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Technical Paper

A Computerized Optimization Method Of Engine Mounting System

2003-05-05
2003-01-1461
This paper presents a method for optimization design of an engine mounting system subjected to some constraints. The engine center of gravity, the mount stiffness rates, the mount locations and/or their orientations with respect to the vehicle can be chosen as design variables, but some of them are given in advance or have limitations because of the packaging constraints on the mount locations, as well as the individual mount rate ratio limitations imposed by manufacturability. A computer program, called DynaMount, has been developed that identifies the optimum design variables for the engine mounting system, including decoupling mode, natural frequency placement, etc.. The degree of decoupling achieved is quantified by kinetic energy distributions calculated for each of the modes. Several application examples are presented to illustrate the validity of this method and the computer program.
Technical Paper

A Fully Variable Mechanical Valvetrain with a Simple Moving Pivot

2005-04-11
2005-01-0770
A continuously variable lift, duration and phase mechanical lift mechanism is described, as applied to the intake valvetrain of a SOHC, 4-valve per cylinder, four-cylinder production engine. Improvements in fuel economy were sought by reduction of pumping losses and improved charge preparation, and optimization of WOT torque was attempted by variation of intake valve closing angle. Adjustment of the mechanism is achieved by movement of the pivot shaft for the rocker arms. The relationship between lift, duration and phase is predetermined at the design stage, and is fixed during operation. There is considerable design flexibility to achieve the envelope of lift curves deemed desirable. The operation of the mechanism is described, as are the development procedure, testing with fixed cams, some cycle simulation, friction testing on a separate rig and dyno testing results for idle, part load and WOT.
Journal Article

A Miller Cycle Engine without Compromise - The Magma Concept

2017-03-28
2017-01-0642
The Magma engine concept is characterised by a high compression ratio, central injector combustion system employed in a downsized direct-injection gasoline engine. An advanced boosting system and Miller cycle intake-valve closing strategies are used to control combustion knock while maintaining specific performance. A key feature of the Magma concept is the use of high CR without compromise to mainstream full-load performance levels. This paper focuses on development of the Magma combustion system using a single-cylinder engine, including valve event, air motion and injection strategies. Key findings are that Early Intake Valve Closing (EIVC) is effective both in mitigating knock and improving fuel consumption. A Net Indicated Mean Effective Pressure (NIMEP) equivalent to 23.6 bar Brake Mean Effective Pressure (BMEP) on a multi-cylinder engine has been achieved with a geometric compression ratio of 13:1.
Technical Paper

A Multiple Order Conformability Model for Uniform Cross-Section Piston Rings

2005-04-11
2005-01-1643
This paper examines the conformability of elastic piston rings to a distorted cylinder bore. Several bounds are available in the literature to help estimate the maximum allowable Fourier coefficient in a Fourier expansion of bore distortion: the analytically derived bounds in [7] and [8], and the semi-empirically derived bounds discussed in [9]. The underlying assumptions for each set of analytic bounds are examined and a multiple order algorithm is derived. The proposed algorithm takes account of multiple orders of distortion at once. It is tested with finite element (FE) data and compared to the classical bound approach. The results indicate that the bounds in [7] are compatible with linear elasticity theory (LET), whereas the bounds in [8] are not. Furthermore, numerical evidence indicates that the present multiple order algorithm can predict seal breaches more accurately than either of the other analytic bounds.
Technical Paper

A Study on Vehicle Elastomer Mount Preloading and Impact Response with Test Validation

2005-04-11
2005-01-1415
A variety of elastomer mounts are being used for vehicles as isolators/dampers between body and frame, on the engine cradle, etc. These vehicle flexible mounts, made of mainly rubber materials and housed in a metallic tube, are indispensable components affecting the quality of the vehicle ride, noise and vibration. In the auto industry, the usual practice when designing vehicle flexible mounts is to minimally reflect impact considerations in the mount design features. However, in most high-speed vehicle crash events where the mounts fail, the crash responses, including occupant injury severity, are known to be very different from the responses of non-failure cases. Even in low-speed vehicle impact cases, excessive deformation of the flexible mounts could cause significant variance in the compliance of the vehicle acceleration level to the air-bag firing and timing threshold requirements.
Technical Paper

