Dyno development and calibration at Chrysler Group.
Technical Paper

A Simple Approach to Selecting Automotive Body-in-White Primary-Structural Materials

A simple strategy for building lightweight automobile body-in-whites (BIWs) is developed and discussed herein. Because cost is a critical factor, expensive advanced materials, such as carbon fiber composites and magnesium, must only be used where they will be most effective. Constitutive laws for mass savings under various loading conditions indicate that these materials afford greater opportunity for mass saving when used in bending, buckling or torsion than in tensile, shear or compression. Consequently, it is recommended that these advanced materials be used in BIW components subject to bending and torsion such as rails, sills, “A-B-C” pillars, etc. Furthermore, BIW components primarily subject to tension, compression, or shear, such as floor pans, roofs, shock towers, etc., should be made from lower cost steel. Recommendations for future research that are consistent with this strategy are included.