An Exploration of Failure Modes in Rolled, Ductile, Cast-Iron Crankshafts Using a Resonant Bending Testing Rig

2005-04-11
2005-01-1906
This report explores the relationship of different failure criteria - specifically, surface cracks, stiffness changes, and two-piece failures - on rolled, ductile, cast-iron crankshafts. Crankshaft samples were closely monitored throughout resonant bending fatigue testing and were taken to near complete fracture. By monitoring resonance shifts of the samples during testing, stiffness changes and cracks were monitored. These data showed that an accelerating frequency shift was sufficient to indicate imminent two-piece failure and that this condition can be used as a failure criterion. Fatigue studies on two different crankshafts using this failure criterion were compared to those using a surface crack failure criterion. This comparison showed that using the surface crack failure criterion erroneously decreased the apparent fatigue life of the crankshaft significantly.
Technical Paper

Anti-Shudder Property of Automatic Transmission Fluids - A Study by the International Lubricants Standardization and Approval Committee (ILSAC) ATF Subcommittee

2000-06-19
2000-01-1870
In recent years, the slip lock-up mechanism has been adopted widely, because of its fuel efficiency and its ability to improve NVH. This necessitates that the automatic transmission fluid (ATF) used in automatic transmissions with slip lock-up clutches requires anti-shudder performance characteristics. The test methods used to evaluate the anti-shudder performance of an ATF can be classified roughly into two types. One is specified to measure whether a μ-V slope of the ATF is positive or negative, the other is the evaluation of the shudder occurrence in the practical vehicle. The former are μ-V property tests from MERCON® V, ATF+4®, and JASO M349-98, the latter is the vehicle test from DEXRON®-III. Additionally, in the evaluation of the μ-V property, there are two tests using the modified SAE No.2 friction machine and the modified low velocity friction apparatus (LVFA).
Technical Paper

CAE Fatigue Prediction of Fuel Tank Straps using Proving Ground Loads

2005-04-11
2005-01-1405
The durability of fuel tank straps is essential for vehicle safety. Extensive physical tests are conducted to verify designs for durability. Due to the complexity of the loads and the fuel-to-tank interaction, computer-aided-engineering (CAE) simulation has had limited application in this area. This paper presents a CAE method for fuel tank strap durability prediction. It discusses the analytical loads, modeling of fuel-to-tank interaction, dynamic analysis methods, and fatigue analysis methods. Analysis results are compared to physical test results. This method can be used in either a fuel-tank-system model or a full vehicle model. It can give directional design guidance for fuel tank strap durability in the early stages of product development to reduce vehicle development costs.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 45RFE a New Generation Light Truck Automatic Transmission

1999-03-01
1999-01-1260
The 45RFE is a new generation electronically controlled rear wheel drive automatic transmission. It employs real-time feedback, closed-loop modulation of shift functions to achieve outstanding shift quality and to meet demanding durability goals. It uses no shift valves; all friction element applications are effected with high-flow electro-hydraulic solenoid valves. A unique gear train arrangement of three planetary carriers allows all sun gears and annulus gears to have the same number of teeth respectively and use a common pinion gear in all carriers, resulting in significant manufacturing simplification. The three-planetary system is designed for four forward ratios of 3.00, 1.67, 1.00 and 0.75 and one reverse gear ratio equal to the low gear ratio. A fifth ratio of 1.50 is used only in certain kick-down shift sequences for highway passing. A sixth forward ratio, an additional overdrive ratio of 0.67, is available in the hardware.
Technical Paper

Chrysler 45RFE: A New Generation Real-Time Electronic Control RWD Automatic Transmission

1999-03-01
1999-01-0755
The 45RFE is a new generation electronically controlled rear wheel drive transmission. It employs real-time feedback, closed-loop modulation of shift functions to achieve excellence in shift quality and to meet severe durability goals. The 45RFE uses no shift valves; all friction element applications are effected with high-flow electro-hydraulic solenoid valves. A unique gear train arrangement of three planetary carriers allows all sun and annulus gears to have identical numbers of teeth and to use common pinion gears in all carriers. This results in substantial manufacturing simplification. The three-planetary system is designed for four forward ratios of 3.00, 1.67, 1.00 and 0.75 and one reverse gear ratio equal to the low gear ratio. A fifth ratio of 1.50 is used mainly in certain kick-down shift sequences for highway passing. A sixth forward ratio, an additional overdrive ratio of 0.67, is available in the hardware.
Technical Paper

Clamp Load Consideration in Fatigue Life Prediction of a Cast Aluminum Wheel Using Finite Element Analysis

2004-03-08
2004-01-1581
Loads generated during assembly may cause significant stress levels in components. Under test conditions, these stresses alter the mean stress which in turn, alters the fatigue life and critical stress area of the components as well. This paper describes the Finite Element Analysis (FEA) procedure to evaluate behavior of a cast aluminum wheel subjected to the rotary fatigue test condition as specified in the SAE test procedure (SAE J328 JUN94). Fatigue life of the wheel is determined using the S-N approach for a constant reversed loading condition. In addition, fatigue life predictions with and without clamp loads are compared. It is concluded that the inclusion of clamp load is necessary for better prediction of the critical stress areas and fatigue life of the wheel.
Technical Paper

Complex Systems Method Applied to Identify Carbon Dioxide Emission Reductions for Light-Duty Vehicles for the 2020-2025 Timeframe

2012-04-16
2012-01-0360
The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, U.S. Department of Transportation's National Highway and Traffic Safety Administration, and the California Air Resources Board have recently released proposed new regulations for greenhouse gas emissions and fuel economy for light-duty vehicles and trucks in model years 2017-2025. These proposed regulations intend to significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions and increase fleet fuel economy from current levels. At the fleet level, these rules the proposed regulations represent a 50% reduction in greenhouse gas emissions by new vehicles in 2025 compared to current fleet levels. At the same time, global growth, especially in developing economies, should continue to drive demand for crude oil and may lead to further fuel price increases. Both of these trends will therefore require light duty vehicles (LDV) to significantly improve their greenhouse gas emissions over the next 5-15 years to meet regulatory requirements and customer demand.
Technical Paper

Design through Collaboration: A Supplier Partnership Paradigm

2000-03-06
2000-01-1389
New supplier / manufacturer relationship are necessary to produce products quickly, cost-effectively, and with features expected by the customer. However, the need for a new relationship is not universally accepted and endorsed. Resistance can be minimized through supplier self-assessment (such as Ford Motor Company's web-based instruments), management initiatives, and incentives. Trust and sharing are hallmarks. This strategy requires a new workplace paradigm affecting culture and people issues. Teams, extend across companies, share ideas and innovations. Decisions need to be mutually beneficial and the long-term value, for supplier and manufacturer, needs to be considered.
Technical Paper

Development of a Computerized Digital Resonance Fatigue Test Controller with Load Feedback Management

2006-04-03
2006-01-1620
In this report, the DCX Stress Lab and the Tool Development & Test Support groups investigated automating a resonant bending crankshaft fatigue test. Fatigue testing, in general, is a laborious process since many samples are needed for analysis. This makes development cost and speed dependant on the component test efficiency. In the case of crankshaft resonant bending testing, both cost and speed are influenced by the manual feedback operation needed to run the current procedure. In order to increase the efficiency of this process, this project sought to automate the following tasks: maintaining the load on the part, reacting to resonance changes in the part, mapping resonance changes, logging the number of cycles, and discerning resonance frequency shift failure modes objectively.
Technical Paper

EBDI® - Application of a Fully Flexible High BMEP Downsized Spark Ignited Engine

2010-04-12
2010-01-0587
The Ethanol-Boosted Direct Injection (EBDI) demonstrator engine is a collaborative project led by Ricardo targeted at reducing the fuel consumption of a spark-ignited engine. This paper describes the design challenges to upgrade an existing engine architecture and the synergistic use of a combination of technologies that allows a significant reduction in fuel consumption and CO₂ emissions. Features include an extremely reduced displacement for the target vehicle, 180 bar cylinder pressure capability, cooled exhaust gas recirculation, advanced boosting concepts and direct injection. Precise harmonization of these individual technologies and control algorithms provide optimized operation on gasoline of varying octane and ethanol content.
Technical Paper

Effect of Thermal Treatments and Carbon Potential on Bending Fatigue Performance of SAE 4320 Gear Steel

1999-03-01
1999-01-0603
This project investigated the effect of carburizing carbon-potential and thermal history on the bending fatigue performance of carburized SAE 4320 gear steel. Modified-Brugger cantilever bending fatigue specimens were carburized at carbon potentials of 0.60, 0.85, 1.05, and 1.25 wt. pct. carbon, and were either quenched and tempered or quenched, tempered, reheated, quenched, and tempered. The reheat treatment was designed to lower the solute carbon content in the case through the formation of transition carbides and refine the prior austenite grain size. Specimens were fatigue tested in a tension/tension cycle with a minimum to maximum stress ratio of 0.1. The bending fatigue results were correlated with case and core microstructures, hardness profiles, residual stress profiles, retained austenite profiles, and component distortion.
Technical Paper

Effects of Different Vehicle Parameters on Car to Car Frontal Crash Fatality Risk Estimated through a Parameterized Model

2006-04-03
2006-01-1134
For the purposes of analyzing and understanding the general effects of a set of different vehicle attributes on overall crash outcome a fleet model is used. It represents the impact response, in a one-dimensional sense, of two vehicle frontal crashes, across the frontal crash velocity spectrum. The parameters studied are vehicle mass, stiffness, intrusion, pulse shape and seatbelt usage. The vehicle impact response parameters are obtained from the NCAP tests. The fatality risk characterization, as a function of the seatbelt use and vehicle velocity, is obtained from the NASS database. The fatality risk is further mapped into average acceleration to allow for evaluation of the different vehicle impact response parameters. The results indicate that the effects of all the parameters are interconnected and none of them is independent. For example, the effect of vehicle mass on fatality risk depends on seatbelt use, vehicle stiffness, available crush, intrusion and pulse shape.
Journal Article

Enabling Safety and Mobility through Connectivity

2010-10-19
2010-01-2318
Vehicle-to-Vehicle (V2V) and Vehicle-to-Infrastructure (V2I) networks within the Intelligent Transportation System (ITS) lead to safety and mobility improvements in vehicle road traffic. This paper presents case studies that support the realization of the ITS architecture as an evolutionary process, beginning with driver information systems for enhancing feedback to the users, semi-autonomous control systems for improved vehicle system management, and fully autonomous control for improving vehicle cooperation and management. The paper will also demonstrate how the automotive, telecom, and data and service providers are working together to develop new ITS technologies.
Technical Paper

Exhaust Catalytic Converter Bench Fatigue Test Specification Based on Equivalent Damage

2000-03-06
2000-01-0787
Component bench fatigue testing is a cost-effective way to evaluate the durability of exhaust catalytic converters. A successful bench fatigue test depends on the development of a test specification. The test specification should represent the actual customer duty cycle that the component is exposed to. Based on the concept of equivalent fatigue damage, a systematic approach is presented to obtain the test specification from the acquired road load data. A method based on damage analysis is proposed to determine the effective notch factor, and an empirical relationship is presented to account for the thermal effect on the test specification. The principles and procedures of multiple block testing and constant amplitude testing are also presented.
Technical Paper

Experimental & Computational Simulations Utilized During the Aerodynamic Development of the Dodge Intrepid R/T Race Car

2002-12-02
2002-01-3334
Experimental and computational simulation techniques were concurrently employed throughout the aerodynamic development of the NASCAR Dodge Intrepid R/T in order to achieve a greater understanding of the complex flow fields involved. With less than 500 days to design, understand, and build a competitive vehicle, the development team utilized a closed loop approach to testing. Scale wind tunnel models and Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) were used to identify program direction and to speed the development cycle versus the traditional process of full scale testing. This paper will detail the process and application of both the experimental and computational techniques used in the aerodynamic development of the Intrepid R/T race vehicle, primarily focusing on the earlier stages that led to its competition introduction at the start of the 2001 season.
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